Arctic Field Projects



Project Title: Photochemical formation of oxidants and destruction of organic compounds in the snowpack at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0455055)

PI: Anastasio, Cort (canastasio@ucdavis.edu)
Phone:  (530) 754.6095 
Institute/Department: U of California, Davis, Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Background: Recent research has shown that photochemical reactions in polar snowpacks can significantly affect the chemistry and composition of the snowpack and the overlying atmosphere. One of the most intriguing components within this new area of snowpack photochemistry is the topic of reactions of organic compounds. Organic molecules are important because of their toxic effects in polar regions, their potential importance as source markers in snowpacks and ice cores, and their contribution to the photochemical release of volatile organic compounds to the atmosphere. Despite this importance, little is known about the reactions of specific organic compounds on snow or ice. There have been a few studies of the direct photolysis of organic compounds on ice, but almost nothing is known of their indirect reactions, i.e., with photoformed oxidants such as hydroxyl radical. This is a major gap in our knowledge since these oxidants probably dominate the destruction of most organics in snow. Overall, our lack of knowledge in this area makes it very difficult to predict the reactions or lifetimes of snowphase organics and how these reactions affect the polar issues described above. Objectives: Our overarching goal is to use a combination of field and laboratory work to determine the rates and mechanisms for the formation of reactive oxidants, and decay of organic compounds, on snow at Summit, Greenland. We also seek to determine how important environmental variables such as temperature and pH affect this chemistry. Our final goal is estimate the lifetimes of a wide range of organic compounds in snowpacks at a variety of Arctic and Antarctic locations. Methods: We will travel to Summit in the summer of 2005 to measure snowpack concentrations of oxidants using "wet/frozen" chemistry techniques that we have developed over the past two field seasons. During this trip we will also measure the lifetimes and decay of a suite of model organic compounds on Summit snow. Comparing these measured lifetimes with values calculated based on our oxidant measurements will indicate whether there are additional, "missing" mechanisms for the destruction of the organics. After the field season we will perform a series of photochemistry experiments on manipulated Summit samples in the laboratory to more clearly understand the mechanisms for oxidant formation and organic compound destruction. Our final component will be to combine our field and laboratory data to estimate the lifetimes of a wide range of organic compounds in snow at a variety of locations. Broader Impacts: The proposed research would lead to the training of two undergraduate students, one doctoral student, and one postgraduate fellow, and to the dissemination of our research results through scientific journals. In addition, through this proposed work I would continue my collaboration with a local middle school teacher and her 9th grade science classes. Together, the teacher and I will develop a 3-5 day unit on "Global climate change and the Arctic" that will include a discussion of my group's experiences and research at Summit. For each class one of the students that traveled to Summit will assist in the preparation and delivery of the material. In addition to this middle school work, I will also integrate results from this research project, especially the field component, into an undergraduate class on air quality in order to expose these students to some of the important issues facing polar regions.

Logistics Summary:
In this study of photochemical reactions of organic compounds in snowpack, a team of three will travel to Summit, Greenland in the summer of 2005. On station, they will measure snowpack concentrations of oxidants and measure the lifetimes and decay of a suite of model organic compounds on Summit snow. Field experiments will be followed up with further analysis of the samples at the researcher's home institute. In 2007, researchers with the Dibb collaborative (0612075) will collect and ship samples to Cort Anastasio for further analysis; thus no additional field team excursion will be required. VPR support will consist of ANG travel/cargo coordination and provision of access to the Summit infrastructure.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 16 / 2005 08 / 14 / 20053
2005Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2005 08 / 11 / 20053
 


Project Title: Core Measurements at Summit, Greenland Environmental Observatory (Award# 0336450)

PI: Bales, Roger (rbales@ucmerced.edu)
Phone:  (209) 724.4348 
Institute/Department: U of California, Merced, School of Engineering 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Martin Jeffries (martin.jeffries@navy.mil)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Geological Sciences | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://cdp.ucar.edu/
Data: http://www.aoncadis.org/projects/core_atmospheric_...
Institute: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
This project involves long-term core measurements of the Arctic atmosphere, snow and other Earth system components at the Summit Greenland Environmental Observatory (GEOSummit). GEOSummit was the site of the GISP2 ice core, completed in 1993, and has been a site of atmospheric, snow and other geophysical measurements ever since. It is currently the only high-altitude site for atmospheric and related measurements in the Arctic. As global atmospheric temperatures rise, the Arctic environment is expected to undergo more rapid change in response to human influences than are other parts of the Earth system, in part due to feedbacks related to decreasing snowcover and sea-ice extent. Observed changes in Arctic temperature, atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric circulation are expected to have potentially broad but uncertain effects on Arctic systems. A number of processes that could amplify atmospheric change need consistent measurements and systematic study. For example, recent evidence indicates that important atmospheric chemical constituents undergo temperature-dependent exchange with ice/snow, and that some species are photochemically transformed and/or produced within the sunlit surface snowpack. Because changes in Arctic atmospheric circulation are cyclic over 4-5 year or longer times, long-duration measurements are needed to understand circulation and to place observed changes in a long-term perspective. The project involves continuing and expanding the core suite of baseline measurements at GEOSummit for a five-year period, beginning in spring 2003. It also provides for the continued operation of GEOSummit as long-term site for year-round disciplinary and interdisciplinary measurements and research. Baseline measurements include meteorology, radiation, tropospheric chemistry, snow properties and snow chemistry. Some measurements will be made in cooperation with NOAA-CMDL, e.g. carbon cycle, chlorofluorocarbons, radiation, and ozone. GEOSummit staff will also carry out measurements initiated by individual investigators. The atmospheric gas-phase and aerosol species being studied are all either sensitive indicators of anthropogenic impacts on regional and global atmospheric change, or are important chemically coupled species whose concentrations may be strongly influenced by changes in the Arctic, including changes in snow/ice surface temperatures, ice/snow cover, and atmospheric circulation. Related chemical measurements in the snow provide the needed link to investigate feedbacks between Arctic climate change, air-snow exchange, and atmospheric composition. Understanding this change requires a quantitative understanding of the environmental controls (e.g., temperature, radiation, humidity, ozone concentration) on air-snow feedbacks, and the impact of these processes on the entire Arctic atmosphere. Broader impacts. The measurements at GEOSummit have wide applicability for detecting, understanding and modeling Arctic change, and are responsive to a number of community initiatives, including the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmospheric Watch, SEARCH (A Study of Environmental Arctic Change) and other proposed initiatives. As such, this project provides the platform and baseline measurements for a wide number of scientists and individual research projects. There are at least three main broader impacts of the project. First and foremost, by definition an environmental observatory enhances infrastructure for research and education. Second GEOSummit serves as a vehicle to broadly disseminate scientific understanding of the Arctic system by making data and information widely available, both real time data and scientific understanding that is developed using those data. Third, education of the global community is an objective of the long-term measurements, using www-available data and educational materials. GEOSummit was chosen as the site for long-term measurements because it is in the remote free troposphere, and the chemical compositional changes observed in the long term reflect wide-scale change, uncomplicated by local biochemical processes, or by local changes in land use or emission patterns. The international science community has chosen Summit for multidisciplinary, multi-investigator studies, infrastructure is in place, and a number of Arctic researchers are collaborating there. The current project builds on the intermittent (but inadequate in terms of development of reliable models) atmospheric and surface-snow measurements that have been conducted over the past decade.

Logistics Summary:
This project. Long Term Observations (LTO), will conduct a suite of year-round core measurements from 2003 through 2008. In addition to core measurements, staff will also carry out measurements initiated by up to 15-20 individual investigators, including a significant sampling campaign by NOAA (see NOAASummit). Investigators from the project will travel to Summit annually to set-up, monitor, and repair experiments as well as to conduct on-site training of the science technicians. In June 2004, two field team members assisted the Summit crew with laying out and marking the boundaries for the undisturbed, no traffic, and clean air sectors with green-flagged bamboo. In summer 2005, two team members from University of California, Merced, travelled to Summit for a single flight period. While on-site, the team conducted experiment maintenance, trained technicians, and worked with UNAVCO representatives to gather data for a topographic map of Summit. Additionally, they travelled to Nuuk to deliver a GEOSummit presentation to the Greenland Technical Society. For 2006 and onward, science technicians will continue experiments to gather baseline measurements at Summit. The PIs will combine any required site visits for this grant with fieldwork planned under other funded campaigns. In 2007, Ryan Banta will take over as the POC for the LTO grant. He and Roger Bales, along with Mark Twickler (Science Coordination Office, SCO, 0455623), will visit Summit for familiarization. In 2008, the team will not visit Summit but technicians and camp staff will continue regular maintenance to the projects. Beginning in summer 2009, measurements for this grant will be continued under 0856845 (McConnell, DRI). CPS is responsible for hiring science technicians to support the sampling and for providing the Summit infrastructure to support the work. This project combines fieldwork in support of the Summit Science Coordination Office (SCO) grant, 0455623.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 28 / 2003 08 / 02 / 20031
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 29 / 2003 08 / 01 / 20031
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 13 / 2004 07 / 15 / 20041
2004Greenland - Summit06 / 14 / 2004 06 / 17 / 20041
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 08 / 2005 08 / 13 / 20052
2005Greenland - Nuuk08 / 04 / 2005 08 / 08 / 20052
2005Greenland - Summit08 / 09 / 2005 08 / 10 / 20052
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 18 / 2007 06 / 22 / 20072
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 19 / 2007 06 / 21 / 20072
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 22 / 2008 07 / 24 / 20081
2008Greenland - Summit07 / 22 / 2008 07 / 24 / 20081
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Science Coordination Office for Summit Station, Greenland (Award# 0455623)

PI: Bales, Roger (rbales@ucmerced.edu)
Phone:  (209) 724.4348 
Institute/Department: U of California, Merced, School of Engineering 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL
Program Manager: Ms. Renee Crain (rcrain@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach | Legacy Projects |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This activity will continue support for an office that assists the community of scientist that uses an international research site on the summit of the Greenland ice sheet. Over 20 groups from the U.S. and Europe are using the site and others have projects pending. One key to success of this shared facility is to closely coordinate measurements, share facility resources and exchange data of common interest between investigators to make most efficient use of the facility and resources. Since this coordination goes well beyond what individual investigators can efficiently do through one-to-one interactions, NSF has supported a Science Coordination Office (SCO) since 1999 to work with scientists, the logistic contractor and others to plan both near and long term activities that require strong involvement from the science community. This proposal provides for continuation of the SCO, which has three main objectives: Plan and coordinating measurements including sharing of facilities and personnel, data and requests to funding agencies for upgrades and maintenance to facilitate science;working with the logistics contractor and NSF to plan, develop and operate the station to serve a growing international and multidisciplinary community while maintaining scientific integrity of the site during the transition; and carrying out strategic planning, working with international and national agencies who are involved with supporting activities at Summit, facilitating communication between investigators and reporting to funding agencies.

Logistics Summary:
The Summit Science Coordination Office (SCO) was established to coordinate measurements between investigators and the sharing of facilities and personnel on-site; to provide scientific requirements to NSF, its support contractor and European partners as the facility is developed; and to stimulate sharing of data among science projects. In support of these goals, SCO members will conduct regular trips to Summit, often combined with already-planned fieldwork in support of other grants. CPS will work closely with the SCO to develop and implement plans for Summit that meet the evolving needs of the science community. In 2007, 2008 and 2009 one member of this SCO grant will travel to Summit, Greenland. In 2010 SCO members will visit Summit as part of other planned deployments. CPS will work closely with the SCO in developing and implementing plans for Summit that meet the evolving needs of the science community.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2005Greenland - Summit0
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 18 / 2007 06 / 22 / 20071
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 19 / 2007 06 / 21 / 20071
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 21 / 2008 08 / 24 / 20082
2008Greenland - Summit07 / 22 / 2008 08 / 21 / 20082
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 17 / 2009 08 / 24 / 20091
2009Greenland - Summit08 / 18 / 2009 08 / 21 / 20091
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2010Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Ice Coring and Drilling Services (Award# ICDS)

PI: Bentley, Charles R (bentley@geology.wisc.edu)
Phone:  
Institute/Department: U of Wisconsin, Madison, Geophysical & Polar Research Center 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL
Program Manager: Dr. Julie Palais (jpalais@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://icedrill.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
The University of Wisconsin will support projects funded by NSF's Office of Polar Programs (OPP) by taking ice-cores from, or drilling into, glaciers and ice-sheets. This involves maintaining the NSF's current inventory of drill systems and making them available to science projects, or operating them for projects. The projects are expected to be diverse, and to vary from year to year. They will occur at both poles, and at more temperate and high altitude sites. University of Wisconsin will work with the science community to define requirements and scope solutions before formal proposals are submitted to OPP. Additional engineering development to occur during the first year of the contract will include the development of a drill to rapidly make shot-holes in polar firn, and another system to prepare a 300 meter bore-hole in the ice sheet at the South Pole for a broad-band seismometer array. A longer term activity will be to evaluate the current 5.2" deep drill system to recommend improvement, and make a development plan to implement the improvements.

Logistics Summary:
This group deploys with various projects around the Greenland ice sheet to provide drilling support services. Specific seasonal logistics information will be carried under the PI's project for whom the drilling services are provided.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2004Greenland - Summit0
2005Greenland - Summit0
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Particulate Organic Carbon in the Air and Snow at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0425471)

PI: Bergin, Michael H (mhb34@duke.edu)
Phone:  (919) 660.5401  
Institute/Department: Duke University, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Atmospheric aerosols are of concern due to their ability to influence climate by altering the radiation balance of the Earth and due to the fact that they are harmful to human health. Recent work has shown that fine particulate matter (defined as the particles having diameters less than 2.5 µm) contains a significant amount of both organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), which can account for a considerable fraction of the fine particulate mass (Gray et al., 1986; Sloane et al., 1991; McInnes et al., 1998; Bergin et al., 2001a). The organic carbon fraction of atmospheric aerosols is composed of a wide variety of compounds from both anthropogenic and natural sources including fossil fuel combustion (i.e. coal burning, diesel exhaust, and gasoline exhaust), biomass burning, cooking, and plant matter (Schauer et al., 1996). At this time there is little known about the historical concentrations, sources and emissions of carbonaceous aerosols. Ice core concentrations of OC and specific organic compounds have the potential to yield information on the past influence of carbonaceous aerosols on climate as well as the sources of these aerosols. Before ice core concentrations of carbonaceous compounds related to particulate matter deposition can be evaluated, it is important to determine the link between the concentrations in air and snow. In addition, the extent to which carbonaceous aerosol is modified after deposition to snow needs to be determined before specific compounds can be used to infer past atmospheric concentrations. Preliminary results of water insoluble particulate organic carbon (IPOC) in a snow pit from Summit, Greenland show a decrease of ~ 50% in IPOC concentrations in the top 50 cm, hinting that early post depositional processes may be very important. These results are consistent with recent suggestions that organic carbon in surface snow may play an important role in snow photochemistry (Domine and Shepson, 2002). In order to address these issues, we propose to conduct a field study at Summit, Greenland during the summer of 2006. We will measure the concentrations of particulate organic carbon, elemental carbon, and specific organic compounds that serve as source tracers in the air, surface snow, and snow pits. We will use both well established filter techniques as well as new, fast, in-situ techniques we have developed and are continuing to refine to measure the concentrations of particulate organic and elemental carbon in the atmosphere and snow at Summit. To assess the influence of post depositional processes, in particular photochemistry, taking place in surface snow, we will measure the concentrations of water-soluble gas-phase organic compounds (WSGOC) in the atmospheric and firn air with the expectation that the degradation of IPOC in surface snow leads to the formation of WSGOC. We will also deposit carbon-13- and deuterium-labeled particulate organic compounds to surface snow, and measure the change in concentration of these compounds over the duration of the field season. In addition, we will conduct specific experiments where surface snow is shaded from solar radiation in order to determine the relative influence of photochemistry on the degradation of particulate organic compounds deposited to surface snow. Overall, the proposed research will yield insights into the processes that influence the concentrations of particulate carbon in the air and snow at Summit, Greenland. These results will serve as the groundwork for future modeling, laboratory and field studies that will focus on the deposition, and transformation of particulate organic compounds in snow.

Logistics Summary:
With this collaborative project--0425471 (Bergin, GATech Lead), 0425399 (Schauer, U of WI, Madison) and 0425406 (Dibb, UNH)--researchers aim to achieve a better understanding of the link between concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the air and the snow and of how carbonaceous aerosols are modified once they are deposited in the snow. This study of interactions and deposition processes will allow for a better historical analysis of ice cores for clues to the role of carbonaceous aerosols in past climate change. A team of three will travel to Summit, Greenland in July, 2005 to conduct preliminary air and snow measurements. Then, a team of six will return for a full season during the summer of 2006. At a study site south of the station near the science tower or the sat camp, researchers will conduct a suite of measurements of the air, the snow surface and in snow pits. VPR will support the team via ANG arrangements, user days in Greenland, and access to the Summit infrastructure. Logistics details are combined under the lead PI, Bergin.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 11 / 2005 07 / 30 / 20053
2005Greenland - Summit07 / 12 / 2005 07 / 27 / 20053
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 21 / 2006 07 / 31 / 20069
2006Greenland - Summit05 / 22 / 2006 07 / 25 / 20069
 


Project Title: NSF Office of Polar Programs UV Spectral Irradiance Monitoring Network (UVSIMN) (Award# UVSIMN)

PI: Booth, Charles R (booth@biospherical.com )
Phone:  (619) 686.1888 
Institute/Department: Biospherical Instruments, Inc.,  
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ANT\ABM
Program Manager: Dr. Roberta Marinelli ( rmarinel@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate\Radiation |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://cdp.ucar.edu/
Institute: http://www.biospherical.com/NSF/default.asp

Science Summary:
The National Science Foundation (NSF) Ultraviolet (UV) Spectroradiometer Network was established in 1987 by the Division of Polar Programs in response to serious ozone depletion reported in Antarctica. Biospherical Instruments installed the first instruments in 1988 and has operated the network continuously since. The network was the first automated, high-resolution UV scanning spectroradiometer network in the world. It continues to successfully operate in the harshest environments on Earth (Antarctica and the Arctic), and is currently providing data to researchers studying the effects of ozone depletion on terrestrial and marine biological systems. Network data is also used to ground-truth satellite observations, develop and verify models of atmospheric light transmission, and evaluate ozone depletion impacts. The network currently consists of six SUV-100 scanning spectroradiometers installed at three sites in Antarctica (McMurdo Station, Palmer Station, and South Pole Station), one site in Argentina (Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego), and two sites in the United States (Barrow, AK, and San Diego. CA). The San Diego site is a multi-purpose system facility, and used for training site operators, testing new configurations, and collecting data. In July/August 2004, a Biospherical Instruments Inc. SUV-150B scanning spectroradiometer system will be installed, and begin monitoring at Summit, Greenland. This system is to be installed in the “Green House” facility. Dependent on the time of the year, solar scans are conducted quarter-hourly when the sun is above the horizon. A complementary GUV filter-detector spectroradiometer is part of the system, which provides one minute averaged global irradiance values at several UV wavelengths. Ancillary data (Eppley PSP, Total Scene Irradiance (TSI) sensor, various system temperatures, and monochromator position) are collected over 24 hours at intervals ranging from 1 to 60 minutes. Data are collected on a reduced schedule at night. At sites inside the Arctic or Antarctic circles, instrument operation is on a reduced scan schedule during the winter darkness. Dependent on internet bandwidth and connection reliability, our objectives for data availability are: - Real-time data updates (hourly - limited due to bandwidth) from the GUV filter-detector radiometers. This data will have one-minute resolution (an average of 60-120 samples per channel, per minute), of 30+ data products, available as it is for our other sites, e.g.: www.biospherical.com/nsf/login/GuvSAN.asp (except Ushuaia, where a fixed-IP full time internet connection is cost prohibitive). - We provide weekly updates of "preliminary" data from the SUV scanning spectroradiometers, as available at: www.biospherical.com/nsf/login/update.asp . - Post-processed, final QA/QC'd data products, including full spectra, are made available on a schedule to be determined – typically annual. These data are characteristically the same as what can be obtained at www.biospherical.com/nsf/login/login.asp . - We also provide grantees with additional data products; weighted integrals, preliminary spectra, etc. from the SUVs, with greater frequency of availability, in support of specific scientific protocols. A request in the SIP and to nsfdata@biospherical.com by the grantee(s), is the method to begin the process for obtaining this additional support.

Logistics Summary:
Biospherical Instruments Inc. (BSI) operates the NSF OPP’s Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitoring Network (UVSIMN). One of the UVSIMN's systems is located at Summit, Greenland. In 2004 two BSI engineers visited Summit Station to install a scanning spectroradiometer that made Summit Camp a part of the NSF Polar Programs UV Spectroradiometer Network (as it was then called). In 2005, BSI engineers returned to characterize/calibrate, partially dismantle, reinstall, re-characterize/re-calibrate the instrument as a result of the raising of the Greenhouse (where the sytem is housed) to the surface of the snow. CPS (formerly known as VPR) assisted BSI with transportation to/from Summit (via Scotia, NY), and the parital dismantling and re-installation of the insturment, as well as with science technician support for year-round operation (approximately 5 hours/week). Thereafter, BSI engineers will perform as-needed visits to Summit for calibration, service, and upgrades. In those years that site visits are not necessary, CPS science technicians will continue to operate the UV spectroradiometer on BSI's behalf. In 2006, due to planned Summit Camp population constraints, BSI personnel planned to visit Summit for calibration, service, and/or upgrades only if needed. CPS continued to provide science technician support for year-round operation (approximately 5 hours/week). As it turned out, BSI did not need to make a site visit to the station. In July 2007, one technical staff member from BSI will visit Summit to perform system characterizations, and any necessary system engineering updates and/or service. While the BSI staff is on station, up to 16 hours of additional science technical support will be provided. CPS will assist BSI with transportation to/from Summit (via Scotia, NY); in the performance of the site visit’s objectives at Summit Camp; and provide the UVSIMN with science technician support for year-round operation (approximately 5 hours/week). In 2007 and 2008, BSI engineers will visit Barrow, AK, to perform annual site visits to the BSI's UV intrument at NARL. The objectives of these visits are to perform system calibrations, service, and engineering upgrades to the system. BASC assists BSI with a co-location laboratory (at UIC-NARL) and infrastructure matters – principally in the areas of IT support, communications, and cargo logistics. No trip is planned to Summit for 2008.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2004Alaska - Barrow1
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 25 / 2004 08 / 19 / 20042
2004Greenland - Summit07 / 26 / 2004 08 / 18 / 20042
2005Alaska - Barrow06 / 01 / 2005 06 / 30 / 20051
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 16 / 2005 08 / 13 / 20053
2005Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2005 08 / 11 / 20052
2006Alaska - Barrow06 / 01 / 2006 06 / 30 / 20061
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Alaska - Barrow06 / 01 / 2007 06 / 30 / 20071
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 09 / 2007 07 / 13 / 20071
2007Greenland - Summit07 / 10 / 2007 07 / 12 / 20071
2008Alaska - Barrow1
 


Project Title: NOAA Summit Clean Air and Ozonosonde Program (Award# NOAASummit)

PI: Butler, James H (James.H.Butler@noaa.gov)
Phone:  (303) 497.6898 
Institute/Department: National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, Global Monitoring Division 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\DOC\NOAA
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aero/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/hats/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ozwv/
Media: http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2005/s2393.htm

Science Summary:
Researchers at NOAA’s Earth System Research Lab (ESRL) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) conduct continuous measurements of atmospheric composition at Summit Station to better understand changes occurring in the Arctic and Earth system. Continuous measurements include: 1. Halocarbon and other Atmospheric Trace Gases (HATS) Flasks: weekly to biweekly air sampling collection to measure trace gases that are important components of global halocarbon chemistry. These measurements have been ongoing since 2004. 2. Carbon Cycle Greenhouse Gas (CCGG) Flasks: weekly air sampling experiment to analyze levels of trace gases that are part of the global carbon cycle. These measurements were taken during winter of 1997-1998, 2000-2001, 2001-2002, and have been on-going since the 2003-2004 winter period. 3. In-situ Aerosol Sampling Suite: continual measurements of aerosol optical properties to determine aerosol radiative effects. These measurements were initiated in 2003 with an updated suite of instruments in 2009. 4. Surface ozone measurements: continual tropospheric air sampling efforts for ozone levels. These measurements were taken from 2000 to 2002, and from 2003 on. 5. Balloon-borne ozonesondes: measurements of year-round ozone atmospheric profiles. These measurements were first conducted during the late-winter of 2005. 6. In-situ Monitoring with the Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species (CATS): a three-channel gas chromatograph performs hourly measurements of ozone depleting gases identified in the Montreal Protocol and amendments including nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, CFC-12, CFC-11, CFC-113, chloroform, methyl chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride. These measurements began in 2007. 7. Surface Meteorology: continuous measurements of surface meteorological properties to support both science and flight operations. These measurements have been continuous since summer 2005. 8. Surface Solar Radiation: continuous measurements of broadband solar and thermal radiation. These measurements began in 2013 with additional instruments added in 2016.

Logistics Summary:
For this NOAA program, on-site science technicians maintain a suite of year-round measurements on behalf of NOAA researchers. These measurements began in the mid 1990s and are ongoing (part of GEOSummit since 2003). NOAA representatives visit Summit Station annually to install / maintain instruments, train science technicians, and conduct measurements. Starting in 2005, NOAA began staffing science technician rotations as Summit Station during the winter phases. Beginning in 2008 NOAA increased staffing to be year-round. Monitoring projects on site include: carbon cycle gas sampling flasks, black carbon measurement, halocarbons and trace species flask sampling, meteorology suite, stratospheric ozonesondes, aerosol measurements, surface ozone measurements, and an in-situ gas chromatograph for greenhouse gas measurements. NOAA will continue to collaborate with Georgia Tech on activities related to the aerosol instrument suite that was previously installed and maintained by the Bergin project (NSF grant #1023227). NOAA program highlights at Summit Station over the last few years include: - During summer 2007 a four channel gas chromatograph was added to the suite of NOAA instruments. - During summer 2008, in addition to ongoing work, researchers extended the ozonesonde experiment by launching about 20 additional balloons in April and again in July for an intensive field campaign. - In February 2009, a NOAA staff member flew to Summit Station via the Twin Otter on a crew turnover flight to repair an instrument, departing the station on the return flight approximately one week later. - During August 2009, the NOAA field coordinator attended an on-site planning meeting. - In 2010, in addition to ongoing measurements, CPS staff relocated the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory (TAWO) and instrument tower (where the NOAA instruments are mounted) to approximately 1 km south of Summit Station. - During 2011 and 2012 the NOAA field coordinator made a routine visit to Summit Station for instrument maintenance. - During 2013 the TAWO building was lifted and the TAWO tower was extended. The on-site science technicians coordinated with the Boulder-based NOAA team to support the instrumentation during the transition. - Also during 2013, the NOAA ESRL GMD deputy director traveled to Summit Station in late June for a site visit. During 2014, one NOAA researcher will travel to Summit in June for maintenance and upgrade activities. NOAA will continue to hire and deploy science technicians for all the three staffing phases. During 2015, three researchers will travel to Summit in June, July, and August for maintenance and upgrade activities. These include upgrading the meteorological sensor suite, assisting with the science impacts from the TAWO facility raise project, and performing a quality control visit to evaluate the setup of the aerosol measuring suite of instrumentation. In 2016, NOAA researchers will travel to Summit to relocate the meteorological suite of instruments from the TAWO tower to the 50m tower, install broadband solar radiometers to inter-compare with existing solar measurements from Summit station, reinstall instrument inlets on the TAWO inlet mast, and potentially reconfigure the TAWO interior layout of instruments to optimize the available footprint. Additionally, NOAA is planning to modify the CATS GC to eliminate methane containing P5 carrier gas to directly address concerns about elevated methane levels within the facility. Two researchers will return in 2017 to demobilize the instruments.

CPS will coordinate personnel and cargo transport to and from Summit; and provide access to Summit Station infrastructure, Summit user days, Kangerlussuaq user days, purchase of ozone sondes, construction support, and science technician support with tasking shared between the NOAA and CPS year-round technicians. The PI will arrange and pay for all other logistics through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
1997Greenland - Summit0
1998Greenland - Summit0
2000Greenland - Summit0
2001Greenland - Summit0
2002Greenland - Summit0
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 28 / 2003 08 / 16 / 20032
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 29 / 2003 08 / 14 / 20032
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 13 / 2004 06 / 26 / 20041
2004Greenland - Summit06 / 14 / 2004 06 / 24 / 20041
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 09 / 2005 12 / 31 / 20054
2005Greenland - Summit02 / 11 / 2005 12 / 31 / 20054
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2006 12 / 31 / 20063
2006Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2006 12 / 31 / 20063
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2007 07 / 27 / 20073
2007Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2007 07 / 26 / 20073
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 04 / 2008 11 / 13 / 20086
2008Greenland - Summit02 / 15 / 2008 11 / 13 / 20086
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 05 / 2009 10 / 30 / 20094
2009Greenland - Summit02 / 09 / 2009 08 / 21 / 20093
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 02 / 2010 12 / 31 / 20108
2010Greenland - Summit02 / 02 / 2010 12 / 31 / 20108
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2011 11 / 08 / 20116
2011Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2011 12 / 31 / 20116
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2012 08 / 22 / 20125
2012Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2012 12 / 31 / 20126
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 21 / 2013 08 / 21 / 20135
2013Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2013 12 / 31 / 20137
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 02 / 2014 06 / 30 / 20143
2014Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2014 12 / 31 / 20144
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 29 / 2015 08 / 22 / 20154
2015Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2015 10 / 16 / 20155
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 23 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20163
2016Greenland - Summit06 / 25 / 2016 08 / 17 / 20163
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 19 / 2017 08 / 01 / 20172
2017Greenland - Summit07 / 21 / 2017 07 / 30 / 20172
 


Project Title: Operation of a magnetometer array on the Greenland Ice Cap (MAGIC) and interhemispherical investigation of multi-scale currents systems (Award# 0220735)

PI: Clauer, Robert C (rclauer@vt.edu)
Phone:  (734) 763.6248 
Institute/Department: U of Michigan, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic & Space Science 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Jane Dionne (jdionne@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Space Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://mist.nianet.org/magic.html
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This proposal is directed toward the continuation of the operation of the Magnetometer Array on the Greenland Ice Cap (MAGIC) and the continued analysis of the data from these stations together with data from other ground based and satellite instruments. The overarching objective of our proposed continuing effort is to explore a new approach to investigate the multi-scale solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere electrodynamic system through high temporal and spatial resolution, magnetically conjugate arrays of digital magnetometers deployed in Greenland and Eastern Antarctica. Major new elements of the proposed investigation include: (1) the upgrade of existing Greenland magnetometers to 1-second samples, (2) simultaneous visualization of interhemispheric ground geomagnetic ?eld variations with the goal to investigate multi-scale magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, and (3) the detailed study of the transition in magnetospheric electrodynamic morphology from weakly southward IMF to weakly northward IMF conditions and vice versa. This project is a cooperative effort between the University of Michigan and the Danish Meteorological Institute. The project is a continuation of a collaboration which began with the installation of the original magnetometer stations on the Greenland ice cap in 1991. The autonomous magnetometer systems in central Greenland provided valuable intermediate variometer measurements of magnetic perturbations between the Greenland west and east coast stations. One station is located at the central Greenland summit site to provide continuity between the west and east coast stations, and one station was placed at the Air National Guard LC130 Raven skiway to provide a dense two-dimensional array for detailed current calculations. The MAGIC data in combination with data from the Greenland coastal stations and Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar have been crucial in resolving the spatial and evolutionary characteristics of various dynamic ionospheric current systems, including traveling convection vortices, poleward propagating DPY currents, and the transition of large scale convection systems from one state to another. Using data from the Greenland stations in combination with Canadian, Scandinavian, and Antarctic magnetic data, and coordinated with other ancillary ground based and satellite data, we propose a program of research to investigate high latitude magnetic pulsations and interhemispheric auroral oval and polar cap relationships. Our focus is on understanding the various electrodynamic current systems which couple energy and momentum from the solar wind to the magnetosphere and ionosphere.

Logistics Summary:
This project has operated a magnetometer array on the Greenland ice cap since 1991. This grant covers upgrade and maintenance of the array from 2003-2005. During those years, four to six field team members visit the magnetometer sites at Summit and Raven for several flight periods each year. During their stay at the sites, field team members dig up the magnetometers, collect data, and bury them again. Occasionally they return later in the season to conduct repairs. In 2003 the project will also undertake an upgrade of the magnetometers that will allow for higher resolution data acquisition. The plan for 2006 is to remove the magnetometers from both Summit Station and Camp Raven. VPR will coordinate Air National Guard flights, pay for user days in Kangerlussuaq, and support the team while at Summit and Raven.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 12 / 2003 08 / 02 / 20037
2003Greenland - Raven05 / 16 / 2003 08 / 17 / 20036
2003Greenland - Summit05 / 13 / 2003 07 / 30 / 20036
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 02 / 2004 06 / 19 / 20044
2004Greenland - Raven05 / 03 / 2004 05 / 06 / 20044
2004Greenland - Summit05 / 03 / 2004 06 / 17 / 20043
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 16 / 2005 08 / 13 / 20055
2005Greenland - Raven05 / 17 / 2005 08 / 11 / 20054
2005Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2005 05 / 24 / 20054
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 05 / 2006 06 / 17 / 20064
2006Greenland - Raven06 / 06 / 2006 06 / 10 / 20064
2006Greenland - Summit06 / 10 / 2006 06 / 15 / 20064
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Science Coordination Office for Summit Station, Greenland (Award# 0455299)

PI: Dibb, Jack E. (jack.dibb@unh.edu)
Phone:  (603) 862.3063 
Institute/Department: U of New Hampshire, Glacier Research Group 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL
Program Manager: Mr. Simon Stephenson (sstephen@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach | Legacy Projects |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This activity will continue support for an office that assists the community of scientist that uses an international research site on the summit of the Greenland ice sheet. Over 20 groups from the U.S. and Europe are using the site and others have projects pending. One key to success of this shared facility is to closely coordinate measurements, share facility resources and exchange data of common interest between investigators to make most efficient use of the facility and resources. Since this coordination goes well beyond what individual investigators can efficiently do through one-to-one interactions, NSF has supported a Science Coordination Office (SCO) since 1999 to work with scientists, the logistic contractor and others to plan both near and long term activities that require strong involvement from the science community. This proposal provides for continuation of the SCO, which has three main objectives: Plan and coordinating measurements including sharing of facilities and personnel, data and requests to funding agencies for upgrades and maintenance to facilitate science;working with the logistics contractor and NSF to plan, develop and operate the station to serve a growing international and multidisciplinary community while maintaining scientific integrity of the site during the transition; and carrying out strategic planning, working with international and national agencies who are involved with supporting activities at Summit, facilitating communication between investigators and reporting to funding agencies.

Logistics Summary:
The Summit Science Coordination Office (SCO) was established to coordinate measurements between investigators and the sharing of facilities and personnel on-site, to provide scientific requirements to NSF, it's support contractor and European partners as the facility is developed, and to stimulate sharing of data among science projects. In support of that goal, SCO members will conduct regular trips to Summit, often combined with already-planned fieldwork in support of other grants. VPR will work closely with the SCO in developing and implementing plans for Summit that meet the evolving needs of the science community.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2005Greenland - Summit0
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Mercury transfer processes between the lower atmosphere, snow, firn and ice of the last 150 000 years at Summit, Greenland (Award# FRMercury)

PI: Ferrari, Cristophe (ferrari@lgge.obs.ujf-grenoble.fr)
Phone: 33(476) 82.-4239 
Institute/Department: Universite Joseph Fourier, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement (LGGE) 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: FR\Research/Higher Ed\U. J. Fourier\LGGE
Program Manager: Mr. Simon Stephenson (sstephen@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://lgge.obs.ujf-grenoble.fr/?lang=fr

Science Summary:
This research hopes to increase knowledge of the reactivity of mercury in the snow cover of the continental polar zone. Analysis of atmospheric mercury is of great interest to climate change research as well as to improve understanding of the processes of contamination of Arctic ecosystems. To properly analyze atmospheric mercury, it is necessary to know the evolution of the concentrations between the atmosphere, snow, the firn and the ice. This transfer function of atmospheric mercury Hg° will be researched at Summit, Greenland (72°20 ' N; 38°45 ' W; 3270 m). Ground campaigns will sample snow and firn; a firn air sampling system will be adapted to avoid all contamination. Ice experiments will be completed on samples of the GRIP deep core.

Logistics Summary:
For this study of mercury transfer functions, researchers will travel to Summit Greenland for several weeks in July/August of 2005 and 2006. At Summit, researchers will collect snow samples and analyze them for snow air gaseous mercury. They will also collect frozen samples from 2 meter pits in the snow for further mercury studies at their home institute. VPR will support the project via ANG coordination and access to Summit Station infrastructure.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 11 / 2005 07 / 30 / 20051
2005Greenland - Summit07 / 12 / 2005 07 / 28 / 20051
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 22 / 2006 06 / 10 / 20061
2006Greenland - Summit05 / 23 / 2006 06 / 07 / 20061
 


Project Title: ITR/SI+AP: A Mobile Sensor Web for Polar Ice Sheet Measurements (Award# 0122520)

PI: Gogineni, Sivaprasad (gogineni@cresis.ku.edu)
Phone:  (785) 864-734  
Institute/Department: U of Kansas, CReSIS 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ANT\AG
Program Manager: Dr. Julie Palais (jpalais@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://ku-prism.org/
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Sea level has been rising over the last century. Although the immediate impact of sea level rise may be less severe than other effects of global climate change, the long-term consequences can be much more devastating since nearly 60% of the world population lives in coastal regions. Scientists have postulated that excess water is being released from polar ice sheets due to long-term, global climate change, but there are insufficient data to confirm these theories. Understanding the interactions between the ice sheets, oceans and atmosphere is essential to quantifying the role of ice sheets in sea level rise. Toward that end, this research project involves the innovative application of information technology in the development and deployment of intelligent radar sensors for measuring key glaciological parameters. Radar instrumentation will consist of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) that can operate in bistatic or monostatic mode. One important application of the SAR will be in the determination of basal conditions, particularly the presence and distribution of basal water. Basal water lubricates the ice/bed interface, enhancing flow, and increasing the amount of ice discharged into the ocean. Another application of the SAR will be to measure ice thickness and map internal layers in both shallow and deep ice. Information on near-surface internal layers will be used to estimate the average, recent accumulation rate, while the deeper layers provide a history of past accumulation and flow rates. A tracked vehicle and an automated snowmobile will be used to test and demonstrate the utility of intelligent radar in glaciological investigations. The system will be developed to collect, process and analyze data in real time and in conjunction with a priori information derived from archived sources. The combined real time and archived information will be used onboard the vehicles to select and generate an optimum sensor configuration. This project thus involves innovative research in intelligent systems, sounding radars and ice sheet modeling. In addition it has a very strong public outreach and education program, which include near-real-time image broadcasts via the world wide web.

Logistics Summary:
This project is developing vehicle-mounted synthetic aperture radar for use in measuring polar ice sheets. The team will test this method using tracked ATVs and a remote controlled snowmachine at the Danish North GRIP station for two weeks in July of 2003 and at Summit Station in 2004 and 2005. On-site, the team will be provided with accommodations and food for 12 people as well as access to the shop. VPR will coordinate Air National Guard travel, cargo, and medical clearance for the team. VPR will also provide limited field inventory support for the NGRIP field work, and will support the team via the infrastructure at Kangerlussuaq and Summit.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 24 / 2003 07 / 19 / 200312
2003Greenland - NGRIP06 / 25 / 2003 07 / 15 / 200312
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 11 / 2004 07 / 29 / 200412
2004Greenland - Summit07 / 13 / 2004 07 / 26 / 200412
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 11 / 2005 07 / 30 / 20057
2005Greenland - Summit07 / 12 / 2005 07 / 28 / 20057
 


Project Title: Surface-Atmosphere Ozone Fluxes at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0240976)

PI: Helmig, Detlev (detlev.helmig@colorado.edu)
Phone:  (303) 492.2509 
Institute/Department: U of Colorado, Boulder, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Jane Dionne (jdionne@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://instaar.colorado.edu/arl/
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Previous research in Polar Regions has demonstrated that chemical and physical interactions between the snowpack and the overlaying atmosphere have a substantial impact on the composition of the atmosphere. Deposition and scavenging of gases and aerosols result in the accumulation ofa chemical reservoir that subsequently, under conditions of increasing temperature and solar irradiance can turn into a photochemically active reactor. These reactions result in the formation of radicals, the release of chemicals into the atmospheric surface layer, and consequently influence concentrations and budgets of important tropospheric trace gases. Recent observations of photochemical depletion of ozone in firn air, diurnal ozone trends in the surface layer, tethered balloon vertical profile data and estimates of photochemical ozone production all imply that ozone deposition to the snowpack depends on parameters including the quantity and composition of deposited trace gases, solar irradiance and snow temperature. Consequently, ozone surface fluxes in Polar Regions are expected to have snow photochemical, diurnal and seasonal dependencies and to overall be more complex and possibly larger than considerations in global atmospheric models. Current literature does not reflect these conditions and ozone flux estimates to year-round snow are contradictory and are suspected to have large errors. The objective of this research is to study the diurnal and seasonal ozone deposition to the year-round snowpack and investigate dependencies of ozone deposition on environmental and snow photochemical conditions. This study will employ sensitive flux measurement approaches by eddy correlation, by the tower gradient method and by measurements of ozone in the interstitial air. Field measurements will be performed during three experiments at Summit, Greenland during a wide variety of environmental and seasonal conditions.

Logistics Summary:
This project will study seasonal ozone deposition at Summit, Greenland from 2003-2005. A field team of one to two researchers will travel to Summit, Greenland to conduct meteorological measurements and gas sampling at the 14 m tower adjacent to the science trench at Summit. In summer, 2003, the team will focus on setting up the experiment. Meteorological instruments will be mounted to the tower and analytical instruments will be placed in the science trench with sampling lines running to three different heights on the tower. For 2004, one team member will be on-site conducting sampling activties for most of the summer starting with the Summit "springfly" measurement campaign that begins in mid-March. In 2005 science technicians will operate spring experiments for the team. VPR will support the project via provision of materials and infrastructure as well as science technician support at Summit.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 14 / 2003 08 / 02 / 20033
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 15 / 2003 07 / 31 / 20032
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq03 / 15 / 2004 08 / 21 / 20042
2004Greenland - Summit03 / 16 / 2004 08 / 19 / 20042
2005Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Danish Automatic Weather Station (Award# DKAWS)

PI: Kern-Hansen, Claus (CKH@dmi.dk )
Phone: 45(391) 57580 
Institute/Department: Danish Meteorological Institute,  
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: DK\Federal\MT\DMI
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.dmi.dk/en/vejr/
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/

Science Summary:
The Danish Meteorological Institute operates an Autonomous Weather Station (AWS) at Summit. This AWS is part of a network that provides forecasting and warning services as well as continuous monitoring of weather, sea state, climate, and related environmental conditions in the atmosphere, over land and in the sea.

Logistics Summary:
When required for AWS maintenance, the principal investigator and sometimes another team member will spend two to three days annually tent-camping at Summit Station. At Summit Station, he/they will remove snow from around the AWS as well as inspect and provide maintenance to the station. In 2007, the team dug out and elevated the weather station by 1 meter.

CPS will provide ANG transport between Kangerlussuaq and Summit Station and Summit user days. The PI will arrange and pay for all other logistics, including KISS user days.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
1997Greenland - Summit1
1998Greenland - Summit1
1999Greenland - Summit1
2000Greenland - Summit07 / 17 / 2001 07 / 19 / 20011
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 08 / 2002 06 / 14 / 20022
2002Greenland - Summit06 / 10 / 2002 06 / 13 / 20022
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 28 / 2003 08 / 02 / 20033
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 29 / 2003 08 / 01 / 20032
2004Greenland - Summit0
2005Greenland - Summit1
2006Greenland - Summit08 / 20 / 2006 08 / 21 / 20062
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 19 / 2007 06 / 21 / 20072
2008Greenland - Summit0
2009Greenland - Summit0
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 23 / 2010 06 / 30 / 20102
2010Greenland - Summit06 / 25 / 2010 06 / 28 / 20102
2011Greenland - Summit0
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 05 / 2012 06 / 13 / 20122
2012Greenland - Summit06 / 06 / 2012 06 / 11 / 20122
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 30 / 2013 06 / 05 / 20132
2013Greenland - Summit05 / 31 / 2013 06 / 04 / 20132
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 10 / 2014 07 / 17 / 20142
2014Greenland - Summit07 / 11 / 2014 07 / 16 / 20142
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 30 / 2015 06 / 07 / 20152
2015Greenland - Summit06 / 03 / 2015 06 / 09 / 20152
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq2
2017Greenland - Summit2
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: A Unique Opportunity for In-Situ Measurement of Seasonally-Varying Firn Densification at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0352511)

PI: McConnell, Joseph R ( joe.mcconnell@dri.edu)
Phone:  (775) 673.7348 
Institute/Department: Desert Research Institute, Division of Hydrologic Sciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
In this project we will make detailed measurements of the temporal and spatial variations of firn compaction. This will advance knowledge and understanding within the field of ice deformation and across different fields, such as remote sensing, snow morphology, and paleoclimatology. We will make these detailed measurements throughout 2 winter and 3 summer seasons using the concept of Borehole Optical Stratigraphy, which uses a borehole camera to record details of a borehole wall. These details can be tracked over time to determine vertical motion and strain, which in the shallow depth of our study is dominated by firn compaction. Quantitative understanding of firn compaction is important for remote-sensing mass-balance studies, which seek to measure and interpret the changing height of the ice sheet; the surface can rise due to snow accumulation, and fall due to ice flow and increased densification rates. Quantitative knowledge of all 3 processes is essential. Evidence suggests that the rate of densification, which is thermally activated, undergoes a seasonal cycle, related to the seasonal cycle of temperature. When interpreting trapped-gas data from an ice core for paleoclimate, it is important to know at what point the gas was actually trapped in the ice. The pores in the ice do not close off until deep in the firn, leading to a difference between the age of the ice and the age of the trapped gas. If summer high temperatures have more impact on compaction than mean annual temperatures, the gas-age/ice-age offset might be incorrectly calculated. Greater understanding of firn densification physics will help the interpretation of these records.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative between 0352584 (Waddington, UW) and 0352511 (McConnell, DRI) will study firn densification at several locations in Greenland using optical logging techniques the investigators developed. All logistics are combined under 0352584.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2004Greenland - Raven0
2004Greenland - Summit0
2005Greenland - Raven0
2005Greenland - Summit0
2006Greenland - Raven0
2006Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Radiometer for Atmospheric Measurements at Summit/Greenland (RAMAS) (Award# DERAMAS)

PI: Notholt, Justus (jnotholt@iup.physik.uni-bremen.de )
Phone: 49(212) 188982 
Institute/Department: U of Bremen, Institue of Environmental Physics 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: Intl\EC\FP5
Program Manager: Mr. Simon Stephenson (sstephen@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.doas-bremen.de/groundbased_summit.htm
Data: http://www.ndsc.ncep.noaa.gov/

Science Summary:
RAMAS is a multi-national collaborative effort between the University of Bremen (Institute of Environmental Physics), the University of Bordeaux 1 (Bordeaux Observatory), the Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen, the University of Leeds (School of the Environment), and the Naval Research Lab, Washington. RAMAS will conduct microwave radiometry measurements of ozone profiles and key species present in natural and anthropogenic ozone destruction cycles. Summit's unique feature as the highest elevation north of the arctic circle will minimize measurement interference by atmospheric water vapor. The University of Bremen further provides a multi axis DOAS instrument for UV/visible measurements of stratospheric trace gas columns. This is mainly dedicated to the validation of satellite instruments, but will also complement RAMAS measurements to provide a full picture of halogen activation in the lower stratosphere.

Logistics Summary:
In summer of 2003 the RAMAS group, with the assistance of VPR staff, will install a ground-based microwave sensor. The sensor will be housed in a modified shipping container and installed as a stand-alone "building" at the camp. The container also houses the DOAS instrument. Several RAMAS project staff will be on-site to get the experiment up and running during the summer, and will have at least one person at camp throughout the 2003-2004 winter. In summer of 2004 the RAMAS group plans to continue working on the instrument to prepare it for the upcoming winter 2004/2005, when it will be operated by on-site science technicians. In summer of 2005, a team of two will travel to Summit to prepare the RAMAS container for shipment back to Bremen for maintenance and to secure funding to continue the field observations. VPR will assist the team in shipping, container installation, and installation of a communications interface from the container to the rest of camp. VPR will also provide science technician support.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2001Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 14 / 2001 07 / 23 / 20012
2001Greenland - Summit07 / 17 / 2001 07 / 19 / 20012
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 14 / 2003 02 / 20 / 20046
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 15 / 2003 02 / 19 / 20046
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 10 / 2004 08 / 21 / 20044
2004Greenland - Summit02 / 12 / 2004 08 / 19 / 20044
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 11 / 2005 07 / 27 / 20052
2005Greenland - Summit07 / 12 / 2005 07 / 26 / 20052
 


Project Title: BSRN-compatible irradiance measurements and the stable boundary layer (Award# CHAntenna)

PI: Ohmura, Atsumu (ohmura@env.ethz.ch)
Phone: 41(44) 632.8283 
Institute/Department: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Research 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: CH\Federal\NSF
Program Manager: Mr. Simon Stephenson (sstephen@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
Institute: http://www.iac.ethz.ch/content/main/en.html

Science Summary:
With this project, Swiss investigators plan to gain a better understanding of the earth's surface heat balance and the structure of the boundary layer. Investigators will make year-round observations of the surface energy balance and turbulence in the boundary layer using an instrumented, 50-meter meteorological tower, a wind-profiler, a radiometer system, and possibly an instrumented aircraft. Radiation measurements will be taken in accordance with specifications established by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network project.

Logistics Summary:
This work involves ongoing studies of the Earth's boundary layer at Summit, Greenland. In 2000, a team of six installed a 50-meter tower at Summit Station. In 2001, the team returned early in the field season to install a suite of meteorological instruments on the tower. Measurements began during the summer, and continued throughout the winter by a member of the team. In the summer of 2002, boundary layer measurements continued. After a severe storm knocked over the 50-meter tower during the winter, the team turned its prime research focus in 2003 to the investigation of the heat balance of the snow cover and detailed observations of the radiation and temperature profiles in snow. These measurements continued in 2004. In addition, the team rebuilt the tower to 35 meters for future installation of a suite of meteorological instruments. In 2005, a team of two traveled to Summit in May to dismantle the project’s equipment in the Green House in preparation for the uplift of that building. In mid-June, a team returned to reinstall equipment, conduct extensive studies of the radiation characteristics of the snow cover, collect missing data sets to capture the whole picture of the snow reflectant characteristics, extend the tower to 50 meters for boundary layer studies, and maintain and monitor radiation balance experiments. In 2006, a team of two visited to do maintenance on the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) Radiation station, and to update hard- and software to fulfill BSRN standards. In 2007, a team of two will return for a brief season to replace BRSN hardware and do maintenance on the boundary layer instruments including installing heated wind sensors. New infrastructure developments will impact current BSRN infrastructure. The BSRN is currently powered off of lines routed through the science trench. The science trench and associated power panel are being replaced by the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory (TAWO). VPR will coordinate with ETH to assure that the new power system accommodates the BSRN site (both fixed and tracker locations). At the end of August, Koni Steffen of CU Boulder will become the point of contact for both the ETH 50m tower and the BSRN site. Wintering science technicians will continue to follow the same protocols, but data will be delivered to and warehoused by Koni Steffen. VPR will coordinate the team's travel to Summit, and provide accommodations at Kangerlussuaq and Summit. VPR will also provide a dedicated weatherport for the team. In 2007, VPR will also provide lab space in the Green House. For project plans after 2007, please see grant "CHAntennaKS".

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2000Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 09 / 2000 07 / 14 / 20005
2000Greenland - Summit06 / 21 / 2000 07 / 11 / 20005
2001Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 27 / 2001 05 / 06 / 20028
2001Greenland - Summit05 / 03 / 2001 05 / 03 / 20028
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 22 / 2002 08 / 14 / 20026
2002Greenland - Summit04 / 24 / 2002 08 / 13 / 20026
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 12 / 2003 08 / 13 / 20034
2003Greenland - Summit05 / 13 / 2003 08 / 12 / 20034
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 17 / 2004 07 / 14 / 20044
2004Greenland - Summit05 / 18 / 2004 07 / 13 / 20044
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 29 / 2005 07 / 29 / 20055
2005Greenland - Summit05 / 02 / 2005 07 / 28 / 20055
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 16 / 2006 06 / 08 / 20062
2006Greenland - Summit05 / 24 / 2006 06 / 07 / 20062
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 07 / 2007 05 / 21 / 20072
2007Greenland - Summit05 / 08 / 2007 05 / 17 / 20072
 


Project Title: SGER: Cool Robots: Scalable Mobile Robots for Instrument Network Deployment in Polar Climates (Award# 0343328)

PI: Ray, Laura R (laura.ray@dartmouth.EDU)
Phone:  (603) 646.1243 
Institute/Department: Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ANT\ACI
Program Manager: Dr. Vladimir Papitashvili (vpapita@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Instrument Development |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://thayer.dartmouth.edu/
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
The objective of the proposed SGER effort is to explore, develop, and evaluate concepts for mobile robots with mobility, power, navigation, and communication capabilities that enable deployment of mobile instrument networks on the Antarctic plateau and that can be used in Arctic regions comprised of similar terrain. The proposed research focuses on the design of robots that can deploy such networks economically, with high reliability, and with minimal environmental impact. Tasks target mobile robots designed for year-round operation, with network deployment occurring during summer months, data collection initiated after deployment and through winter months, and the network returning to base or redeployed to new locations during the following summer. The designs will be scalable for deployment of small (up to five kg) instruments to large (greater than 25 kg) sets of instrumentation. A single robot will be constructed and evaluated for mobile robot-based fluxgate magnetometer deployment. Mobile robots capable of reliable, long-term operation on the Antarctic plateau have the potential to enhance scientific research in Antarctica through instrument deployment, mapping, and providing portable, mobile power to field scientists. This research offers training opportunities for students at all levels in the design, construction, and evaluation of robot platforms suitable for operation on the Antarctic plateau.

Logistics Summary:
During July-August of 2005, a field team of two will deploy a solar-powered robot at Summit, Greenland. Researchers will measure mobility, solar power capacity, longevity and evaluate the robot’s potential as a mobile platform for geophysical experiments on a closed circuit in the vicinity of the station. Conditions permitting, they will run the robot continuously for 24 hrs or more per test. They will also test the robot’s performance on a variety of rough snow conditions such as sastrugi, plowed snow berms, etc. The team will use hand-held radio transmitters to communicate with the robot. VPR will support the researchers via ANG arrangements and access to the Summit infrastructure such as housing, work space, etc., though the team plans to be largely self sufficient with respect to instruments and tools.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 25 / 2005 08 / 13 / 20052
2005Greenland - Summit07 / 26 / 2005 08 / 10 / 20052
 


Project Title: Surface Processes of the Greenland Ice Sheet Under a Warming Climate (Award# NASAAWS)

PI: Steffen, Konrad (konrad.steffen@wsl.ch )
Phone:  (303) 492.4524 
Institute/Department: U of Colorado, Boulder, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Thomas Wagner (thomas.wagner@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://cires.colorado.edu/science/groups/steffen/
Media: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/?eocn=topnav&eoci...

Science Summary:
A part of the NASA-sponsored PARCA (Program in Arctic Regional Climate Assessment) project, researchers on this NSF co-funded project have installed and are currently maintaining 18 Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). Each AWS is equipped with a number of instruments to sample the following: -air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, humidity, pressure -accumulation rate at high temporal resolution to identify and resolve individual storms -surface radiation balance in visible and infrared wavelengths -sensible and latent heat flux fluxes -snowpack conductive heat fluxes Hourly average data are transmitted via a satellite link (GOES or ARGOS) throughout the year. In addition, measurements are stored in solid state memory. The system is powered with two 100 Ah batteries, charged by a 10 or 20 W solar panel. The satellite data-link is powered by two separate 100 Ah batteries connected to a 20 W solar panel. This setup guarantees continuous data recordings and storage, even in the case of satellite transmission failure. The expected lifetime of the instrumentation is 5 years. PARCA GC-Net Automated Weather Stations (AWS) are equipped with communication satellite transmitters that enable near-real time monitoring of weather conditions on the Greenland ice sheet. Transmission latency is as short as 4 minutes, typically 1-2 hours, and occasionally as long as 48 hours.

Logistics Summary:
This project is co-funded between NSF and NASA. In 1995, the PI initiated a network of Automated Weather Sites (AWS) on the Greenland ice cap. Each year since then, a team of four to five travels to the project's sites via Twin Otter for maintenance, repairs, and upgrades. Additionally, the team tent-camps at Swiss Camp for several weeks to conduct more intensive measurements related to the state of the ice sheet. These include monitoring ablation in the Jakobshavn region (in collaboration with Dr. Jay Zwally [NASA-GSFC]); and measuring accumulation variability, mass transfer, and surface energy balance. In 2007, one person will visit Summit Station to install a thermistor string to capture hourly temperature profiles in the upper ~100 m of ice. The researcher will use an empty borehole. The data will help the team reconstruct surface temperature history on a multi-decadal to century scale. The researcher will spend about a week at Summit setting up the experiment, which may remain in place for several years. Also in 2007, the PI’s graduate student will base from Ilulissat and fly a NOAA-funded UAV experiment in early May and again in July to collect high-resolution laser data around Swiss Camp during the pre-melt and melt season. These data will help researchers calculate surface water storage on the ice sheet. New at Swiss Camp in 2008, a UAV equipped with laser instruments to collect high-resolution data about surface water storage.This NOAA-funded project uses a UAV based in Ilulissat to collect high-resolution laser data around Swiss Camp during the pre-melt and melt season. These data are used to calculate surface water storage on the ice sheet. The information contributes to the PI’s sub-glacier hydrological modeling study (“GPS Network Maintenance,” above). The PI’s graduate student, John Adler, will fly the UAV in early May and again in July to collect the data in the second and final field season for this project. In 2009, mid-April to mid-May, the researchers will maintain the automatic weather station network. In the south, they will service the Dye-II, Saddle, NASA SE and S-Dome stations, and during the Swiss Camp put in the CP1 and NASA-U stations. While at Swiss Camp, the team will service the profile JAR2, JAR1, and CU/ETH. They will continue the effort to monitor ablation along a transect from Swiss Camp to the ice margin. The Swiss Camp team will service eight receivers in the GPS network in collaboration with Dr. Jay Zwally (NASA-GSFC). They will continue to collect high-resolution surface topography data using Trimble Pathfinder differential GPS measurements along several transects in the lower ablation region. In addition, they will acquire a set of QuickBird satellite imagery during the onset of melt and the melt period to monitor the spatial variation and extent of snow fields, lakes, and surface hydrological channels in the ablation region. This project has collected a number of ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiles along the western slope of the ice sheet (Jakobshavn and Kangerlussuaq region) in previous field seasons (1999, 2000, 2003). Data analysis showed that the accumulation could vary up to 40% between the trough and the ridge of the undulation. (Surface topography with scale length of several kilometers plays an important role for the spatial variability of accumulation, mass transfer, and surface energy balance.) The team repeated some of these GPR measurements during the spring 2007 field season along the same profiles to verify the recent accumulation changes and high percolation events in that region. In addition to science research, the PI will host two media visits in spring 2009: (a) MISCHIEF FILMS, Austrian documentary film about Albert Schweitzer. The crew will participate for one day and one night during the southern AWS maintenance trip. (b) National Geographic, documentary called “The Big Picture.” The crew visits Swiss Camp May 3-5. They will organize their own helicopter flight from Ilulissat to Swiss Camp and back. In 2010, DRI's Joe McConnell and an ICDS driller will join the AWS maintenance visits to Humboldt and TUNU to drill shallow cores for analysis related to the NEEM deep drilling project (0909541). Participant travel for McConnell and the driller to Kangerlussuaq will be carried under his NSF grant record. In 2011, a team of about eight will arrive in Greenland around 1 May. They will first travel via Twin Otter to Swiss Camp to install new extension poles on the GPS network; and to maintain/upgrade (with new satellite transmitters) the AWS network stations JAR2, JAR1, Swiss Camp, and Crawford Point. Around Swiss Camp and in the lower ablation region the team will map sub-glacial melt channels using a new MALA ground penetrating radar with a 20 MHz antenna. They also will install new seismic stations close to Swiss Camp and in the lower ablation region close to a moulin. Researchers for NSF grant 0909454, Ginny Catania, PI, also will visit Swiss Camp at the same time to work on the project’s GPS experiment. Researchers also will visit AWS stations in the north of Greenland (NEEM, GITS, Petermann, Tunu-N, Humbold, NASA-U, and NASA-E) and in the south (Dye-II, Saddle, NASA-SE, and Saddle) for maintenance service. At Summit researchers will maintain the 50m Swiss Tower and the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN); these provide the basing meteorological and radiation data for other Summit researchers. In 2013, a team of four will fly commercially to Kanger for a Twin Otter put-in to Swiss Camp in early May for a three-week effort at the camp. Three more researchers will arrive mid-May on a helicopter flight arranged and paid for by the PI’s institution (CU). The three new arrivals plus one original team member will depart a few days later on another CU-chartered helicopter flight. The Twin Otter will return to Swiss camp in late May to pick up the remaining team members and begin transporting them to the southern set of AWS stations (Dye-II, NASA-SE, and Saddle), with air support based from Kangerlussuaq. A team of four will then depart Kangerlussuaq via Twin Otter to begin visiting the northern AWS sites (NEEM, GITS, Petermann, Tunu-N, Humbold, NASA-U, and NASA-E), working out of Daneborg, Qaanaaq, and NEEM. The team will wrap up Twin Otter work with a visit to Summit Station, overnighting to service the Swiss Tower and the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), which provide the basing meteorological and radiation data for other Summit researchers. In mid-August, a team will return to Swiss Camp and the Moulin Site via helicopter out of Ilulissat to make late-season repairs to the camp, which sustained considerable damage during the 2012 melt season. After about one week at camp, the team will depart via helicopter and commercial air. In 2014, a team of six will fly commercially to Kangerlussuaq for a Twin Otter put-in to Swiss Camp in early May. The team will spend ~two weeks based at the camp. The Twin Otter will return to Swiss camp in mid-May to pick up the team and begin transporting them to the southern set of AWS stations (Dye-II, Saddle, NASA-SE, and Saddle), with air support based from Kangerlussuaq. A team of four will then depart Kangerlussuaq via Twin Otter to begin visiting the northern AWS sites (NEEM, GITS, Petermann, Tunu-N, Humboldt, NASA-U, and NASA-E), working out of Daneborg, Qaanaaq, and NEEM. The team will wrap up Twin Otter work with a visit to Summit Station, overnighting to service the Swiss Tower and the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) which provide the basing meteorological and radiation data for other Summit researchers. In 2015, a team of six will fly commercially to Kangerlussuaq for a Twin Otter put-in to Swiss Camp in early May. The team will spend ~two weeks based at the camp. The Twin Otter will return to Swiss camp in mid-May to pick up the team and begin transporting them to the southern set of AWS stations (D

CPS will provide ANG cargo coordination from the U.S., chartered air support within Greenland, lodging and user days, camping gear, fuel, and safety and communications equipment. Costs will be covered in the following ways: NASA will pay 100% of Swiss Camp support costs. NSF and NASA will each pay for 50% of the remaining activities. NSF will recoup costs from NASA via an interagency funds transfer NASA > NSF. The PI will arrange and pay for other work directly.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
1995Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS1
1995Greenland - GITS AWS1
1995Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
1995Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
1995Greenland - Swiss Camp1
1996Greenland - Constable Point1
1996Greenland - GITS AWS1
1996Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
1996Greenland - JAR1 AWS1
1996Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
1996Greenland - Raven1
1996Greenland - Summit1
1996Greenland - Swiss Camp1
1996Greenland - Tunu N AWS1
1997Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS1
1997Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS1
1997Greenland - GITS AWS1
1997Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
1997Greenland - JAR1 AWS1
1997Greenland - NASA-E AWS1
1997Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
1997Greenland - NGRIP1
1997Greenland - Raven1
1997Greenland - Saddle AWS1
1997Greenland - South Dome AWS1
1997Greenland - Summit1
1997Greenland - Swiss Camp1
1997Greenland - Tunu N AWS1
1998Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS1
1998Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS1
1998Greenland - GITS AWS1
1998Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
1998Greenland - JAR1 AWS1
1998Greenland - NASA-E AWS1
1998Greenland - NASA-SE AWS1
1998Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
1998Greenland - NGRIP1
1998Greenland - Raven1
1998Greenland - Saddle AWS1
1998Greenland - South Dome AWS1
1998Greenland - Summit1
1998Greenland - Swiss Camp1
1998Greenland - Tunu N AWS1
1999Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS1
1999Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS1
1999Greenland - GITS AWS1
1999Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
1999Greenland - JAR1 AWS1
1999Greenland - JAR2 AWS1
1999Greenland - KAR AWS1
1999Greenland - Kulusuk1
1999Greenland - NASA-E AWS1
1999Greenland - NASA-SE AWS1
1999Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
1999Greenland - NGRIP1
1999Greenland - Raven1
1999Greenland - Saddle AWS1
1999Greenland - South Dome AWS1
1999Greenland - Summit1
1999Greenland - Swiss Camp1
1999Greenland - Tunu N AWS1
2000Greenland - Aurora AWS4
2000Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS4
2000Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS4
2000Greenland - GITS AWS4
2000Greenland - Humboldt AWS4
2000Greenland - JAR1 AWS4
2000Greenland - JAR2 AWS4
2000Greenland - JAR3 AWS4
2000Greenland - KAR AWS4
2000Greenland - Kulusuk4
2000Greenland - NASA-E AWS4
2000Greenland - NASA-SE AWS4
2000Greenland - NASA-U AWS4
2000Greenland - Raven4
2000Greenland - Saddle AWS4
2000Greenland - South Dome AWS4
2000Greenland - Summit4
2000Greenland - Swiss Camp4
2000Greenland - Tunu N AWS4
2001Greenland - Aurora AWS1
2001Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS0
2001Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS1
2001Greenland - GITS AWS1
2001Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
2001Greenland - JAR1 AWS1
2001Greenland - JAR2 AWS1
2001Greenland - JAR3 AWS1
2001Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 29 / 2001 06 / 30 / 20018
2001Greenland - KAR AWS1
2001Greenland - Kulusuk06 / 05 / 2001 06 / 26 / 20014
2001Greenland - NASA-E AWS1
2001Greenland - NASA-SE AWS1
2001Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
2001Greenland - Raven1
2001Greenland - Saddle AWS1
2001Greenland - South Dome AWS1
2001Greenland - Summit05 / 22 / 2001 06 / 26 / 20014
2001Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 10 / 2001 06 / 04 / 20017
2001Greenland - Tunu N AWS1
2002Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - JAR1 AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - JAR2 AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - JAR3 AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 29 / 2002 06 / 18 / 20029
2002Greenland - Kulusuk05 / 12 / 2002 05 / 18 / 20024
2002Greenland - NASA-E AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Raven05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - South Dome AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Summit05 / 22 / 2002 06 / 13 / 20022
2002Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 02 / 2002 05 / 17 / 20027
2002Greenland - Thule05 / 16 / 2002 06 / 13 / 20025
2002Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2003Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS04 / 15 / 2003 04 / 17 / 20031
2003Greenland - GITS AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 27 / 2003 05 / 30 / 20033
2003Greenland - JAR1 AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - JAR2 AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - JAR3 AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 14 / 2003 06 / 07 / 20037
2003Greenland - Kulusuk06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - NASA-E AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 10 / 2003 05 / 10 / 20031
2003Greenland - NASA-U AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20033
2003Greenland - NGRIP05 / 13 / 2003 05 / 16 / 20031
2003Greenland - Raven05 / 08 / 2003 05 / 08 / 20031
2003Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 08 / 2003 05 / 12 / 20033
2003Greenland - South Dome AWS05 / 10 / 2003 05 / 12 / 20033
2003Greenland - Summit06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 02 / 20031
2003Greenland - Swiss Camp04 / 21 / 2003 05 / 06 / 20037
2003Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 30 / 2003 06 / 02 / 20033
2004Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS05 / 18 / 2004 05 / 19 / 20042
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 17 / 2004 06 / 19 / 20045
2004Greenland - NASA-SE AWS06 / 14 / 2004 06 / 14 / 20044
2004Greenland - Raven06 / 14 / 2004 06 / 15 / 20044
2004Greenland - Saddle AWS06 / 14 / 2004 06 / 15 / 20044
2004Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 18 / 2004 06 / 10 / 20048
2005Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 20 / 2005 05 / 20 / 20053
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 01 / 2005 05 / 27 / 20055
2005Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 25 / 2005 05 / 25 / 20053
2005Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 23 / 2005 05 / 24 / 20053
2005Greenland - NGRIP05 / 23 / 2005 05 / 23 / 20053
2005Greenland - Petermann Gletscher05 / 21 / 2005 05 / 21 / 20053
2005Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 25 / 2005 05 / 26 / 20053
2005Greenland - South Dome AWS05 / 26 / 2005 05 / 26 / 20053
2005Greenland - Summit05 / 24 / 2005 05 / 24 / 20053
2005Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 02 / 2005 05 / 18 / 20055
2006Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS05 / 03 / 2006 05 / 03 / 20064
2006Greenland - GITS AWS04 / 26 / 2006 04 / 27 / 20063
2006Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 01 / 2006 05 / 01 / 20064
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 25 / 2006 05 / 26 / 200612
2006Greenland - NASA-E AWS05 / 02 / 2006 05 / 02 / 20064
2006Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 06 / 2006 05 / 06 / 20063
2006Greenland - NASA-U AWS04 / 26 / 2006 04 / 26 / 20063
2006Greenland - NEEM04 / 26 / 2006 04 / 27 / 20063
2006Greenland - Petermann Gletscher04 / 28 / 2006 04 / 28 / 20064
2006Greenland - Raven05 / 06 / 2006 05 / 06 / 20063
2006Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 06 / 2006 05 / 06 / 20063
2006Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 08 / 2006 05 / 23 / 200610
2006Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 01 / 2006 05 / 02 / 20064
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 22 / 2007 08 / 25 / 200718
2007Greenland - Summit05 / 08 / 2007 05 / 18 / 20071
2008Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS04 / 28 / 2008 04 / 28 / 20085
2008Greenland - DYE-204 / 30 / 2008 04 / 30 / 20085
2008Greenland - GITS AWS04 / 25 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20085
2008Greenland - Humboldt AWS04 / 24 / 2008 04 / 24 / 20085
2008Greenland - Ilulissat04 / 22 / 2008 04 / 23 / 20085
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 21 / 2008 06 / 07 / 20086
2008Greenland - NASA- N70 AWS05 / 05 / 2008 05 / 05 / 20087
2008Greenland - NASA- Up50 AWS05 / 05 / 2008 05 / 05 / 20087
2008Greenland - NASA-E AWS04 / 27 / 2008 04 / 27 / 20085
2008Greenland - NASA-SE AWS04 / 30 / 2008 04 / 30 / 20085
2008Greenland - NASA-U AWS04 / 28 / 2008 04 / 28 / 20085
2008Greenland - NEEM04 / 25 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20085
2008Greenland - Petermann ELA04 / 24 / 2008 04 / 24 / 20085
2008Greenland - Qaanaaq04 / 23 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20085
2008Greenland - Saddle AWS04 / 30 / 2008 04 / 30 / 20085
2008Greenland - South Dome AWS04 / 30 / 2008 04 / 30 / 20085
2008Greenland - Summit04 / 27 / 2008 04 / 28 / 20085
2008Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 02 / 2008 06 / 04 / 20087
2008Greenland - Thule04 / 24 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20085
2008Greenland - Tunu N AWS04 / 25 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20085
2009Greenland - DYE-204 / 24 / 2009 04 / 24 / 20093
2009Greenland - JAR1 AWS3
2009Greenland - JAR2 AWS3
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 19 / 2009 08 / 24 / 20095
2009Greenland - NASA- Up50 AWS05 / 19 / 2009 05 / 19 / 20093
2009Greenland - NASA-SE AWS04 / 21 / 2009 04 / 21 / 20093
2009Greenland - NASA-U AWS04 / 27 / 2009 04 / 28 / 20093
2009Greenland - Saddle AWS04 / 21 / 2009 04 / 21 / 20093
2009Greenland - South Dome AWS04 / 23 / 2009 04 / 24 / 20093
2009Greenland - Swiss Camp04 / 28 / 2009 05 / 19 / 20094
2010Greenland - Humboldt AWS04 / 27 / 2010 05 / 21 / 20107
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 26 / 2010 05 / 21 / 20105
2010Greenland - Tunu N AWS04 / 27 / 2010 05 / 21 / 20107
2011Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - DYE-205 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - JAR1 AWS05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - JAR2 AWS05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 30 / 2011 06 / 15 / 20118
2011Greenland - NASA-E AWS05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - NEEM05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - Petermann ELA05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - Summit0
2011Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2012Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 23 / 20124
2012Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 23 / 20124
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 30 / 2012 05 / 31 / 20128
2012Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 23 / 20124
2012Greenland - NEEM05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 28 / 20124
2012Greenland - Petermann ELA05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 23 / 20124
2012Greenland - Summit05 / 28 / 2012 05 / 29 / 20124
2012Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 01 / 2012 05 / 22 / 20128
2012Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 23 / 20124
2013Greenland - DYE-205 / 22 / 2013 05 / 25 / 20134
2013Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 28 / 2013 05 / 28 / 20134
2013Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 27 / 2013 05 / 27 / 20134
2013Greenland - Ilulissat08 / 09 / 2013 08 / 17 / 20132
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 30 / 2013 08 / 18 / 20139
2013Greenland - NASA-Moulin08 / 15 / 2013 08 / 16 / 20132
2013Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 22 / 2013 05 / 25 / 20134
2013Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 26 / 2013 05 / 26 / 20134
2013Greenland - NEEM05 / 26 / 2013 05 / 27 / 20134
2013Greenland - Petermann ELA05 / 27 / 2013 05 / 27 / 20134
2013Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 22 / 2013 05 / 25 / 20134
2013Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 01 / 2013 08 / 15 / 20137
2013Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 28 / 2013 05 / 28 / 20134
2014Greenland - Daneborg05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 01 / 2014 05 / 29 / 20146
2014Greenland - NASA-E AWS05 / 26 / 2014 05 / 26 / 20144
2014Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - NEEM05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Petermann ELA05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Qaanaaq05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Summit05 / 26 / 2014 05 / 27 / 20144
2014Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 02 / 2014 05 / 21 / 20146
2014Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 04 / 2015 06 / 06 / 20156
2015Greenland - NASA-E AWS05 / 22 / 2015 05 / 22 / 20155
2015Greenland - NEGIS05 / 28 / 2015 05 / 28 / 20155
2015Greenland - Summit05 / 18 / 2015 06 / 01 / 20155
2015Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 06 / 2015 05 / 18 / 20156
2016Greenland - EGRIP05 / 22 / 2016 05 / 25 / 20168
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 03 / 2016 06 / 10 / 20168
2016Greenland - Summit05 / 21 / 2006 06 / 09 / 20165
2016Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 05 / 2016 05 / 18 / 20167
2017Greenland - DYE-205 / 22 / 2017 05 / 22 / 20174
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 01 / 2017 05 / 29 / 20176
2017Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 24 / 2017 05 / 24 / 20174
2017Greenland - South Dome AWS05 / 22 / 2017 05 / 22 / 20174
2017Greenland - Summit05 / 23 / 2017 05 / 24 / 20174
2017Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 03 / 2017 05 / 22 / 20176
 


Project Title: Isotopic composition of HNO3 and NOx at Summit Greenland (Award# 0454803)

PI: Steig, Eric J (steig@uw.edu)
Phone:  (206) 685.3715 
Institute/Department: U of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Space Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Variability in the burden of reactive nitrogen compounds (primarily NOx = NO + NO2) is a first-order research question in atmospheric chemistry. Because of their central role in the tropospheric ozone (O3) cycle, these compounds largely determine the lifetimes of volatile organic compounds, methane and other natural and anthropogenic trace gases. Little is known about the magnitude of natural variability from sources such as biomass burning, soils, and lightning. Records of nitric acid or nitrate (NO3 -) concentrations from polar ice cores offer a means to extend our knowledge of natural NOx variability. However nitrate deposition rates are only indirectly related to atmospheric NOx mixing ratios, and interpretation of concentration data from ice cores is complicated by post-depositional changes. Significantly more could be gained by utilizing the additional information available from nitrate isotope ratios. Recent work by our group and others suggests that the triple-isotopic composition (15N/14N, 18O/16O and 17O/16O) of deposited nitrate can be related directly to NO2/NO ratios and OH and O3 photochemistry, and can possibly be used to infer NOx mixing ratios in the past. Our results also show that there is potential to diagnose changes in NOx source. Our analytical technique, using bacterial denitrification to convert NO3 - to N2O for mass spectrometric measurement, permits the analysis of isotope ratios in solutions with very low (~1 µM) nitrate concentrations, necessary for the low atmospheric and wet-deposition concentrations typical of remote regions. Before we can fully utilize the potential of nitrate-isotope measurements in ice core research, we will need more complete knowledge of the various factors controlling NOx and HNO3 isotope ratios. Both modeling studies and laboratory and field-based measurements will be necessary. This proposal addresses the field-based aspect of the problem, with emphasis on obtaining data from Summit Greenland, where the deep GISP2 and GRIP ice cores were drilled. Our goal is to better characterize the isotopic variability in NOy (= NOx + HNO3, HONO, etc.) in air and snow. We will collect and analyze samples of fresh snowfall, aged snow surfaces, and buried snow in snow pits over the course of several summer and winter field seasons to examine variability in nitrate isotope concentrations due both to diurnal, seasonal, and interannual changes in source, and to depositional and post-depositional processes. We will also task the staff of the Greenland Summit Observatory to collect fresh snowfall and surface snow on a daily basis throughout the year. These snow and firn measurements will be complemented by analysis of isotopes in atmospheric NOy, using a combination of air sampling techniques (mist chambers for HNO3 and HONO, triethanolamine scavengers for NOx and PAN, and aerosol filters for particulate NO3 -). The atmospheric sampling will be conducted in parallel with routine meteorological and atmospheric sampling programs that are ongoing at the Greenland Summit Observatory and funded by NSF, NOAA and ESH, to allow for a comprehensive record of both isotope variability and relevant mixing ratios of important chemical (NOx, O3) and environmental (e.g. temperature, actinic flux) variables. We will also obtain a new 4? diameter ice core to a depth of ~100 m, to obtain a record of the last ~200 ? 300 years at subannual resolution, allowing us to investigate longer term variations in mean nitrate isotope ratios.

Logistics Summary:
Over the course of 3 years, this project plans four trips to Summit, Greenland to characterize variabilty of isotopes in atmospheric NO2, NO, HNO3, and HNO3 in Summit snow. A team of researchers will travel to Summit in July 2005, March through August 2006, and July 2007, where they will conduct continuous atmospheric sampling and will obtain snow and firn samples. During the first summer the team will test their field-sampling equipment and optimize collection protocols. They also plan to document long-term variability in isotope concentrations in 2005 by taking a new 100m core with support from the Ice Coring and Drilling Services Office at University of Wisconsin. In 2006 (and due to a major failure in the freezer where the 2005 ice core was stored), ICDS will drill another 100m core for the project in May or June. One ICDS person will do this work adjacent to the site used to support the Albert/Ferrari firn studies, after that core has been drilled. VPR will coordinate this work and the shipment of the ice core to the home institution. The cost of shipping the core from Scotia, NY, to Washington will be paid by the University of Washington. In 2007, the University of Washington team will be in the field from early June through early August. The project's researchers will also have access to the clean lab area and millipore water at Summit Station. Atmospheric sampling equipment (aerosol filters and mist chambers) will be set up in the old "Freshies Shack" building, near the Bally Building. Additionally, the team will have some radar equipment on site (a a high-frequency system for examining snow properties in the upper 2 m of the snow pack) which they hope to test as opportunity allows. A graduate student (Koenig) will dig one or two snow pits at a field-chosen location along the line out to last year's Steig bore holes. At Summit, this project will also have access to the clean lab area and millipore water. Atmospheric sampling equipment (aerosol filters and mist chambers) will be set up at the Bally Building located near the science trench, and later will be moved to the Satellite Camp. A data logger in the Bally Building will be used to record flow rates and temperatures. VPR will support the team via infrastructure at Summit. In addition, VPR science technicians will collect fresh snow samples when no team members are on-station.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 11 / 2005 07 / 30 / 20054
2005Greenland - Summit07 / 12 / 2005 07 / 28 / 20054
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq03 / 13 / 2006 07 / 14 / 200610
2006Greenland - Summit03 / 15 / 2006 07 / 12 / 200610
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 03 / 2007 08 / 12 / 20075
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 04 / 2007 08 / 07 / 20075
 


Project Title: GEOFON (GEOFOrschungsNetz - Geo Research Network) (Award# DESeismic)

PI: Strollo, Angelo ( strollo@gfz-potsdam.de)
Phone: 49(331) 288.1285 
Institute/Department: GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, GEOFON Program 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: DE\Research/Higher Ed\GFZ Potsdam
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://geofon.gfz-potsdam.de/
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/

Science Summary:
Most knowledge about the deeper interior of the earth is derived from seismological records. Seismic waves generated by earthquakes travel through the globe and sample its major structures on the way. Important information about seismic velocities and densities, structural boundaries, mineral composition, temperature and pressure regimes etc are hidden in each recorded seismogram and can be retrieved by inverse methods. To obtain a complete picture, globally distributed high quality broadband seismological stations are required to record a full seismologically range in terms of frequency content (10**2 – 10**-6 Hz) and dynamic range (10**-9 – 10**-1 m/s). The technical equipment of the GEOFON network fullfills these requirements and is installed in 50 stations worldwide. (Near) real-time data transmission (via the Internet) from most stations makes the GEOFON data immediately available to the scientifc community and provides a perfect tool for rapid determination of earthquake source parameters for scientific purposes but also for earthquake and tsunami early warnings and for use by disaster management. Both near real-time and archive data are openly available to the community from the GEOFON Data Center and are shared with other national and international data centers such as the european ORFEUS Data Center in De Bilt (Netherlands) and the global FDSN/IRIS Data Center (Seattle, USA).

Logistics Summary:
This project makes broadband seismological recordings of global earthquakes at Summit, Greenland. Formerly a part of the temporary GLATIS network, project responsibility has been turned over to GFZ Potsdam. Summit instruments have been included in that institute's GEOFON network. The PI (Hanka, then Strollo starting in 2015) will visit Summit Station annually to service and maintain the project's seismological station. Over the years, in addition to the scheduled maintenance, project personnel have visited Summit for various other project needs: In 2002, they installed an upgraded datalogger for the seismological station and a "Seiscomp" box that connected the station to the Summit LAN for Internet real-time data transmission; in 2004, another major station upgrade overcame technical problems and minimized required local support; finally, in 2007, two technicians raised and relocated the seismometer bunker, routing power and communications connections out of the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory. In 2009, a technician will return to Summit in May to conduct minor maintenance on the seismometer. Station staff will assist the technician as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2010, a team of two researchers will return to Summit in July. The seismometer bunker will be raised and relocated to a new site so that power and communications can continue to be connected out of the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory, which is also being relocated during this time. Station staff will assist the technicians as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2011, one researcher will return to Summit in mid-June to conduct minor maintenance on the seismometer. Summit staff will assist the researcher as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2012, two researchers will return to Summit Station in July to conduct minor maintenance on the seismometer. In 2013, two researchers will return to Summit Station in July with the following objectives: (1) relocate the seismometer to a new trench, and (2) replace the cable between the TAWO and the new seismometer trench. Summit Station staff will assist the researchers as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2014, no researchers will deploy to Summit Station. Instead, station staff will assist with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities as needed. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2015, two researchers will deploy to Summit Station in June to perform maintenance on the seismometer system, including relocating it to a new vault, raising all cables above the snow surface and checking out all hardware. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument, maintain data and power cables above the snow surface and provide as-needed assistance. No researchers will deploy in 2016. Instead, station technical staff replaced a broken seiscompbox. The replacement box is expected in fall 2016; when functioning, it will allow remote mass centering. In 2017, two researchers will visit Summit in May to perform maintenance on the seismometer system, including relocating it to a new vault, raising all cables above the snow surface, and checking out all hardware. The project team plans to install a post hole sensor for a 1-2 year comparison with the current seismic system to investigate potential replacement of the system in future years.

CPS will provide ANG travel and cargo support to/from Summit Station, Summit Station user days, a snow auger/corer with required tools, access to infrastructure, and year around science technician support for re-leveling the instrument, maintaining data and power cables above the snow surface, and general maintenance/troubleshooting as-needed). The PI will pay NSF directly for costs associated with this support. All other logistics will be provided by the PI.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2000Greenland - Summit05 / 15 / 2000 09 / 05 / 20002
2001Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 14 / 2001 1
2001Greenland - Summit07 / 17 / 2001 07 / 19 / 20011
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 07 / 2002 06 / 14 / 20022
2002Greenland - Summit06 / 10 / 2002 06 / 13 / 20022
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 12 / 2003 08 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - Summit05 / 13 / 2003 08 / 01 / 20031
2004Greenland - Summit0
2005Greenland - Summit0
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 08 / 2006 05 / 11 / 20061
2006Greenland - Summit05 / 09 / 2006 05 / 11 / 20061
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 01 / 2007 06 / 08 / 20072
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 04 / 2007 06 / 06 / 20072
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 21 / 2008 04 / 27 / 20081
2008Greenland - Summit04 / 22 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20081
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 11 / 2009 05 / 18 / 20091
2009Greenland - Summit05 / 12 / 2009 05 / 14 / 20091
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 20 / 2010 07 / 30 / 20102
2010Greenland - Summit07 / 21 / 2010 07 / 29 / 20102
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 07 / 2011 06 / 15 / 20111
2011Greenland - Summit06 / 09 / 2011 06 / 13 / 20111
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 14 / 2012 07 / 21 / 20122
2012Greenland - Summit07 / 16 / 2012 07 / 20 / 20122
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 15 / 2013 08 / 01 / 20132
2013Greenland - Summit07 / 16 / 2013 07 / 31 / 20132
2014Greenland - Summit0
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 29 / 2015 06 / 11 / 20152
2015Greenland - Summit06 / 03 / 2015 06 / 09 / 20152
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 15 / 2017 05 / 26 / 20172
2017Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2017 05 / 23 / 20172
 


Project Title: Preparation for a Deep Ice Coring Project in West Antarctica (Award# 0230396)

PI: Taylor, Kendrick (kendrick@dri.edu)
Phone:  (702) 673.7375 
Institute/Department: Desert Research Institute, Division of Hydrologic Sciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ANT\AG
Program Manager: Dr. Julie Palais (jpalais@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Instrument Development |

Project Web Site(s):
Logistics: http://icedrill.org/
Institute: http://waisdivide.unh.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Polar ice cores provide critical insights to societally relevant issues and ice core results underpin much of global change research. The Ice Core Working Group (which, under the coordination of the National Ice Core Laboratory Science Management Office, provides guidance to the National Science Foundation and the United States Geological Survey on issues pertaining to ice cores) has recommended a community-wide ice-coring program in West Antarctica at a location referred to as the Inland Site. A deep ice core from there will enable studies of climate and sea-level change and life in extreme environments, and will help educate many new Earth-system scientists. This project is for the design, construction and testing of a deep-ice-coring drill, and for other preparations required to recover a deep ice core from the Inland Site.

Logistics Summary:
Kendrick Taylor will lead a team of investigators planning for a deep coring project in West Antarctica. In support of this project. Ice Coring and Drilling Services (ICDS) is developing a new Deep Ice Sheet Coring (DISC) drill, which will be tested at Greenland’s Summit Station during summer, 2006. VPR will support the project by providing a majority of infrastructure for the drill test. VPR staff and ICDS personnel will prepare the drill site in 2005. In 2006, VPR will coordinate airlift and infrastructure support for the 24-hour drilling program. VPR will provide living/sleeping space and meals for up to 15 ICDS personnel at the station for the duration of the DISC test. At the DISC test site, VPR will provide power, an enclosure to house the drill system, a separate heated work/break structure to support drilling operations, an outhouse, a wireless communications link for Internet access, as well as radios and satellite telephones for voice communications. Once the drill site set-up is complete in 2006, VPR will maintain continuous power for the project (maintenance and fueling of the generators), provide heavy equipment operations support to the site as needed, food and shelter for the drill team, emergency medical support, and any other support as needed/requested.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 12 / 2005 08 / 13 / 200511
2005Greenland - Summit06 / 13 / 2005 08 / 11 / 200511
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 19 / 2006 07 / 31 / 200619
2006Greenland - Summit04 / 21 / 2006 07 / 26 / 200619
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: A Unique Opportunity for In-Situ Measurement of Seasonally-Varying Firn Densification at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0352584)

PI: Waddington, Edwin D (edw@uw.edu)
Phone:  (206) 543.4585 
Institute/Department: U of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://coldclimes.blogspot.com/
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
In this project we will make detailed measurements of the temporal and spatial variations of firn compaction. This will advance knowledge and understanding within the field of ice deformation and across different fields, such as remote sensing, snow morphology, and paleoclimatology. We will make these detailed measurements throughout 2 winter and 3 summer seasons using the concept of Borehole Optical Stratigraphy, which uses a borehole camera to record details of a borehole wall. These details can be tracked over time to determine vertical motion and strain, which in the shallow depth of our study is dominated by firn compaction. Quantitative understanding of firn compaction is important for remote-sensing mass-balance studies, which seek to measure and interpret the changing height of the ice sheet; the surface can rise due to snow accumulation, and fall due to ice flow and increased densification rates. Quantitative knowledge of all 3 processes is essential. Evidence suggests that the rate of densification, which is thermally activated, undergoes a seasonal cycle, related to the seasonal cycle of temperature. When interpreting trapped-gas data from an ice core for paleoclimate, it is important to know at what point the gas was actually trapped in the ice. The pores in the ice do not close off until deep in the firn, leading to a difference between the age of the ice and the age of the trapped gas. If summer high temperatures have more impact on compaction than mean annual temperatures, the gas-age/ice-age offset might be incorrectly calculated. Greater understanding of firn densification physics will help the interpretation of these records.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative between 0352584 (Waddington, UW) and 0352511 (McConnell, DRI) will study firn densification at several locations in Greenland using optical logging techniques the investigators developed. In 2004, this project will work closely with that of Lamorey/Waddington 0082469/0083132, combining resources and field team members. A team of two will spend 3 weeks at Summit during the setting up the winter-over experiment, collecting preliminary data, and training science technicians. The team will also conduct comparison studies at Raven for one week. At the end of the summer, a field team member will return to Raven for repeat measurements (1 week). Winter-over measurements will be carried out by science technicians already stationed at Summit as part of the winter-over science program. In 2005 and 2006, Robert Hawley will return to Summit for approximately one week in May to maintain and repair the experimental equipment, collect data, and train any new science technicians. In 2005 two British Antarctic Survey (BAS) participants will join Hawley at Summit to run high frequency Ground Penetrating Radar to obtain a detailed look at the spatial variability in firn layering. Hawley will also conduct comparison studies at Raven for one week in May of each year. At the end of the summer, he will return to Raven for a day visit to repeat the measurements. At the end of the summer 2006, he will return to Raven and Summit for a day to repeat the measurements. Accompanying him in August will be 4 staff from the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) who are working on a documentary on Greenland, climate change, sea level, etc. They plan to feature the borehole optical stratigraphy research in their documentary, which is expected to be a main feature in the Hall of Planet Earth (estimated to be viewed by 10 million visitors per year). In addition to trips to Summit Station and Camp Raven, the field team will also visit Russell Glacier via truck after they return to Kangerlussuaq. In August 2007, Hawley will return to Summit and Raven (under a no-cost extension) to lay the ground work for an additional year of logging. First, he will visit Raven to make borehole measurements there. While at Raven he also will assist Steve Warren (University of Washington, 0612636) in collecting snow samples. At Summit, Hawley will maintain project property, including the weather station, train new wintering staff, and make "logs of opportunity" in recently drilled boreholes near camp. In addition, he will inspect the main GISP 2 borehole casing to establish what (if any) repairs need to be made. In 2008, Hawley will travel to Summit (but not Raven Camp) to retrieve and retrograde project equipment. In addition to closing out his winter-over experiment, he will undertake (as time and resources allow) 3 opportunistic experiments/activities: 1) Extend GRIP casing, if Danish scientist Dorthe Dahl-Jensen determines it is needed, and provides casing to do the job. Time to complete: one day total. 2) Make P-res measurements: this effort is collaborative with the BAS/Hindmarsh (NERCRadar) project, if time permits; the team will collect phase-sensitive radar sounding profiles at the borehole site to attempt to use the radar to measure vertical strain (in comparison to this project’s video measurements). 3) Make density-log of SUFA06: this effort is collaborative with the SPRI/Morris project. This work at the “Sandy/Zoe” site entails 40 hours of logging. Hawley plans an intensive logging effort, and expects to remain overnight at the site and complete the work in 3 to 4 days. CPS will provide infrastructure support in Kangerlussuaq, as well as access to infrastructure and services at Summit, including cold weather clothing, sleep kits and tents, use of snowmachines and communications gear.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 25 / 2004 07 / 31 / 20041
2004Greenland - Raven05 / 16 / 2004 05 / 29 / 20044
2004Greenland - Summit05 / 29 / 2004 06 / 05 / 20042
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 16 / 2005 08 / 12 / 20053
2005Greenland - Raven05 / 18 / 2005 08 / 10 / 20051
2005Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2005 05 / 24 / 20053
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 21 / 2006 08 / 23 / 20065
2006Greenland - Raven05 / 22 / 2006 08 / 16 / 20065
2006Greenland - Summit05 / 24 / 2006 08 / 18 / 20065
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 05 / 2007 08 / 23 / 20071
2007Greenland - Raven08 / 07 / 2007 08 / 08 / 20071
2007Greenland - Summit08 / 09 / 2007 08 / 21 / 20071
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 21 / 2008 08 / 01 / 20081
2008Greenland - Summit07 / 22 / 2008 07 / 31 / 20081
 


Generated from:
 
Parameters used to generate this report:Region = "Greenland", Location = "Summit", Season = "2005", IPY = "ALL" 
     Number of projects returned based on your query parameters = 22
 
ARLSS_ProjectsDetail