Arctic Field Projects



Project Title: Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (Award# TREC-Airaudi)

PI: Airaudi, Nikki (nairaudi@ksd.k12.wi.us)
Phone:  (262) 626.2178 ext. 2011 
Institute/Department: Kewaskum Middle School,  
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARE\TREC
Program Manager: Ms. Renee Crain (rcrain@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
Institute: https://www.polartrec.com/

Science Summary:
The Teachers & Researchers - Exploring and Collaborating (TREC) program is an educational research experience in which K-12 teachers participate in Arctic research, working closely with scientists, as a pathway to improving science education through teachers' experiences in scientific inquiry. The participating TREC teachers serve as a conduit for reciprocal exchange of experience and knowledge between researchers and educators, and as a foundation for a growing community of students, educators, researchers and the general public that is engaged in science teaching and learning. TREC is a collaborative network of teachers, researchers, students, and community members. Through TREC, teachers will have the opportunity to increase their knowledge, enhance teaching skills, transfer their experiences to the classroom, engage in leadership roles, and develop a supportive network of researchers and education colleagues.

Logistics Summary:
Ms. Airaudi will participate in the snow chemistry field work of Dr. Jack Dibb and collaborators at Summit, Greenland. Logistics details can be found under 0221109.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2004Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Impact of snow photochemistry on atmospheric radical concentrations at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0220990)

PI: Albert, Mary Remley (Mary.R.Albert@dartmouth.edu)
Phone:  (603) 646.0277 
Institute/Department: Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://shadow.eas.gatech.edu/~ghuey/Summit.htm
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Until recently, scientists thought that the chemicals and tiny particles of dust carried to earth on snow simply fell to the ground undisturbed, eventually to be trapped in layers of ice, preserved as an unchanged record of past climate and large-scale natural events. But when researchers noticed unexpectedly high concentrations of chemicals associated with industrial pollution in the air at Summit Station on the crest of the ice cap, they began to suspect the story was more complicated. Since 1998, researchers have been learning that the chemistry of the snow actually affects the chemistry of the air above it. Sunlight causes changes in some of the chemicals present in the snow, perhaps most surprisingly in chemicals associated with “smog.” Scientists from 7 different institutes are continuing to study the fate of some chemicals associated with air pollution which are transported to Greenland on global wind currents from North America, Asia, and Europe. These chemicals (nitric acid, for example) react to ultraviolet light hitting the sunlit snow, and begin other chemical processes, eventually releasing back into the air compounds which are hallmarks of air pollution. In effect, it’s as if smog is being recycled by the snow. And this chemistry is not unique to Summit: everywhere researchers have looked for it—Alert, Canada; Antarctica; northern Michigan and Colorado in the United States—they have found it. All it seems to take is sunlight, nitrate, and a mix of organic compounds in the snow. During two field campaigns, one in the summer of 2003, and one in the early spring of 2004, Dibb’s researchers will collect snow and air samples from a pristine area about a kilometer from Summit Station. Because of the ephemeral nature of some of the chemistry, they’ll use delicate instruments—no easy feat in the cold at Summit Station—to process some samples in the field. They will also ship some snow and air samples to their home institutions for further analysis. In addition to the contributions made to understanding snow chemistry, this work suggests that reading some aspects of Greenland’s snow and ice record might be more complicated than was once thought. As scientists better understand these chemical interactions, they will be better able to read the climate history record of the ice cores taken from Summit. They also will better understand the record left in the snow surface from large-scale events such as volcanic eruptions or giant forest fires.

Logistics Summary:
This is the CRREL component of the 2003/2004 Summit, Greenland photochemistry collaborative: 0221109 (Dibb, UNH LEAD) 0245247 (Lefer/Sheffer, NCAR) 0220990 (Albert, CRREL) 0220862 (Blake/Blake, UCI) 0221150 (Hutterli/Bales, UAZ) 0221052 (Anastasio, UCD) 0221002 (Huey/Chen/Tanner, GA Tech) As part of this effort, CRREL will conduct experiments on the physical characterization of snow as well as inert tracer gas testing. All logistics information found under Dibb 0221109.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2003Greenland - Summit0
2004Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Impact of snow photochemistry on atmospheric radical concentrations at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0221052)

PI: Anastasio, Cort (canastasio@ucdavis.edu)
Phone:  (530) 754.6095 
Institute/Department: U of California, Davis, Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Jane Dionne (jdionne@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://shadow.eas.gatech.edu/~ghuey/Summit.htm
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Until recently, scientists thought that the chemicals and tiny particles of dust carried to earth on snow simply fell to the ground undisturbed, eventually to be trapped in layers of ice, preserved as an unchanged record of past climate and large-scale natural events. But when researchers noticed unexpectedly high concentrations of chemicals associated with industrial pollution in the air at Summit Station on the crest of the ice cap, they began to suspect the story was more complicated. Since 1998, researchers have been learning that the chemistry of the snow actually affects the chemistry of the air above it. Sunlight causes changes in some of the chemicals present in the snow, perhaps most surprisingly in chemicals associated with “smog.” Scientists from 7 different institutes are continuing to study the fate of some chemicals associated with air pollution which are transported to Greenland on global wind currents from North America, Asia, and Europe. These chemicals (nitric acid, for example) react to ultraviolet light hitting the sunlit snow, and begin other chemical processes, eventually releasing back into the air compounds which are hallmarks of air pollution. In effect, it’s as if smog is being recycled by the snow. And this chemistry is not unique to Summit: everywhere researchers have looked for it—Alert, Canada; Antarctica; northern Michigan and Colorado in the United States—they have found it. All it seems to take is sunlight, nitrate, and a mix of organic compounds in the snow. During two field campaigns, one in the summer of 2003, and one in the early spring of 2004, Dibb’s researchers will collect snow and air samples from a pristine area about a kilometer from Summit Station. Because of the ephemeral nature of some of the chemistry, they’ll use delicate instruments—no easy feat in the cold at Summit Station—to process some samples in the field. They will also ship some snow and air samples to their home institutions for further analysis. In addition to the contributions made to understanding snow chemistry, this work suggests that reading some aspects of Greenland’s snow and ice record might be more complicated than was once thought. As scientists better understand these chemical interactions, they will be better able to read the climate history record of the ice cores taken from Summit. They also will better understand the record left in the snow surface from large-scale events such as volcanic eruptions or giant forest fires.

Logistics Summary:
This is the UC Davis component of the 2003/2004 Summit, Greenland photochemistry collaborative: 0221109 (Dibb, UNH LEAD) 0245247 (Lefer/Sheffer, NCAR) 0220990 (Albert, CRREL) 0220862 (Blake/Blake, UCI) 0221150 (Hutterli/Bales, UAZ) 0221052 (Anastasio, UCD) 0221002 (Huey/Chen/Tanner, GA Tech) This component will measure OH production and concentration using a radical trap. All logistics information found under Dibb 0221109.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2003Greenland - Summit0
2004Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Core Measurements at Summit, Greenland Environmental Observatory (Award# 0336450)

PI: Bales, Roger (rbales@ucmerced.edu)
Phone:  (209) 724.4348 
Institute/Department: U of California, Merced, School of Engineering 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Martin Jeffries (martin.jeffries@navy.mil)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Geological Sciences | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://cdp.ucar.edu/
Data: http://www.aoncadis.org/projects/core_atmospheric_...
Institute: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
This project involves long-term core measurements of the Arctic atmosphere, snow and other Earth system components at the Summit Greenland Environmental Observatory (GEOSummit). GEOSummit was the site of the GISP2 ice core, completed in 1993, and has been a site of atmospheric, snow and other geophysical measurements ever since. It is currently the only high-altitude site for atmospheric and related measurements in the Arctic. As global atmospheric temperatures rise, the Arctic environment is expected to undergo more rapid change in response to human influences than are other parts of the Earth system, in part due to feedbacks related to decreasing snowcover and sea-ice extent. Observed changes in Arctic temperature, atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric circulation are expected to have potentially broad but uncertain effects on Arctic systems. A number of processes that could amplify atmospheric change need consistent measurements and systematic study. For example, recent evidence indicates that important atmospheric chemical constituents undergo temperature-dependent exchange with ice/snow, and that some species are photochemically transformed and/or produced within the sunlit surface snowpack. Because changes in Arctic atmospheric circulation are cyclic over 4-5 year or longer times, long-duration measurements are needed to understand circulation and to place observed changes in a long-term perspective. The project involves continuing and expanding the core suite of baseline measurements at GEOSummit for a five-year period, beginning in spring 2003. It also provides for the continued operation of GEOSummit as long-term site for year-round disciplinary and interdisciplinary measurements and research. Baseline measurements include meteorology, radiation, tropospheric chemistry, snow properties and snow chemistry. Some measurements will be made in cooperation with NOAA-CMDL, e.g. carbon cycle, chlorofluorocarbons, radiation, and ozone. GEOSummit staff will also carry out measurements initiated by individual investigators. The atmospheric gas-phase and aerosol species being studied are all either sensitive indicators of anthropogenic impacts on regional and global atmospheric change, or are important chemically coupled species whose concentrations may be strongly influenced by changes in the Arctic, including changes in snow/ice surface temperatures, ice/snow cover, and atmospheric circulation. Related chemical measurements in the snow provide the needed link to investigate feedbacks between Arctic climate change, air-snow exchange, and atmospheric composition. Understanding this change requires a quantitative understanding of the environmental controls (e.g., temperature, radiation, humidity, ozone concentration) on air-snow feedbacks, and the impact of these processes on the entire Arctic atmosphere. Broader impacts. The measurements at GEOSummit have wide applicability for detecting, understanding and modeling Arctic change, and are responsive to a number of community initiatives, including the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmospheric Watch, SEARCH (A Study of Environmental Arctic Change) and other proposed initiatives. As such, this project provides the platform and baseline measurements for a wide number of scientists and individual research projects. There are at least three main broader impacts of the project. First and foremost, by definition an environmental observatory enhances infrastructure for research and education. Second GEOSummit serves as a vehicle to broadly disseminate scientific understanding of the Arctic system by making data and information widely available, both real time data and scientific understanding that is developed using those data. Third, education of the global community is an objective of the long-term measurements, using www-available data and educational materials. GEOSummit was chosen as the site for long-term measurements because it is in the remote free troposphere, and the chemical compositional changes observed in the long term reflect wide-scale change, uncomplicated by local biochemical processes, or by local changes in land use or emission patterns. The international science community has chosen Summit for multidisciplinary, multi-investigator studies, infrastructure is in place, and a number of Arctic researchers are collaborating there. The current project builds on the intermittent (but inadequate in terms of development of reliable models) atmospheric and surface-snow measurements that have been conducted over the past decade.

Logistics Summary:
This project. Long Term Observations (LTO), will conduct a suite of year-round core measurements from 2003 through 2008. In addition to core measurements, staff will also carry out measurements initiated by up to 15-20 individual investigators, including a significant sampling campaign by NOAA (see NOAASummit). Investigators from the project will travel to Summit annually to set-up, monitor, and repair experiments as well as to conduct on-site training of the science technicians. In June 2004, two field team members assisted the Summit crew with laying out and marking the boundaries for the undisturbed, no traffic, and clean air sectors with green-flagged bamboo. In summer 2005, two team members from University of California, Merced, travelled to Summit for a single flight period. While on-site, the team conducted experiment maintenance, trained technicians, and worked with UNAVCO representatives to gather data for a topographic map of Summit. Additionally, they travelled to Nuuk to deliver a GEOSummit presentation to the Greenland Technical Society. For 2006 and onward, science technicians will continue experiments to gather baseline measurements at Summit. The PIs will combine any required site visits for this grant with fieldwork planned under other funded campaigns. In 2007, Ryan Banta will take over as the POC for the LTO grant. He and Roger Bales, along with Mark Twickler (Science Coordination Office, SCO, 0455623), will visit Summit for familiarization. In 2008, the team will not visit Summit but technicians and camp staff will continue regular maintenance to the projects. Beginning in summer 2009, measurements for this grant will be continued under 0856845 (McConnell, DRI). CPS is responsible for hiring science technicians to support the sampling and for providing the Summit infrastructure to support the work. This project combines fieldwork in support of the Summit Science Coordination Office (SCO) grant, 0455623.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 28 / 2003 08 / 02 / 20031
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 29 / 2003 08 / 01 / 20031
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 13 / 2004 07 / 15 / 20041
2004Greenland - Summit06 / 14 / 2004 06 / 17 / 20041
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 08 / 2005 08 / 13 / 20052
2005Greenland - Nuuk08 / 04 / 2005 08 / 08 / 20052
2005Greenland - Summit08 / 09 / 2005 08 / 10 / 20052
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 18 / 2007 06 / 22 / 20072
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 19 / 2007 06 / 21 / 20072
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 22 / 2008 07 / 24 / 20081
2008Greenland - Summit07 / 22 / 2008 07 / 24 / 20081
 


Project Title: Science Coordination Office for Summit, Greenland Environmental Observatory (Cooperative Research with the University of New Hampshire) (Award# 0453758)

PI: Bales, Roger (rbales@ucmerced.edu)
Phone:  (209) 724.4348 
Institute/Department: U of California, Merced, School of Engineering 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL\LTO
Program Manager: Mr. Simon Stephenson (sstephen@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Space Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Summit Greenland is a site of expanding scientific interest by both U.S. and European scientists. Current U.S. projects are evaluating ice-core characteristics related to environmental change, are investigating upper and middle atmosphere phenomena as a basis for understanding the global system, are evaluating atmospheric conditions in the troposphere and in the boundary layer contacting the Greenland permanent ice sheet, and are establishing the radiation, energy, and water balances which occur on the ice-pack. To better coordinate the disparate communities using this environmental observatory, a Science Coordination Office will be established. Its goals are to: 1) coordinate measurements between investigators and the sharing of facilities and personnel on-site, 2) provide scientific requirements to NSF, it's support contractor and European partners as the facility is developed, 3) stimulate sharing of data among science projects.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative between Bales 0453758 (this is a continuation of Bales previous grant 9910303) and Dibb 9910337 is for the establishment and maintenance of a Science Coordination Office for Summit Greenland. Logistics for the science coordination office include support for one trip each summer season for the duration of the grant to collect data and maintain year round equipment at Summit. VECO will support these needs as required. These logistics will likely be combined in many instances with the PI's other Summit field work.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2004Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Tumbleweed Rover Test (Award# NASABehar)

PI: Behar, Alberto (alberto.behar@jpl.nasa.gov)
Phone:  (818) 687.8627 
Institute/Department: National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Thomas Wagner (thomas.wagner@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Instrument Development |

Project Web Site(s):
Media: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/spotlight/tumbleweedAll.h...
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/

Science Summary:
The Tumbleweed Ball is a large, inflated ball that can be windblown and used to explore the surfaces of Mars, Venus, Titan, and perhaps Saturn’s moon Io (supersonic volcanic wind) and Neptune’s moon Triton (significant surface wind erosion). For Venus and Titan, the ball could also be used as a superpressure balloon that could make periodic descents to the surface be means of brief venting of helium at altitude, causing descent, and then dropping light ballast or experiments on the surface, causing ascent. Variations of PBO balloon materials studied for Venus and Titan could potentially be used for the Tumbleweed on both planets. For each of these applications, various central payloads would be held in place by a series of lines that extend to the outside of the ball. Various versions of this basic concept have been proposed in the past in the U.S. and France, but JPL is the first to actually develop the ball and prove its feasibility experimentally and analytically. In the case of Mars, the 6-m diameter ball is easily capable of climbing over one meter rocks and up 25º hills (well over 99.9% of the Martian surface) with typical global winds that occur during the southern summer. The ball could also potentially be used as a parachute on Mars (30 m/sec descent rate) and as an airbag. Similar large balls but without the central payload have also been shown to be useful as tires for an Inflatable Rover that has been successfully tested at JPL.

Logistics Summary:
With this NASA project, the investigator will travel to several arctic sites to test JPL's "Tumbleweed Rover," a 2m inflated ball containing an interior payload. The ball can travel over various uneven surfaces while the interior instruments take measurements. In winter 2002 the ball was tested at Barrow, Alaska, with support provided by BASC. 2003 and 2004 deployments at Summit were supported by CPS. In 2007, CPS technicians were scheduled to deploy another Tumbleweed Rover at Summit Station but the deployment was unsuccessful due to technical difficulties with wind and temperatures. The PI planned to deploy the Tumbleweed Rover at Summit in May of 2008 after visiting Swiss Camp for field work supporting his NASA moulin study (NASAMoulin in this database). The Summit visit was cancelled due to delays in completing the Moulin field work. CPS will provide ANG travel arrangements, access to and use of Summit infrastructure, including snowmobile use for an afternoon and lab space. Aside from user days in Kangerlussuaq, the NSF will cover logistics outlined in this plan. All other logistics will be arranged by the PI and paid via the grant.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2002Alaska - Barrow11 / 01 / 2002 12 / 01 / 20021
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 14 / 2003 08 / 02 / 20031
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 15 / 2003 07 / 29 / 20031
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 02 / 2004 05 / 08 / 20041
2004Greenland - Summit05 / 03 / 2004 05 / 06 / 20041
2007Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Ice Coring and Drilling Services (Award# ICDS)

PI: Bentley, Charles R (bentley@geology.wisc.edu)
Phone:  
Institute/Department: U of Wisconsin, Madison, Geophysical & Polar Research Center 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL
Program Manager: Dr. Julie Palais (jpalais@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://icedrill.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
The University of Wisconsin will support projects funded by NSF's Office of Polar Programs (OPP) by taking ice-cores from, or drilling into, glaciers and ice-sheets. This involves maintaining the NSF's current inventory of drill systems and making them available to science projects, or operating them for projects. The projects are expected to be diverse, and to vary from year to year. They will occur at both poles, and at more temperate and high altitude sites. University of Wisconsin will work with the science community to define requirements and scope solutions before formal proposals are submitted to OPP. Additional engineering development to occur during the first year of the contract will include the development of a drill to rapidly make shot-holes in polar firn, and another system to prepare a 300 meter bore-hole in the ice sheet at the South Pole for a broad-band seismometer array. A longer term activity will be to evaluate the current 5.2" deep drill system to recommend improvement, and make a development plan to implement the improvements.

Logistics Summary:
This group deploys with various projects around the Greenland ice sheet to provide drilling support services. Specific seasonal logistics information will be carried under the PI's project for whom the drilling services are provided.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2004Greenland - Summit0
2005Greenland - Summit0
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Impact of snow photochemistry on atmospheric radical concentrations at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0220862)

PI: Blake, Nicola J (nblake@uci.edu)
Phone:  (603) 664.2916 
Institute/Department: U of California, Irvine, Department of Chemistry 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Jane Dionne (jdionne@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://shadow.eas.gatech.edu/~ghuey/Summit.htm
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Until recently, scientists thought that the chemicals and tiny particles of dust carried to earth on snow simply fell to the ground undisturbed, eventually to be trapped in layers of ice, preserved as an unchanged record of past climate and large-scale natural events. But when researchers noticed unexpectedly high concentrations of chemicals associated with industrial pollution in the air at Summit Station on the crest of the ice cap, they began to suspect the story was more complicated. Since 1998, researchers have been learning that the chemistry of the snow actually affects the chemistry of the air above it. Sunlight causes changes in some of the chemicals present in the snow, perhaps most surprisingly in chemicals associated with “smog.” Scientists from 7 different institutes are continuing to study the fate of some chemicals associated with air pollution which are transported to Greenland on global wind currents from North America, Asia, and Europe. These chemicals (nitric acid, for example) react to ultraviolet light hitting the sunlit snow, and begin other chemical processes, eventually releasing back into the air compounds which are hallmarks of air pollution. In effect, it's as if smog is being recycled by the snow. And this chemistry is not unique to Summit: everywhere researchers have looked for it—Alert, Canada; Antarctica; northern Michigan and Colorado in the United States—they have found it. All it seems to take is sunlight, nitrate, and a mix of organic compounds in the snow. During two field campaigns, one in the summer of 2003, and one in the early spring of 2004, Dibb's researchers will collect snow and air samples from a pristine area about a kilometer from Summit Station. Because of the ephemeral nature of some of the chemistry, they’ll use delicate instruments—no easy feat in the cold at Summit Station—to process some samples in the field. They will also ship some snow and air samples to their home institutions for further analysis. In addition to the contributions made to understanding snow chemistry, this work suggests that reading some aspects of Greenland's snow and ice record might be more complicated than was once thought. As scientists better understand these chemical interactions, they will be better able to read the climate history record of the ice cores taken from Summit. They also will better understand the record left in the snow surface from large-scale events such as volcanic eruptions or giant forest fires.

Logistics Summary:
This is the UCI component of the 2003/2004 Summit, Greenland photochemistry collaborative: 0221109 (Dibb, UNH LEAD) 0245247 (Lefer/Sheffer, NCAR) 0220990 (Albert, CRREL) 0220862 (Blake/Blake, UCI) 0221150 (Hutterli/Bales, UAZ) 0221052 (Anastasio, UCD) 0221002 (Huey/Chen/Tanner, GA Tech) UCI will collect and analyze whole air samples at the camp. All logistics information found under Dibb 0221109.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2003Greenland - Summit0
2004Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: NSF Office of Polar Programs UV Spectral Irradiance Monitoring Network (UVSIMN) (Award# UVSIMN)

PI: Booth, Charles R (booth@biospherical.com )
Phone:  (619) 686.1888 
Institute/Department: Biospherical Instruments, Inc.,  
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ANT\ABM
Program Manager: Dr. Roberta Marinelli ( rmarinel@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate\Radiation |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://cdp.ucar.edu/
Institute: http://www.biospherical.com/NSF/default.asp

Science Summary:
The National Science Foundation (NSF) Ultraviolet (UV) Spectroradiometer Network was established in 1987 by the Division of Polar Programs in response to serious ozone depletion reported in Antarctica. Biospherical Instruments installed the first instruments in 1988 and has operated the network continuously since. The network was the first automated, high-resolution UV scanning spectroradiometer network in the world. It continues to successfully operate in the harshest environments on Earth (Antarctica and the Arctic), and is currently providing data to researchers studying the effects of ozone depletion on terrestrial and marine biological systems. Network data is also used to ground-truth satellite observations, develop and verify models of atmospheric light transmission, and evaluate ozone depletion impacts. The network currently consists of six SUV-100 scanning spectroradiometers installed at three sites in Antarctica (McMurdo Station, Palmer Station, and South Pole Station), one site in Argentina (Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego), and two sites in the United States (Barrow, AK, and San Diego. CA). The San Diego site is a multi-purpose system facility, and used for training site operators, testing new configurations, and collecting data. In July/August 2004, a Biospherical Instruments Inc. SUV-150B scanning spectroradiometer system will be installed, and begin monitoring at Summit, Greenland. This system is to be installed in the “Green House” facility. Dependent on the time of the year, solar scans are conducted quarter-hourly when the sun is above the horizon. A complementary GUV filter-detector spectroradiometer is part of the system, which provides one minute averaged global irradiance values at several UV wavelengths. Ancillary data (Eppley PSP, Total Scene Irradiance (TSI) sensor, various system temperatures, and monochromator position) are collected over 24 hours at intervals ranging from 1 to 60 minutes. Data are collected on a reduced schedule at night. At sites inside the Arctic or Antarctic circles, instrument operation is on a reduced scan schedule during the winter darkness. Dependent on internet bandwidth and connection reliability, our objectives for data availability are: - Real-time data updates (hourly - limited due to bandwidth) from the GUV filter-detector radiometers. This data will have one-minute resolution (an average of 60-120 samples per channel, per minute), of 30+ data products, available as it is for our other sites, e.g.: www.biospherical.com/nsf/login/GuvSAN.asp (except Ushuaia, where a fixed-IP full time internet connection is cost prohibitive). - We provide weekly updates of "preliminary" data from the SUV scanning spectroradiometers, as available at: www.biospherical.com/nsf/login/update.asp . - Post-processed, final QA/QC'd data products, including full spectra, are made available on a schedule to be determined – typically annual. These data are characteristically the same as what can be obtained at www.biospherical.com/nsf/login/login.asp . - We also provide grantees with additional data products; weighted integrals, preliminary spectra, etc. from the SUVs, with greater frequency of availability, in support of specific scientific protocols. A request in the SIP and to nsfdata@biospherical.com by the grantee(s), is the method to begin the process for obtaining this additional support.

Logistics Summary:
Biospherical Instruments Inc. (BSI) operates the NSF OPP’s Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitoring Network (UVSIMN). One of the UVSIMN's systems is located at Summit, Greenland. In 2004 two BSI engineers visited Summit Station to install a scanning spectroradiometer that made Summit Camp a part of the NSF Polar Programs UV Spectroradiometer Network (as it was then called). In 2005, BSI engineers returned to characterize/calibrate, partially dismantle, reinstall, re-characterize/re-calibrate the instrument as a result of the raising of the Greenhouse (where the sytem is housed) to the surface of the snow. CPS (formerly known as VPR) assisted BSI with transportation to/from Summit (via Scotia, NY), and the parital dismantling and re-installation of the insturment, as well as with science technician support for year-round operation (approximately 5 hours/week). Thereafter, BSI engineers will perform as-needed visits to Summit for calibration, service, and upgrades. In those years that site visits are not necessary, CPS science technicians will continue to operate the UV spectroradiometer on BSI's behalf. In 2006, due to planned Summit Camp population constraints, BSI personnel planned to visit Summit for calibration, service, and/or upgrades only if needed. CPS continued to provide science technician support for year-round operation (approximately 5 hours/week). As it turned out, BSI did not need to make a site visit to the station. In July 2007, one technical staff member from BSI will visit Summit to perform system characterizations, and any necessary system engineering updates and/or service. While the BSI staff is on station, up to 16 hours of additional science technical support will be provided. CPS will assist BSI with transportation to/from Summit (via Scotia, NY); in the performance of the site visit’s objectives at Summit Camp; and provide the UVSIMN with science technician support for year-round operation (approximately 5 hours/week). In 2007 and 2008, BSI engineers will visit Barrow, AK, to perform annual site visits to the BSI's UV intrument at NARL. The objectives of these visits are to perform system calibrations, service, and engineering upgrades to the system. BASC assists BSI with a co-location laboratory (at UIC-NARL) and infrastructure matters – principally in the areas of IT support, communications, and cargo logistics. No trip is planned to Summit for 2008.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2004Alaska - Barrow1
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 25 / 2004 08 / 19 / 20042
2004Greenland - Summit07 / 26 / 2004 08 / 18 / 20042
2005Alaska - Barrow06 / 01 / 2005 06 / 30 / 20051
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 16 / 2005 08 / 13 / 20053
2005Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2005 08 / 11 / 20052
2006Alaska - Barrow06 / 01 / 2006 06 / 30 / 20061
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Alaska - Barrow06 / 01 / 2007 06 / 30 / 20071
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 09 / 2007 07 / 13 / 20071
2007Greenland - Summit07 / 10 / 2007 07 / 12 / 20071
2008Alaska - Barrow1
 


Project Title: NOAA Summit Clean Air and Ozonosonde Program (Award# NOAASummit)

PI: Butler, James H (James.H.Butler@noaa.gov)
Phone:  (303) 497.6898 
Institute/Department: National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, Global Monitoring Division 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\DOC\NOAA
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aero/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/hats/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ozwv/
Media: http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2005/s2393.htm

Science Summary:
Researchers at NOAA’s Earth System Research Lab (ESRL) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) conduct continuous measurements of atmospheric composition at Summit Station to better understand changes occurring in the Arctic and Earth system. Continuous measurements include: 1. Halocarbon and other Atmospheric Trace Gases (HATS) Flasks: weekly to biweekly air sampling collection to measure trace gases that are important components of global halocarbon chemistry. These measurements have been ongoing since 2004. 2. Carbon Cycle Greenhouse Gas (CCGG) Flasks: weekly air sampling experiment to analyze levels of trace gases that are part of the global carbon cycle. These measurements were taken during winter of 1997-1998, 2000-2001, 2001-2002, and have been on-going since the 2003-2004 winter period. 3. In-situ Aerosol Sampling Suite: continual measurements of aerosol optical properties to determine aerosol radiative effects. These measurements were initiated in 2003 with an updated suite of instruments in 2009. 4. Surface ozone measurements: continual tropospheric air sampling efforts for ozone levels. These measurements were taken from 2000 to 2002, and from 2003 on. 5. Balloon-borne ozonesondes: measurements of year-round ozone atmospheric profiles. These measurements were first conducted during the late-winter of 2005. 6. In-situ Monitoring with the Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species (CATS): a three-channel gas chromatograph performs hourly measurements of ozone depleting gases identified in the Montreal Protocol and amendments including nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, CFC-12, CFC-11, CFC-113, chloroform, methyl chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride. These measurements began in 2007. 7. Surface Meteorology: continuous measurements of surface meteorological properties to support both science and flight operations. These measurements have been continuous since summer 2005. 8. Surface Solar Radiation: continuous measurements of broadband solar and thermal radiation. These measurements began in 2013 with additional instruments added in 2016.

Logistics Summary:
For this NOAA program, on-site science technicians maintain a suite of year-round measurements on behalf of NOAA researchers. These measurements began in the mid 1990s and are ongoing (part of GEOSummit since 2003). NOAA representatives visit Summit Station annually to install / maintain instruments, train science technicians, and conduct measurements. Starting in 2005, NOAA began staffing science technician rotations as Summit Station during the winter phases. Beginning in 2008 NOAA increased staffing to be year-round. Monitoring projects on site include: carbon cycle gas sampling flasks, black carbon measurement, halocarbons and trace species flask sampling, meteorology suite, stratospheric ozonesondes, aerosol measurements, surface ozone measurements, and an in-situ gas chromatograph for greenhouse gas measurements. NOAA will continue to collaborate with Georgia Tech on activities related to the aerosol instrument suite that was previously installed and maintained by the Bergin project (NSF grant #1023227). NOAA program highlights at Summit Station over the last few years include: - During summer 2007 a four channel gas chromatograph was added to the suite of NOAA instruments. - During summer 2008, in addition to ongoing work, researchers extended the ozonesonde experiment by launching about 20 additional balloons in April and again in July for an intensive field campaign. - In February 2009, a NOAA staff member flew to Summit Station via the Twin Otter on a crew turnover flight to repair an instrument, departing the station on the return flight approximately one week later. - During August 2009, the NOAA field coordinator attended an on-site planning meeting. - In 2010, in addition to ongoing measurements, CPS staff relocated the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory (TAWO) and instrument tower (where the NOAA instruments are mounted) to approximately 1 km south of Summit Station. - During 2011 and 2012 the NOAA field coordinator made a routine visit to Summit Station for instrument maintenance. - During 2013 the TAWO building was lifted and the TAWO tower was extended. The on-site science technicians coordinated with the Boulder-based NOAA team to support the instrumentation during the transition. - Also during 2013, the NOAA ESRL GMD deputy director traveled to Summit Station in late June for a site visit. During 2014, one NOAA researcher will travel to Summit in June for maintenance and upgrade activities. NOAA will continue to hire and deploy science technicians for all the three staffing phases. During 2015, three researchers will travel to Summit in June, July, and August for maintenance and upgrade activities. These include upgrading the meteorological sensor suite, assisting with the science impacts from the TAWO facility raise project, and performing a quality control visit to evaluate the setup of the aerosol measuring suite of instrumentation. In 2016, NOAA researchers will travel to Summit to relocate the meteorological suite of instruments from the TAWO tower to the 50m tower, install broadband solar radiometers to inter-compare with existing solar measurements from Summit station, reinstall instrument inlets on the TAWO inlet mast, and potentially reconfigure the TAWO interior layout of instruments to optimize the available footprint. Additionally, NOAA is planning to modify the CATS GC to eliminate methane containing P5 carrier gas to directly address concerns about elevated methane levels within the facility. Two researchers will return in 2017 to demobilize the instruments.

CPS will coordinate personnel and cargo transport to and from Summit; and provide access to Summit Station infrastructure, Summit user days, Kangerlussuaq user days, purchase of ozone sondes, construction support, and science technician support with tasking shared between the NOAA and CPS year-round technicians. The PI will arrange and pay for all other logistics through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
1997Greenland - Summit0
1998Greenland - Summit0
2000Greenland - Summit0
2001Greenland - Summit0
2002Greenland - Summit0
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 28 / 2003 08 / 16 / 20032
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 29 / 2003 08 / 14 / 20032
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 13 / 2004 06 / 26 / 20041
2004Greenland - Summit06 / 14 / 2004 06 / 24 / 20041
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 09 / 2005 12 / 31 / 20054
2005Greenland - Summit02 / 11 / 2005 12 / 31 / 20054
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2006 12 / 31 / 20063
2006Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2006 12 / 31 / 20063
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2007 07 / 27 / 20073
2007Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2007 07 / 26 / 20073
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 04 / 2008 11 / 13 / 20086
2008Greenland - Summit02 / 15 / 2008 11 / 13 / 20086
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 05 / 2009 10 / 30 / 20094
2009Greenland - Summit02 / 09 / 2009 08 / 21 / 20093
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 02 / 2010 12 / 31 / 20108
2010Greenland - Summit02 / 02 / 2010 12 / 31 / 20108
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2011 11 / 08 / 20116
2011Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2011 12 / 31 / 20116
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2012 08 / 22 / 20125
2012Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2012 12 / 31 / 20126
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 21 / 2013 08 / 21 / 20135
2013Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2013 12 / 31 / 20137
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 02 / 2014 06 / 30 / 20143
2014Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2014 12 / 31 / 20144
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 29 / 2015 08 / 22 / 20154
2015Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2015 10 / 16 / 20155
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 23 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20163
2016Greenland - Summit06 / 25 / 2016 08 / 17 / 20163
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 19 / 2017 08 / 01 / 20172
2017Greenland - Summit07 / 21 / 2017 07 / 30 / 20172
 


Project Title: Operation of a magnetometer array on the Greenland Ice Cap (MAGIC) and interhemispherical investigation of multi-scale currents systems (Award# 0220735)

PI: Clauer, Robert C (rclauer@vt.edu)
Phone:  (734) 763.6248 
Institute/Department: U of Michigan, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic & Space Science 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Jane Dionne (jdionne@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Space Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://mist.nianet.org/magic.html
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This proposal is directed toward the continuation of the operation of the Magnetometer Array on the Greenland Ice Cap (MAGIC) and the continued analysis of the data from these stations together with data from other ground based and satellite instruments. The overarching objective of our proposed continuing effort is to explore a new approach to investigate the multi-scale solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere electrodynamic system through high temporal and spatial resolution, magnetically conjugate arrays of digital magnetometers deployed in Greenland and Eastern Antarctica. Major new elements of the proposed investigation include: (1) the upgrade of existing Greenland magnetometers to 1-second samples, (2) simultaneous visualization of interhemispheric ground geomagnetic ?eld variations with the goal to investigate multi-scale magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, and (3) the detailed study of the transition in magnetospheric electrodynamic morphology from weakly southward IMF to weakly northward IMF conditions and vice versa. This project is a cooperative effort between the University of Michigan and the Danish Meteorological Institute. The project is a continuation of a collaboration which began with the installation of the original magnetometer stations on the Greenland ice cap in 1991. The autonomous magnetometer systems in central Greenland provided valuable intermediate variometer measurements of magnetic perturbations between the Greenland west and east coast stations. One station is located at the central Greenland summit site to provide continuity between the west and east coast stations, and one station was placed at the Air National Guard LC130 Raven skiway to provide a dense two-dimensional array for detailed current calculations. The MAGIC data in combination with data from the Greenland coastal stations and Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar have been crucial in resolving the spatial and evolutionary characteristics of various dynamic ionospheric current systems, including traveling convection vortices, poleward propagating DPY currents, and the transition of large scale convection systems from one state to another. Using data from the Greenland stations in combination with Canadian, Scandinavian, and Antarctic magnetic data, and coordinated with other ancillary ground based and satellite data, we propose a program of research to investigate high latitude magnetic pulsations and interhemispheric auroral oval and polar cap relationships. Our focus is on understanding the various electrodynamic current systems which couple energy and momentum from the solar wind to the magnetosphere and ionosphere.

Logistics Summary:
This project has operated a magnetometer array on the Greenland ice cap since 1991. This grant covers upgrade and maintenance of the array from 2003-2005. During those years, four to six field team members visit the magnetometer sites at Summit and Raven for several flight periods each year. During their stay at the sites, field team members dig up the magnetometers, collect data, and bury them again. Occasionally they return later in the season to conduct repairs. In 2003 the project will also undertake an upgrade of the magnetometers that will allow for higher resolution data acquisition. The plan for 2006 is to remove the magnetometers from both Summit Station and Camp Raven. VPR will coordinate Air National Guard flights, pay for user days in Kangerlussuaq, and support the team while at Summit and Raven.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 12 / 2003 08 / 02 / 20037
2003Greenland - Raven05 / 16 / 2003 08 / 17 / 20036
2003Greenland - Summit05 / 13 / 2003 07 / 30 / 20036
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 02 / 2004 06 / 19 / 20044
2004Greenland - Raven05 / 03 / 2004 05 / 06 / 20044
2004Greenland - Summit05 / 03 / 2004 06 / 17 / 20043
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 16 / 2005 08 / 13 / 20055
2005Greenland - Raven05 / 17 / 2005 08 / 11 / 20054
2005Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2005 05 / 24 / 20054
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 05 / 2006 06 / 17 / 20064
2006Greenland - Raven06 / 06 / 2006 06 / 10 / 20064
2006Greenland - Summit06 / 10 / 2006 06 / 15 / 20064
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Impact of snow photochemistry on atmospheric radical concentrations at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0221109)

PI: Dibb, Jack E. (jack.dibb@unh.edu)
Phone:  (603) 862.3063 
Institute/Department: U of New Hampshire, Glacier Research Group 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Jane Dionne (jdionne@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://shadow.eas.gatech.edu/~ghuey/Summit.htm
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Until recently, scientists thought that the chemicals and tiny particles of dust carried to earth on snow simply fell to the ground undisturbed, eventually to be trapped in layers of ice, preserved as an unchanged record of past climate and large-scale natural events. But when researchers noticed unexpectedly high concentrations of chemicals associated with industrial pollution in the air at Summit Station on the crest of the ice cap, they began to suspect the story was more complicated. Since 1998, researchers have been learning that the chemistry of the snow actually affects the chemistry of the air above it. Sunlight causes changes in some of the chemicals present in the snow, perhaps most surprisingly in chemicals associated with “smog.” Scientists from 7 different institutes are continuing to study the fate of some chemicals associated with air pollution which are transported to Greenland on global wind currents from North America, Asia, and Europe. These chemicals (nitric acid, for example) react to ultraviolet light hitting the sunlit snow, and begin other chemical processes, eventually releasing back into the air compounds which are hallmarks of air pollution. In effect, it’s as if smog is being recycled by the snow. And this chemistry is not unique to Summit: everywhere researchers have looked for it—Alert, Canada; Antarctica; northern Michigan and Colorado in the United States—they have found it. All it seems to take is sunlight, nitrate, and a mix of organic compounds in the snow. During two field campaigns, one in the summer of 2003, and one in the early spring of 2004, Dibb’s researchers will collect snow and air samples from a pristine area about a kilometer from Summit Station. Because of the ephemeral nature of some of the chemistry, they’ll use delicate instruments—no easy feat in the cold at Summit Station—to process some samples in the field. They will also ship some snow and air samples to their home institutions for further analysis. In addition to the contributions made to understanding snow chemistry, this work suggests that reading some aspects of Greenland’s snow and ice record might be more complicated than was once thought. As scientists better understand these chemical interactions, they will be better able to read the climate history record of the ice cores taken from Summit. They also will better understand the record left in the snow surface from large-scale events such as volcanic eruptions or giant forest fires.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative study of the chemical effects of sunlight on snow is composed of the following projects: 0221109 (Dibb, UNH LEAD) 0245247 (Lefer/Sheffer, NCAR) 0220990 (Albert, CRREL) 0220862 (Blake/Blake, UCI) 0221150 (Hutterli/Bales, UAZ) 0221052 (Anastasio, UCD) 0221002 (Huey/Chen/Tanner, GA Tech). In addition to acting as logistics lead, the Dibb component of the project will be responsible for HONO, HNO3, HCOOH, and CH3COOH gas measurements, collection/analysis of snow samples for the ionic constituents, determining NO2 -, HCOO- and CH3COO- in selected samples, and conducting analysis of all major inorganic ions in samples returned to the lab at UNH. The investigators will conduct two measurement campaigns at Summit, Greenland. Approximately 15 field team members will be on site in June-July of 2003, with several groups rotating team members, and a field team of 17 will go again in March-May of 2004 to collect set up instruments and samples. VPR will provide support to the projects with provision of materials and infrastructure support at Summit. Additionally VECO Polar Resources will set-up a "satellite camp" approximately 3000 feet South of Summit Station in order to reduce the chance that camp emissions will impact sampling.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 02 / 2003 08 / 02 / 200321
2003Greenland - Summit06 / 03 / 2003 07 / 17 / 200321
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq03 / 15 / 2004 05 / 08 / 200416
2004Greenland - Summit03 / 16 / 2004 05 / 06 / 200416
 


Project Title: Science Coordination Office for Summit, Greenland Environmental Observatory (Cooperative Research with the University of Arizona) (Award# 9910337)

PI: Dibb, Jack E. (jack.dibb@unh.edu)
Phone:  (603) 862.3063 
Institute/Department: U of New Hampshire, Glacier Research Group 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL\LTO
Program Manager: Mr. Simon Stephenson (sstephen@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Data Management | Space Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Summit Greenland is a site of expanding scientific interest by both U.S. and European scientists. Current U.S. projects are evaluating ice-core characteristics related to environmental change, are investigating upper and middle atmosphere phenomena as a basis for understanding the global system, are evaluating atmospheric conditions in the troposphere and in the boundary layer contacting the Greenland permanent ice sheet, and are establishing the radiation, energy, and water balances which occur on the ice-pack. To better coordinate the disparate communities using this environmental observatory, a Science Coordination Office will be established. Its goals are to: 1) coordinate measurements between investigators and the sharing of facilities and personnel on-site, 2) provide scientific requirements to NSF, it's support contractor and European partners as the facility is developed, 3) stimulate sharing of data among science projects.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative between Dibb 9910337 and Bales 9910303 is for the establishment and maintenances of a science coordination office at Summit, Greenland. This project will involve occasional trips to Summit and science coordination. Logistics and fieldwork will be combined with the PI's existing grants at Summit.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2000Greenland - Summit0
2001Greenland - Summit0
2002Greenland - Summit0
2003Greenland - Summit0
2004Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: ITR/SI+AP: A Mobile Sensor Web for Polar Ice Sheet Measurements (Award# 0122520)

PI: Gogineni, Sivaprasad (gogineni@cresis.ku.edu)
Phone:  (785) 864-734  
Institute/Department: U of Kansas, CReSIS 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ANT\AG
Program Manager: Dr. Julie Palais (jpalais@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://ku-prism.org/
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Sea level has been rising over the last century. Although the immediate impact of sea level rise may be less severe than other effects of global climate change, the long-term consequences can be much more devastating since nearly 60% of the world population lives in coastal regions. Scientists have postulated that excess water is being released from polar ice sheets due to long-term, global climate change, but there are insufficient data to confirm these theories. Understanding the interactions between the ice sheets, oceans and atmosphere is essential to quantifying the role of ice sheets in sea level rise. Toward that end, this research project involves the innovative application of information technology in the development and deployment of intelligent radar sensors for measuring key glaciological parameters. Radar instrumentation will consist of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that can operate in bistatic or monostatic mode. One important application of the SAR will be in the determination of basal conditions, particularly the presence and distribution of basal water. Basal water lubricates the ice/bed interface, enhancing flow, and increasing the amount of ice discharged into the ocean. Another application of the SAR will be to measure ice thickness and map internal layers in both shallow and deep ice. Information on near-surface internal layers will be used to estimate the average, recent accumulation rate, while the deeper layers provide a history of past accumulation and flow rates. A tracked vehicle and an automated snowmobile will be used to test and demonstrate the utility of intelligent radar in glaciological investigations. The system will be developed to collect, process and analyze data in real time and in conjunction with a priori information derived from archived sources. The combined real time and archived information will be used onboard the vehicles to select and generate an optimum sensor configuration. This project thus involves innovative research in intelligent systems, sounding radars and ice sheet modeling. In addition it has a very strong public outreach and education program, which include near-real-time image broadcasts via the world wide web.

Logistics Summary:
This project is developing vehicle-mounted synthetic aperture radar for use in measuring polar ice sheets. The team will test this method using tracked ATVs and a remote controlled snowmachine at the Danish North GRIP station for two weeks in July of 2003 and at Summit Station in 2004 and 2005. On-site, the team will be provided with accommodations and food for 12 people as well as access to the shop. VPR will coordinate Air National Guard travel, cargo, and medical clearance for the team. VPR will also provide limited field inventory support for the NGRIP field work, and will support the team via the infrastructure at Kangerlussuaq and Summit.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 24 / 2003 07 / 19 / 200312
2003Greenland - NGRIP06 / 25 / 2003 07 / 15 / 200312
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 11 / 2004 07 / 29 / 200412
2004Greenland - Summit07 / 13 / 2004 07 / 26 / 200412
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 11 / 2005 07 / 30 / 20057
2005Greenland - Summit07 / 12 / 2005 07 / 28 / 20057
 


Project Title: Surface-Atmosphere Ozone Fluxes at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0240976)

PI: Helmig, Detlev (detlev.helmig@colorado.edu)
Phone:  (303) 492.2509 
Institute/Department: U of Colorado, Boulder, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Jane Dionne (jdionne@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://instaar.colorado.edu/arl/
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Previous research in Polar Regions has demonstrated that chemical and physical interactions between the snowpack and the overlaying atmosphere have a substantial impact on the composition of the atmosphere. Deposition and scavenging of gases and aerosols result in the accumulation ofa chemical reservoir that subsequently, under conditions of increasing temperature and solar irradiance can turn into a photochemically active reactor. These reactions result in the formation of radicals, the release of chemicals into the atmospheric surface layer, and consequently influence concentrations and budgets of important tropospheric trace gases. Recent observations of photochemical depletion of ozone in firn air, diurnal ozone trends in the surface layer, tethered balloon vertical profile data and estimates of photochemical ozone production all imply that ozone deposition to the snowpack depends on parameters including the quantity and composition of deposited trace gases, solar irradiance and snow temperature. Consequently, ozone surface fluxes in Polar Regions are expected to have snow photochemical, diurnal and seasonal dependencies and to overall be more complex and possibly larger than considerations in global atmospheric models. Current literature does not reflect these conditions and ozone flux estimates to year-round snow are contradictory and are suspected to have large errors. The objective of this research is to study the diurnal and seasonal ozone deposition to the year-round snowpack and investigate dependencies of ozone deposition on environmental and snow photochemical conditions. This study will employ sensitive flux measurement approaches by eddy correlation, by the tower gradient method and by measurements of ozone in the interstitial air. Field measurements will be performed during three experiments at Summit, Greenland during a wide variety of environmental and seasonal conditions.

Logistics Summary:
This project will study seasonal ozone deposition at Summit, Greenland from 2003-2005. A field team of one to two researchers will travel to Summit, Greenland to conduct meteorological measurements and gas sampling at the 14 m tower adjacent to the science trench at Summit. In summer, 2003, the team will focus on setting up the experiment. Meteorological instruments will be mounted to the tower and analytical instruments will be placed in the science trench with sampling lines running to three different heights on the tower. For 2004, one team member will be on-site conducting sampling activties for most of the summer starting with the Summit "springfly" measurement campaign that begins in mid-March. In 2005 science technicians will operate spring experiments for the team. VPR will support the project via provision of materials and infrastructure as well as science technician support at Summit.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 14 / 2003 08 / 02 / 20033
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 15 / 2003 07 / 31 / 20032
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq03 / 15 / 2004 08 / 21 / 20042
2004Greenland - Summit03 / 16 / 2004 08 / 19 / 20042
2005Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Impact of snow photochemistry on atmospheric radical concentrations at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0221002)

PI: Huey, L. Greg (greg.huey@eas.gatech.edu)
Phone:  (404) 894.5541 
Institute/Department: Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Jane Dionne (jdionne@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://shadow.eas.gatech.edu/~ghuey/Summit.htm
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Until recently, scientists thought that the chemicals and tiny particles of dust carried to earth on snow simply fell to the ground undisturbed, eventually to be trapped in layers of ice, preserved as an unchanged record of past climate and large-scale natural events. But when researchers noticed unexpectedly high concentrations of chemicals associated with industrial pollution in the air at Summit Station on the crest of the ice cap, they began to suspect the story was more complicated. Since 1998, researchers have been learning that the chemistry of the snow actually affects the chemistry of the air above it. Sunlight causes changes in some of the chemicals present in the snow, perhaps most surprisingly in chemicals associated with “smog.” Scientists from 7 different institutes are continuing to study the fate of some chemicals associated with air pollution which are transported to Greenland on global wind currents from North America, Asia, and Europe. These chemicals (nitric acid, for example) react to ultraviolet light hitting the sunlit snow, and begin other chemical processes, eventually releasing back into the air compounds which are hallmarks of air pollution. In effect, it’s as if smog is being recycled by the snow. And this chemistry is not unique to Summit: everywhere researchers have looked for it—Alert, Canada; Antarctica; northern Michigan and Colorado in the United States—they have found it. All it seems to take is sunlight, nitrate, and a mix of organic compounds in the snow. During two field campaigns, one in the summer of 2003, and one in the early spring of 2004, Dibb’s researchers will collect snow and air samples from a pristine area about a kilometer from Summit Station. Because of the ephemeral nature of some of the chemistry, they’ll use delicate instruments—no easy feat in the cold at Summit Station—to process some samples in the field. They will also ship some snow and air samples to their home institutions for further analysis. In addition to the contributions made to understanding snow chemistry, this work suggests that reading some aspects of Greenland’s snow and ice record might be more complicated than was once thought. As scientists better understand these chemical interactions, they will be better able to read the climate history record of the ice cores taken from Summit. They also will better understand the record left in the snow surface from large-scale events such as volcanic eruptions or giant forest fires.

Logistics Summary:
This is the Georgia Tech component of the 2003/2004 Summit, Greenland photochemistry collaborative: 0221109 (Dibb, UNH LEAD) 0245247 (Lefer/Sheffer, NCAR) 0220990 (Albert, CRREL) 0220862 (Blake/Blake, UCI) 0221150 (Hutterli/Bales, UAZ) 0221052 (Anastasio, UCD) 0221002 (Huey/Chen/Tanner, GA Tech) The GA Tech group will conduct OH, HO2 and H2SO4 Measurements. All logistics information found under Dibb 0221109.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2003Greenland - Summit0
2004Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Impact of snow photochemistry on atmospheric radical concentrations at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0221150)

PI: Hutterli, Manuel (mahut@bas.ac.uk)
Phone: 44(122) 322.1266 
Institute/Department: British Antarctic Survey, Physical Sciences Division 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Jane Dionne (jdionne@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://shadow.eas.gatech.edu/~ghuey/Summit.htm
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Until recently, scientists thought that the chemicals and tiny particles of dust carried to earth on snow simply fell to the ground undisturbed, eventually to be trapped in layers of ice, preserved as an unchanged record of past climate and large-scale natural events. But when researchers noticed unexpectedly high concentrations of chemicals associated with industrial pollution in the air at Summit Camp on the crest of the ice cap, they began to suspect the story was more complicated. Since 1998, researchers have been learning that the chemistry of the snow actually affects the chemistry of the air above it. Sunlight causes changes in some of the chemicals present in the snow, perhaps most surprisingly in chemicals associated with “smog.” Scientists from 7 different institutes are continuing to study the fate of some chemicals associated with air pollution, which are transported to Greenland on global wind currents from North America, Asia, and Europe. These chemicals (nitric acid, for example) react to ultraviolet light hitting the sunlit snow, and begin other chemical processes, eventually releasing back into the air compounds, which are hallmarks of air pollution. In effect, it’s as if smog is being recycled by the snow. And this chemistry is not unique to Summit: everywhere researchers have looked for it—Alert, Canada; Antarctica; northern Michigan and Colorado in the United States—they have found it. All it seems to take is sunlight, nitrate, and a mix of organic compounds in the snow. During two field campaigns, one in the summer of 2003, and one in the early spring of 2004, Dibb’s researchers will collect snow and air samples from a pristine area about a kilometer from Summit Camp. Because of the ephemeral nature of some of the chemistry, they’ll use delicate instruments—no easy feat in the cold at Summit Camp—to process some samples in the field. They will also ship some snow and air samples to their home institutions for further analysis. In addition to the contributions made to understanding snow chemistry, this work suggests that reading some aspects of Greenland’s snow and ice record might be more complicated than was once thought. As scientists better understand these chemical interactions, they will be better able to read the climate history record of the ice cores taken from Summit. They also will better understand the record left in the snow surface from large-scale events such as volcanic eruptions or giant forest fires.

Logistics Summary:
This is the UAZ component of the 2003/2004 Summit, Greenland photochemistry collaborative: 0221109 (Dibb, UNH LEAD) 0245247 (Lefer/Sheffer, NCAR) 0220990 (Albert, CRREL) 0220862 (Blake/Blake, UCI) 0221150 (Hutterli/Bales, UAZ) 0221052 (Anastasio, UCD) 0221002 (Huey/Chen/Tanner, GA Tech) The role of the UAZ component will be to measure HOOH, organic peroxides and HCHO in the air, the firn air and the snow at the camp. All logistics information found under Dibb 0221109.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2003Greenland - Summit0
2004Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Danish Automatic Weather Station (Award# DKAWS)

PI: Kern-Hansen, Claus (CKH@dmi.dk )
Phone: 45(391) 57580 
Institute/Department: Danish Meteorological Institute,  
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: DK\Federal\MT\DMI
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.dmi.dk/en/vejr/
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/

Science Summary:
The Danish Meteorological Institute operates an Autonomous Weather Station (AWS) at Summit. This AWS is part of a network that provides forecasting and warning services as well as continuous monitoring of weather, sea state, climate, and related environmental conditions in the atmosphere, over land and in the sea.

Logistics Summary:
When required for AWS maintenance, the principal investigator and sometimes another team member will spend two to three days annually tent-camping at Summit Station. At Summit Station, he/they will remove snow from around the AWS as well as inspect and provide maintenance to the station. In 2007, the team dug out and elevated the weather station by 1 meter.

CPS will provide ANG transport between Kangerlussuaq and Summit Station and Summit user days. The PI will arrange and pay for all other logistics, including KISS user days.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
1997Greenland - Summit1
1998Greenland - Summit1
1999Greenland - Summit1
2000Greenland - Summit07 / 17 / 2001 07 / 19 / 20011
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 08 / 2002 06 / 14 / 20022
2002Greenland - Summit06 / 10 / 2002 06 / 13 / 20022
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 28 / 2003 08 / 02 / 20033
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 29 / 2003 08 / 01 / 20032
2004Greenland - Summit0
2005Greenland - Summit1
2006Greenland - Summit08 / 20 / 2006 08 / 21 / 20062
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 19 / 2007 06 / 21 / 20072
2008Greenland - Summit0
2009Greenland - Summit0
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 23 / 2010 06 / 30 / 20102
2010Greenland - Summit06 / 25 / 2010 06 / 28 / 20102
2011Greenland - Summit0
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 05 / 2012 06 / 13 / 20122
2012Greenland - Summit06 / 06 / 2012 06 / 11 / 20122
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 30 / 2013 06 / 05 / 20132
2013Greenland - Summit05 / 31 / 2013 06 / 04 / 20132
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 10 / 2014 07 / 17 / 20142
2014Greenland - Summit07 / 11 / 2014 07 / 16 / 20142
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 30 / 2015 06 / 07 / 20152
2015Greenland - Summit06 / 03 / 2015 06 / 09 / 20152
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq2
2017Greenland - Summit2
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Sonic Logging of GISP2, GRIP and NGRIP Boreholes (Award# 0082469)

PI: Lamorey, Gregg (gregg@dri.edu)
Phone:  (775) 673.7356 
Institute/Department: Desert Research Institute, Division of Hydrologic Sciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Jane Dionne (jdionne@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Interpretation of paleoclimate records from ice cores depends on understanding the ice sheet flow to determine depth-age relationships and whether the ice has been affected by folding. The alignment of crystals in ice, called fabric, is an important factor in understanding ice sheet flow because preferentially aligned crystals cause the ice to flow more easily in certain directions. Fabrics have traditionally been determined by using thin sections cut at intervals in the ice core. A new method of determining fabric is sonic logging, where a probe is lowered into a borehole to measure the velocity of compressional waves through the ice. Sonic logging is valuable because it provides a continuous profile of the ice fabric and averages the alignment of ice crystals over a larger volume than do thin sections. The Principal Investigators will measure sonic velocity profiles at the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2), Greenland Ice Core Program (GRIP), and Northern Greenland Ice Core Program (NGRIP) and use them to: 1) improve the understanding of the relationship between thin section and sonic velocity data; 2) determine if sonic velocity data can be used to identify the depth at which paleoclimate record continuity is lost and if so, formulate criteria to identify this depth; and 3) provide verification and input data for anisotropic flow law models. Sonic velocity profiles, combined with thin section data, will be used to investigate how sonic velocities and thin section data can be combined to better determine ice fabric. A fabric estimation model will be developed that uses thin section data and velocity profiles to predict fabric parameters and their uncertainty and spatial variability. The sonic velocity profiles will be used to determine if the depth at which the paleoclimate record continuity is lost can be identified from sonic logging. This determination was facilitated at GISP2 and GRIP by comparing two paleoclimate records because they correlate highly above this depth and diverge below it. NGRIP will provide another important set of data because this location was chosen specifically to recover ice that was found to have disturbed stratigraphy at GISP2 and GRIP. Finally, the GISP2, GRIP, and NGRIP sonic logs will be used to verify and constrain the latest generation of ice sheet flow models that use an anisotropic flow law to include the effect of fabric.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative between 0082469 Lamorey and 0083132 Waddington will conduct thermal and sonic logging at GISP2, GRIP, and NGRIP using Summit Station and NGRIP as bases of operations. Acquiring these measurements will be coordinated with visual logging measurements also planned by Dr. Buford Price. Both projects will be using a winch provided by Gary Clow and operated in the field by Bob Hawley. The project objectives for the 2002 summer field season are to measure the sonic velocity profiles in the boreholes at Summit (GISP2) and GRIP. The Tucker vehicle is anticipated to be used for moving the project’s equipment to the GISP2 site and also to the GRIP site where ~6days will be spent making measurements. VPR will provide all support to the project. During 2003, the team will conduct logging and borehole measurements at the 3-km deep and 200-m boreholes at NGRIP. VPR support during this season will likely be limited to transport of personnel and cargo via ANG flights, provision of a weatherport, and a small generator. The University of Copenhagen will support the team with all other requirements during their 2-week stay at NGRIP. In 2004, the team will return to Summit to revisit the GISP2 and GRIP boreholes. Logistics will be closely coordinated with the newly-funded Waddington/Hawley/McConnell collaborative (ANS 0352584). The team will be joined by a team member from the NGRIP Danish drilling project who will conduct deep caliper/inclinomentry logging of the GRIP and GISP2 boreholes.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 24 / 2002 07 / 20 / 20024
2002Greenland - Summit06 / 25 / 2002 07 / 17 / 20024
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 12 / 2003 06 / 07 / 20034
2003Greenland - NGRIP05 / 13 / 2003 06 / 03 / 20034
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 02 / 2004 06 / 26 / 20044
2004Greenland - Summit05 / 02 / 2004 06 / 22 / 20044
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Impact of snow photochemistry on atmospheric radical concentrations at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0245247)

PI: Lefer, Barry L (blefer@uh.edu)
Phone:  (713) 743.3250 
Institute/Department: U of Houston, Department of Geosciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://shadow.eas.gatech.edu/~ghuey/Summit.htm
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Until recently, scientists thought that the chemicals and tiny particles of dust carried to earth on snow simply fell to the ground undisturbed, eventually to be trapped in layers of ice, preserved as an unchanged record of past climate and large-scale natural events. But when researchers noticed unexpectedly high concentrations of chemicals associated with industrial pollution in the air at Summit Station on the crest of the ice cap, they began to suspect the story was more complicated. Since 1998, researchers have been learning that the chemistry of the snow actually affects the chemistry of the air above it. Sunlight causes changes in some of the chemicals present in the snow, perhaps most surprisingly in chemicals associated with “smog.” Scientists from 7 different institutes are continuing to study the fate of some chemicals associated with air pollution, which are transported to Greenland on global wind currents from North America, Asia, and Europe. These chemicals (nitric acid, for example) react to ultraviolet light hitting the sunlit snow, and begin other chemical processes, eventually releasing back into the air compounds, which are hallmarks of air pollution. In effect, it’s as if smog is being recycled by the snow. And this chemistry is not unique to Summit: everywhere researchers have looked for it—Alert, Canada; Antarctica; northern Michigan and Colorado in the United States—they have found it. All it seems to take is sunlight, nitrate, and a mix of organic compounds in the snow. During two field campaigns, one in the summer of 2003, and one in the early spring of 2004, Dibb’s researchers will collect snow and air samples from a pristine area about a kilometer from Summit Station. Because of the ephemeral nature of some of the chemistry, they’ll use delicate instruments—no easy feat in the cold at Summit Station—to process some samples in the field. They will also ship some snow and air samples to their home institutions for further analysis. In addition to the contributions made to understanding snow chemistry, this work suggests that reading some aspects of Greenland’s snow and ice record might be more complicated than was once thought. As scientists better understand these chemical interactions, they will be better able to read the climate history record of the ice cores taken from Summit. They also will better understand the record left in the snow surface from large-scale events such as volcanic eruptions or giant forest fires.

Logistics Summary:
This is the NCAR component of the 2003/2004 Summit, Greenland photochemistry collaborative: 0221109 (Dibb, UNH LEAD) 0245247 (Lefer/Sheffer, NCAR) 0220990 (Albert, CRREL) 0220862 (Blake/Blake, UCI) 0221150 (Hutterli/Bales, UAZ) 0221052 (Anastasio, UCD) 0221002 (Huey/Chen/Tanner, GA Tech). NCAR will conduct actinix flux measurements during each field season. All logistics information found under Dibb 0221109.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2003Greenland - Summit0
2004Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: A Unique Opportunity for In-Situ Measurement of Seasonally-Varying Firn Densification at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0352511)

PI: McConnell, Joseph R ( joe.mcconnell@dri.edu)
Phone:  (775) 673.7348 
Institute/Department: Desert Research Institute, Division of Hydrologic Sciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
In this project we will make detailed measurements of the temporal and spatial variations of firn compaction. This will advance knowledge and understanding within the field of ice deformation and across different fields, such as remote sensing, snow morphology, and paleoclimatology. We will make these detailed measurements throughout 2 winter and 3 summer seasons using the concept of Borehole Optical Stratigraphy, which uses a borehole camera to record details of a borehole wall. These details can be tracked over time to determine vertical motion and strain, which in the shallow depth of our study is dominated by firn compaction. Quantitative understanding of firn compaction is important for remote-sensing mass-balance studies, which seek to measure and interpret the changing height of the ice sheet; the surface can rise due to snow accumulation, and fall due to ice flow and increased densification rates. Quantitative knowledge of all 3 processes is essential. Evidence suggests that the rate of densification, which is thermally activated, undergoes a seasonal cycle, related to the seasonal cycle of temperature. When interpreting trapped-gas data from an ice core for paleoclimate, it is important to know at what point the gas was actually trapped in the ice. The pores in the ice do not close off until deep in the firn, leading to a difference between the age of the ice and the age of the trapped gas. If summer high temperatures have more impact on compaction than mean annual temperatures, the gas-age/ice-age offset might be incorrectly calculated. Greater understanding of firn densification physics will help the interpretation of these records.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative between 0352584 (Waddington, UW) and 0352511 (McConnell, DRI) will study firn densification at several locations in Greenland using optical logging techniques the investigators developed. All logistics are combined under 0352584.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2004Greenland - Raven0
2004Greenland - Summit0
2005Greenland - Raven0
2005Greenland - Summit0
2006Greenland - Raven0
2006Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: CryoSat Calibration / Validation (Award# CRYOSAT)

PI: Morris, Elizabeth M (emm36@cam.ac.uk)
Phone: 44(1223) 33.-6568 
Institute/Department: U of Cambridge, Scott Polar Research Institute 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: Intl\ESA
Program Manager: Ms. Renee Crain (rcrain@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Observing_the_Ea...
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/

Science Summary:
CryoSat is a European Space Agency-sponsored radar altimetry mission, scheduled for launch in 2004, to determine variations in the thickness of the Earth’s continental ice sheets and marine ice cover. Its primary objective is to test the prediction of thinning arctic ice due to global warming. The ice on land and floating in the oceans of the Arctic and Antarctic has a central role in the global climate. Although thousands of kilometres away from most populated regions, the ice can determine the climate for example in Europe, Asia and America by influencing the circulation of water in the oceans. The Arctic is the region on Earth where the greatest changes due to global warming are predicted. If Arctic sea ice becomes thinner over the next few decades, as some observations indicate, it could change the circulation pattern of the north Atlantic, changing the supply of heat to western Europe. The sources for the observed rise in global sea level are not well documented. Are the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets melting and therefore contributing to the world-wide rise in sea level? As yet this question cannot be answered. CryoSat will help to find answers to these questions and contribute to scientific studies of the polar climate, the sea ice and the ice sheets with a level of detail that is not possible today. Determining the uncertainty in CryoSat products requires a wide range of surface measurements of ice character, geometry and distribution, and the change of these properties with time. These uncertainties may be correlated over considerable time scales. In principal, this may be achieved by examining the difference between the CryoSat data product and a suitably large number of independent, accurate measurements. Campaigns are required which help to reduce the number of independent estimates of errors to a necessary minimum that, on the basis of some physical argument, may be extrapolated to the satellite data as a whole. Following ESA's Announcement of Opportunity for CryoSat Calibration and Validation proposals issued in 2001, a team of scientists comprising 18 different projects were selected to form the CryoSat Calibration, Validation and Retrieval team. This team is responsible for formulating the strategy for calibrating and validating CryoSat. In August 2003, the draft version of the CryoSat Validation Implementation Plan was released. This document, which provides a comprehensive plan for campaign activities between 2003 and 2006, calls for a set of key experiments to be carried out on the ground, from ships and from airborne platforms in order to fully validate the scientific data from CryoSat.

Logistics Summary:
For this portion of the Cryosat Calibration/Validation project, researchers from the UK will take a number of measurements along the International Glaciological Expedition Greenland (EGIG) line that crosses central Greenland. In both 2004 and 2006 a team of 4 from University of Glasgow AKA "UK2" plan to spend about a month visiting sites in the west using site T0005 (69.83 N -47.27 E) as a base. A 2-person "UK1" team from Scott Polar Research Institute plans a 400km traverse between T0012 and Summit, conducting snow density measurements via the neutron scattering technique. The UK1 researchers will establish caches at locations T0021 and T0041 to aid them in their traverse. In 2008, a two-person party will travel by commercial air to Kangerlussuaq in mid-April. They will travel on to Qaanaq via Twin Otter, and from there, put in via Twin Otter to their traverse starting point on the north-west part of the ice sheet at approximately 79 N 50 W. The pair will then travel via snowmachine along the 2100 m contour to approximately 77 52 N 57 W and thence to the NEEM drilling site (77 30 N 51 W). From NEEM, they will return to Kangerlussuaq via LC-130 early in June. For 2010, a team of two will travel to Kangerlussuaq via commercial air from England in late May. After spending about a week at the hub preparing for the traverse, the pair will fly into Summit with the ANG in early June. From there, they will launch a skidoo traverse. The team will depart Summit and traverse to the southwest, taking snow-density measurements en route, and then will return to Summit. They will resupply fuel and other supplies via caches established previously. When they've finished the work, the two researchers will fly back to Kangerlussuaq and depart Greenland from there. The 2011 effort is organized in two phases, each of which involves a snow machine traverse accomplished by two pairs of researchers. In spring, a team of two, dubbed “UK1,” will fly to Summit Station from Kangerlussuaq via ANG around April 20, from whence they will launch the traverse several days later. This team will travel to T21, collecting snow density measurements along the way. About 2.5 weeks later, the second team of two, dubbed “UK2,” will meet the traverse at T21 during a series of Twin Otter resupply, personnel change-out, and depot-laying flights. UK2 will then ride toward Summit Station using the traverse infrastructure used by UK1. UK 1 will return to Kangerlussuaq and fly home via commercial air. (A fifth team member will deploy to Kangerlussuaq to assist with the Twin Otter resupply/personnel change out activities; he will spend about 3 days in Kangerlussuaq before departing Greenland). After they arrive at Summit Station via the traverse, UK2 will store the project’s gear and depart Summit Station, returning via commercial air to their homes. UK 1 will return in July to Summit via ANG, and then spend around 10 days traversing to T21 via T41. Meanwhile, UK2 will fly via Twin Otter from Kangerlussuaq to T21, working locally along the EGIG line. When UK1 arrives at T21, the four researchers will spend a few days working at the site before UK1 returns to Summit (and then to Kangerlussuaq via ANG for onward commercial travel); UK2 will be taken out of the field and returned to Kangerlussuaq via Twin Otter flights that are also laying depots at T21. No fieldwork will be conducted in 2012 -2014.

In 2004, KMS will provide Twin Otter support and snowmachines, while VPR will provide communications gear and support at Summit, in addition to cost-reimbursable fuel and cargo transport. In 2006 CPS will provide cost reimbursable air support, snowmachines, fuel, and cargo transport. In 2008, DNSC (Forsberg) will provide most of the logistics support. CPS will provide cargo transport by C-130 from Kangerlussuaq to Thule; fuels (Mogas, Coleman fuel, skidoo oil); packing space and assistance while the team transits Kangerlussuaq and Thule; Iridium phone and daily safety check-ins; two new snowmachines; and C-130 transport from NEEM to Kangerlussuaq. Support will be provided on a billable basis. In 2010 and 2011, CPS will provide ANG flight coordination for passengers and cargo, Summit user days, some fuel(s), safety/communications gear, Air Greenland and Norlandair flight coordination for fuel depots, and Kangerlussuaq and Summit staff assistance. This support will be provided on a billable basis.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2004Greenland - EGIG T000504 / 20 / 2004 09 / 18 / 20044
2004Greenland - EGIG T001204 / 20 / 2004 09 / 19 / 20042
2004Greenland - EGIG T002104 / 20 / 2004 09 / 19 / 20042
2004Greenland - EGIG T004104 / 20 / 2004 09 / 19 / 20042
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 18 / 2004 09 / 20 / 20045
2004Greenland - Summit06 / 01 / 2004 08 / 18 / 20042
2006Greenland - EGIG T000504 / 20 / 2006 08 / 16 / 20064
2006Greenland - EGIG T001204 / 20 / 2006 06 / 02 / 20062
2006Greenland - EGIG T002104 / 20 / 2006 06 / 02 / 20062
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 12 / 2006 08 / 17 / 20066
2006Greenland - Summit06 / 01 / 2006 06 / 07 / 20063
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 17 / 2008 06 / 03 / 20082
2008Greenland - NEEM05 / 30 / 2008 06 / 03 / 20082
2008Greenland - Qaanaaq04 / 19 / 2008 05 / 29 / 20082
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 28 / 2010 07 / 23 / 20102
2010Greenland - Summit05 / 20 / 2010 07 / 19 / 20102
2011Greenland - EGIG T002104 / 29 / 2011 08 / 17 / 20114
2011Greenland - EGIG T004104 / 29 / 2011 05 / 10 / 20113
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 17 / 2011 08 / 12 / 20116
2011Greenland - Summit04 / 20 / 2011 08 / 12 / 20115
 


Project Title: Radiometer for Atmospheric Measurements at Summit/Greenland (RAMAS) (Award# DERAMAS)

PI: Notholt, Justus (jnotholt@iup.physik.uni-bremen.de )
Phone: 49(212) 188982 
Institute/Department: U of Bremen, Institue of Environmental Physics 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: Intl\EC\FP5
Program Manager: Mr. Simon Stephenson (sstephen@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.doas-bremen.de/groundbased_summit.htm
Data: http://www.ndsc.ncep.noaa.gov/

Science Summary:
RAMAS is a multi-national collaborative effort between the University of Bremen (Institute of Environmental Physics), the University of Bordeaux 1 (Bordeaux Observatory), the Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, the University of Leeds (School of the Environment), and the Naval Research Lab, Washington. RAMAS will conduct microwave radiometry measurements of ozone profiles and key species present in natural and anthropogenic ozone destruction cycles. Summit's unique feature as the highest elevation north of the arctic circle will minimize measurement interference by atmospheric water vapor. The University of Bremen further provides a multi axis DOAS instrument for UV/visible measurements of stratospheric trace gas columns. This is mainly dedicated to the validation of satellite instruments, but will also complement RAMAS measurements to provide a full picture of halogen activation in the lower stratosphere.

Logistics Summary:
In summer of 2003 the RAMAS group, with the assistance of VPR staff, will install a ground-based microwave sensor. The sensor will be housed in a modified shipping container and installed as a stand-alone "building" at the camp. The container also houses the DOAS instrument. Several RAMAS project staff will be on-site to get the experiment up and running during the summer, and will have at least one person at camp throughout the 2003-2004 winter. In summer of 2004 the RAMAS group plans to continue working on the instrument to prepare it for the upcoming winter 2004/2005, when it will be operated by on-site science technicians. In summer of 2005, a team of two will travel to Summit to prepare the RAMAS container for shipment back to Bremen for maintenance and to secure funding to continue the field observations. VPR will assist the team in shipping, container installation, and installation of a communications interface from the container to the rest of camp. VPR will also provide science technician support.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2001Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 14 / 2001 07 / 23 / 20012
2001Greenland - Summit07 / 17 / 2001 07 / 19 / 20012
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 14 / 2003 02 / 20 / 20046
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 15 / 2003 02 / 19 / 20046
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 10 / 2004 08 / 21 / 20044
2004Greenland - Summit02 / 12 / 2004 08 / 19 / 20044
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 11 / 2005 07 / 27 / 20052
2005Greenland - Summit07 / 12 / 2005 07 / 26 / 20052
 


Project Title: BSRN-compatible irradiance measurements and the stable boundary layer (Award# CHAntenna)

PI: Ohmura, Atsumu (ohmura@env.ethz.ch)
Phone: 41(44) 632.8283 
Institute/Department: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Research 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: CH\Federal\NSF
Program Manager: Mr. Simon Stephenson (sstephen@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
Institute: http://www.iac.ethz.ch/content/main/en.html

Science Summary:
With this project, Swiss investigators plan to gain a better understanding of the earth's surface heat balance and the structure of the boundary layer. Investigators will make year-round observations of the surface energy balance and turbulence in the boundary layer using an instrumented, 50-meter meteorological tower, a wind-profiler, a radiometer system, and possibly an instrumented aircraft. Radiation measurements will be taken in accordance with specifications established by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network project.

Logistics Summary:
This work involves ongoing studies of the Earth's boundary layer at Summit, Greenland. In 2000, a team of six installed a 50-meter tower at Summit Station. In 2001, the team returned early in the field season to install a suite of meteorological instruments on the tower. Measurements began during the summer, and continued throughout the winter by a member of the team. In the summer of 2002, boundary layer measurements continued. After a severe storm knocked over the 50-meter tower during the winter, the team turned its prime research focus in 2003 to the investigation of the heat balance of the snow cover and detailed observations of the radiation and temperature profiles in snow. These measurements continued in 2004. In addition, the team rebuilt the tower to 35 meters for future installation of a suite of meteorological instruments. In 2005, a team of two traveled to Summit in May to dismantle the project’s equipment in the Green House in preparation for the uplift of that building. In mid-June, a team returned to reinstall equipment, conduct extensive studies of the radiation characteristics of the snow cover, collect missing data sets to capture the whole picture of the snow reflectant characteristics, extend the tower to 50 meters for boundary layer studies, and maintain and monitor radiation balance experiments. In 2006, a team of two visited to do maintenance on the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) Radiation station, and to update hard- and software to fulfill BSRN standards. In 2007, a team of two will return for a brief season to replace BRSN hardware and do maintenance on the boundary layer instruments including installing heated wind sensors. New infrastructure developments will impact current BSRN infrastructure. The BSRN is currently powered off of lines routed through the science trench. The science trench and associated power panel are being replaced by the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory (TAWO). VPR will coordinate with ETH to assure that the new power system accommodates the BSRN site (both fixed and tracker locations). At the end of August, Koni Steffen of CU Boulder will become the point of contact for both the ETH 50m tower and the BSRN site. Wintering science technicians will continue to follow the same protocols, but data will be delivered to and warehoused by Koni Steffen. VPR will coordinate the team's travel to Summit, and provide accommodations at Kangerlussuaq and Summit. VPR will also provide a dedicated weatherport for the team. In 2007, VPR will also provide lab space in the Green House. For project plans after 2007, please see grant "CHAntennaKS".

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2000Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 09 / 2000 07 / 14 / 20005
2000Greenland - Summit06 / 21 / 2000 07 / 11 / 20005
2001Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 27 / 2001 05 / 06 / 20028
2001Greenland - Summit05 / 03 / 2001 05 / 03 / 20028
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 22 / 2002 08 / 14 / 20026
2002Greenland - Summit04 / 24 / 2002 08 / 13 / 20026
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 12 / 2003 08 / 13 / 20034
2003Greenland - Summit05 / 13 / 2003 08 / 12 / 20034
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 17 / 2004 07 / 14 / 20044
2004Greenland - Summit05 / 18 / 2004 07 / 13 / 20044
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 29 / 2005 07 / 29 / 20055
2005Greenland - Summit05 / 02 / 2005 07 / 28 / 20055
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 16 / 2006 06 / 08 / 20062
2006Greenland - Summit05 / 24 / 2006 06 / 07 / 20062
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 07 / 2007 05 / 21 / 20072
2007Greenland - Summit05 / 08 / 2007 05 / 17 / 20072
 


Project Title: Optical logging for dust and microbes in boreholes in glacial Ice (Award# 0125794)

PI: Price, Buford (bprice@uclink4.berkeley.edu)
Phone:  (510) 642.4982 
Institute/Department: U of California, Berkeley, Department of Physics 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ANT\AG
Program Manager: Dr. Julie Palais (jpalais@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
A newly developed optical borehole logger is being used to do research in climatology, geosciences, and life in extreme environments. The logger fits into a fluid-filled borehole in glacial ice. It emits laser light in a horizontal plane in order to probe optical properties of particles embedded in the ice out to several meters from the borehole. After leaving the borehole, light is partially absorbed and scattered by dust, biomolecules, or microbes, and a fraction of the light is scattered back into the borehole and is detected by a phototube. To study dust, the phototube records light scattered without change of wavelength. To study biomolecules and microbes, the phototube is covered with a notch filter chosen to pass only a narrow band of wavelengths optimized for fluorescence of a particular molecule such as tryptophan, NADH, adenosine, F420 , or polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In its first test, in the 1005-m Siple Dome Antarctica borehole, the logger located more than 60 volcanic ash bands including a very strong one at 980 m that was later confirmed to be ash by a search among broken fragments near the bottom of the core. Broad peaks corresponding to the Last Glacial Maximum and the cold period at 65 kyr were found, centered at 750 m and 933 m. Strong discontinuities found at 675, 803, and 900 m corresponded to abrupt jumps in the records of gases at the same depths. Subsequent tests at GISP2, NGRIP, and GRIP in Greenland were highly successful. The Dansgaard-Oeschger oscillations were very sharply resolved, and the entire record correlated beautifully with O-18 record and with Mayewski’s Ca record (a proxy for dust). By replacing the LEDs with a horizontally directed laser, the latest record at GRIP shows even better vertical resolution and permitted us to see more than 60 volcanic ash layers, in contrast to the three seen previously with LEDs.

Logistics Summary:
This project used a new optical borehole logger over the course of three years at Siple Dome in Antarctica, at GISP2 and GRIP (near Summit, Greenland), at NGRIP, Greenland, and at a SPRESSO borehole near South Pole. The group is working closely with the Waddington/Clow/Lamorey (0082469) collaboration and will share many of its resources. See Lamorey for logistics details.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2002Greenland - Summit0
2003Greenland - NGRIP0
2004Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: GEOFON (GEOFOrschungsNetz - Geo Research Network) (Award# DESeismic)

PI: Strollo, Angelo ( strollo@gfz-potsdam.de)
Phone: 49(331) 288.1285 
Institute/Department: GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, GEOFON Program 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: DE\Research/Higher Ed\GFZ Potsdam
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://geofon.gfz-potsdam.de/
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/

Science Summary:
Most knowledge about the deeper interior of the earth is derived from seismological records. Seismic waves generated by earthquakes travel through the globe and sample its major structures on the way. Important information about seismic velocities and densities, structural boundaries, mineral composition, temperature and pressure regimes etc are hidden in each recorded seismogram and can be retrieved by inverse methods. To obtain a complete picture, globally distributed high quality broadband seismological stations are required to record a full seismologically range in terms of frequency content (10**2 – 10**-6 Hz) and dynamic range (10**-9 – 10**-1 m/s). The technical equipment of the GEOFON network fullfills these requirements and is installed in 50 stations worldwide. (Near) real-time data transmission (via the Internet) from most stations makes the GEOFON data immediately available to the scientifc community and provides a perfect tool for rapid determination of earthquake source parameters for scientific purposes but also for earthquake and tsunami early warnings and for use by disaster management. Both near real-time and archive data are openly available to the community from the GEOFON Data Center and are shared with other national and international data centers such as the european ORFEUS Data Center in De Bilt (Netherlands) and the global FDSN/IRIS Data Center (Seattle, USA).

Logistics Summary:
This project makes broadband seismological recordings of global earthquakes at Summit, Greenland. Formerly a part of the temporary GLATIS network, project responsibility has been turned over to GFZ Potsdam. Summit instruments have been included in that institute's GEOFON network. The PI (Hanka, then Strollo starting in 2015) will visit Summit Station annually to service and maintain the project's seismological station. Over the years, in addition to the scheduled maintenance, project personnel have visited Summit for various other project needs: In 2002, they installed an upgraded datalogger for the seismological station and a "Seiscomp" box that connected the station to the Summit LAN for Internet real-time data transmission; in 2004, another major station upgrade overcame technical problems and minimized required local support; finally, in 2007, two technicians raised and relocated the seismometer bunker, routing power and communications connections out of the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory. In 2009, a technician will return to Summit in May to conduct minor maintenance on the seismometer. Station staff will assist the technician as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2010, a team of two researchers will return to Summit in July. The seismometer bunker will be raised and relocated to a new site so that power and communications can continue to be connected out of the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory, which is also being relocated during this time. Station staff will assist the technicians as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2011, one researcher will return to Summit in mid-June to conduct minor maintenance on the seismometer. Summit staff will assist the researcher as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2012, two researchers will return to Summit Station in July to conduct minor maintenance on the seismometer. In 2013, two researchers will return to Summit Station in July with the following objectives: (1) relocate the seismometer to a new trench, and (2) replace the cable between the TAWO and the new seismometer trench. Summit Station staff will assist the researchers as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2014, no researchers will deploy to Summit Station. Instead, station staff will assist with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities as needed. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2015, two researchers will deploy to Summit Station in June to perform maintenance on the seismometer system, including relocating it to a new vault, raising all cables above the snow surface and checking out all hardware. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument, maintain data and power cables above the snow surface and provide as-needed assistance. No researchers will deploy in 2016. Instead, station technical staff replaced a broken seiscompbox. The replacement box is expected in fall 2016; when functioning, it will allow remote mass centering. In 2017, two researchers will visit Summit in May to perform maintenance on the seismometer system, including relocating it to a new vault, raising all cables above the snow surface, and checking out all hardware. The project team plans to install a post hole sensor for a 1-2 year comparison with the current seismic system to investigate potential replacement of the system in future years.

CPS will provide ANG travel and cargo support to/from Summit Station, Summit Station user days, a snow auger/corer with required tools, access to infrastructure, and year around science technician support for re-leveling the instrument, maintaining data and power cables above the snow surface, and general maintenance/troubleshooting as-needed). The PI will pay NSF directly for costs associated with this support. All other logistics will be provided by the PI.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2000Greenland - Summit05 / 15 / 2000 09 / 05 / 20002
2001Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 14 / 2001 1
2001Greenland - Summit07 / 17 / 2001 07 / 19 / 20011
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 07 / 2002 06 / 14 / 20022
2002Greenland - Summit06 / 10 / 2002 06 / 13 / 20022
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 12 / 2003 08 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - Summit05 / 13 / 2003 08 / 01 / 20031
2004Greenland - Summit0
2005Greenland - Summit0
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 08 / 2006 05 / 11 / 20061
2006Greenland - Summit05 / 09 / 2006 05 / 11 / 20061
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 01 / 2007 06 / 08 / 20072
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 04 / 2007 06 / 06 / 20072
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 21 / 2008 04 / 27 / 20081
2008Greenland - Summit04 / 22 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20081
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 11 / 2009 05 / 18 / 20091
2009Greenland - Summit05 / 12 / 2009 05 / 14 / 20091
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 20 / 2010 07 / 30 / 20102
2010Greenland - Summit07 / 21 / 2010 07 / 29 / 20102
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 07 / 2011 06 / 15 / 20111
2011Greenland - Summit06 / 09 / 2011 06 / 13 / 20111
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 14 / 2012 07 / 21 / 20122
2012Greenland - Summit07 / 16 / 2012 07 / 20 / 20122
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 15 / 2013 08 / 01 / 20132
2013Greenland - Summit07 / 16 / 2013 07 / 31 / 20132
2014Greenland - Summit0
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 29 / 2015 06 / 11 / 20152
2015Greenland - Summit06 / 03 / 2015 06 / 09 / 20152
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 15 / 2017 05 / 26 / 20172
2017Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2017 05 / 23 / 20172
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Sonic Logging of GISP2, GRIP and NGRIP Boreholes (Award# 0083132)

PI: Waddington, Edwin D (edw@uw.edu)
Phone:  (206) 543.4585 
Institute/Department: U of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Jane Dionne (jdionne@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Interpretation of paleoclimate records from ice cores depends on understanding the ice sheet flow to determine depth-age relationships and whether the ice has been affected by folding. The alignment of crystals in ice, called fabric, is an important factor in understanding ice sheet flow because preferentially aligned crystals cause the ice to flow more easily in certain directions. Fabrics have traditionally been determined by using thin sections cut at intervals in the ice core. A new method of determining fabric is sonic logging, where a probe is lowered into a borehole to measure the velocity of compressional waves through the ice. Sonic logging is valuable because it provides a continuous profile of the ice fabric and averages the alignment of ice crystals over a larger volume than do thin sections. The Principal Investigators will measure sonic velocity profiles at the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2), Greenland Ice Core Program (GRIP), and Northern Greenland Ice Core Program (NGRIP) and use them to: 1) improve the understanding of the relationship between thin section and sonic velocity data; 2) determine if sonic velocity data can be used to identify the depth at which paleoclimate record continuity is lost and if so, formulate criteria to identify this depth; and 3) provide verification and input data for anisotropic flow law models. Sonic velocity profiles, combined with thin section data, will be used to investigate how sonic velocities and thin section data can be combined to better determine ice fabric. A fabric estimation model will be developed that uses thin section data and velocity profiles to predict fabric parameters and their uncertainty and spatial variability. The sonic velocity profiles will be used to determine if the depth at which the paleoclimate record continuity is lost can be identified from sonic logging. This determination was facilitated at GISP2 and GRIP by comparing two paleoclimate records because they correlate highly above this depth and diverge below it. NGRIP will provide another important set of data because this location was chosen specifically to recover ice that was found to have disturbed stratigraphy at GISP2 and GRIP. Finally, the GISP2, GRIP, and NGRIP sonic logs will be used to verify and constrain the latest generation of ice sheet flow models that use an anisotropic flow law to include the effect of fabric.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative between 0082469 Lamorey and 0083132 Waddington will conduct thermal and sonic logging at GISP2, GRIP, and NGRIP using Summit Station and NGRIP as bases of operations. All logistics are found under the Lamorey record.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2002Greenland - Summit0
2003Greenland - NGRIP0
2004Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: A Unique Opportunity for In-Situ Measurement of Seasonally-Varying Firn Densification at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0352584)

PI: Waddington, Edwin D (edw@uw.edu)
Phone:  (206) 543.4585 
Institute/Department: U of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://coldclimes.blogspot.com/
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
In this project we will make detailed measurements of the temporal and spatial variations of firn compaction. This will advance knowledge and understanding within the field of ice deformation and across different fields, such as remote sensing, snow morphology, and paleoclimatology. We will make these detailed measurements throughout 2 winter and 3 summer seasons using the concept of Borehole Optical Stratigraphy, which uses a borehole camera to record details of a borehole wall. These details can be tracked over time to determine vertical motion and strain, which in the shallow depth of our study is dominated by firn compaction. Quantitative understanding of firn compaction is important for remote-sensing mass-balance studies, which seek to measure and interpret the changing height of the ice sheet; the surface can rise due to snow accumulation, and fall due to ice flow and increased densification rates. Quantitative knowledge of all 3 processes is essential. Evidence suggests that the rate of densification, which is thermally activated, undergoes a seasonal cycle, related to the seasonal cycle of temperature. When interpreting trapped-gas data from an ice core for paleoclimate, it is important to know at what point the gas was actually trapped in the ice. The pores in the ice do not close off until deep in the firn, leading to a difference between the age of the ice and the age of the trapped gas. If summer high temperatures have more impact on compaction than mean annual temperatures, the gas-age/ice-age offset might be incorrectly calculated. Greater understanding of firn densification physics will help the interpretation of these records.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative between 0352584 (Waddington, UW) and 0352511 (McConnell, DRI) will study firn densification at several locations in Greenland using optical logging techniques the investigators developed. In 2004, this project will work closely with that of Lamorey/Waddington 0082469/0083132, combining resources and field team members. A team of two will spend 3 weeks at Summit during the setting up the winter-over experiment, collecting preliminary data, and training science technicians. The team will also conduct comparison studies at Raven for one week. At the end of the summer, a field team member will return to Raven for repeat measurements (1 week). Winter-over measurements will be carried out by science technicians already stationed at Summit as part of the winter-over science program. In 2005 and 2006, Robert Hawley will return to Summit for approximately one week in May to maintain and repair the experimental equipment, collect data, and train any new science technicians. In 2005 two British Antarctic Survey (BAS) participants will join Hawley at Summit to run high frequency Ground Penetrating Radar to obtain a detailed look at the spatial variability in firn layering. Hawley will also conduct comparison studies at Raven for one week in May of each year. At the end of the summer, he will return to Raven for a day visit to repeat the measurements. At the end of the summer 2006, he will return to Raven and Summit for a day to repeat the measurements. Accompanying him in August will be 4 staff from the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) who are working on a documentary on Greenland, climate change, sea level, etc. They plan to feature the borehole optical stratigraphy research in their documentary, which is expected to be a main feature in the Hall of Planet Earth (estimated to be viewed by 10 million visitors per year). In addition to trips to Summit Station and Camp Raven, the field team will also visit Russell Glacier via truck after they return to Kangerlussuaq. In August 2007, Hawley will return to Summit and Raven (under a no-cost extension) to lay the ground work for an additional year of logging. First, he will visit Raven to make borehole measurements there. While at Raven he also will assist Steve Warren (University of Washington, 0612636) in collecting snow samples. At Summit, Hawley will maintain project property, including the weather station, train new wintering staff, and make "logs of opportunity" in recently drilled boreholes near camp. In addition, he will inspect the main GISP 2 borehole casing to establish what (if any) repairs need to be made. In 2008, Hawley will travel to Summit (but not Raven Camp) to retrieve and retrograde project equipment. In addition to closing out his winter-over experiment, he will undertake (as time and resources allow) 3 opportunistic experiments/activities: 1) Extend GRIP casing, if Danish scientist Dorthe Dahl-Jensen determines it is needed, and provides casing to do the job. Time to complete: one day total. 2) Make P-res measurements: this effort is collaborative with the BAS/Hindmarsh (NERCRadar) project, if time permits; the team will collect phase-sensitive radar sounding profiles at the borehole site to attempt to use the radar to measure vertical strain (in comparison to this project’s video measurements). 3) Make density-log of SUFA06: this effort is collaborative with the SPRI/Morris project. This work at the “Sandy/Zoe” site entails 40 hours of logging. Hawley plans an intensive logging effort, and expects to remain overnight at the site and complete the work in 3 to 4 days. CPS will provide infrastructure support in Kangerlussuaq, as well as access to infrastructure and services at Summit, including cold weather clothing, sleep kits and tents, use of snowmachines and communications gear.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 25 / 2004 07 / 31 / 20041
2004Greenland - Raven05 / 16 / 2004 05 / 29 / 20044
2004Greenland - Summit05 / 29 / 2004 06 / 05 / 20042
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 16 / 2005 08 / 12 / 20053
2005Greenland - Raven05 / 18 / 2005 08 / 10 / 20051
2005Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2005 05 / 24 / 20053
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 21 / 2006 08 / 23 / 20065
2006Greenland - Raven05 / 22 / 2006 08 / 16 / 20065
2006Greenland - Summit05 / 24 / 2006 08 / 18 / 20065
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 05 / 2007 08 / 23 / 20071
2007Greenland - Raven08 / 07 / 2007 08 / 08 / 20071
2007Greenland - Summit08 / 09 / 2007 08 / 21 / 20071
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 21 / 2008 08 / 01 / 20081
2008Greenland - Summit07 / 22 / 2008 07 / 31 / 20081
 


Generated from:
 
Parameters used to generate this report:Region = "Greenland", Location = "Summit", Season = "2004", IPY = "ALL" 
     Number of projects returned based on your query parameters = 28
 
ARLSS_ProjectsDetail