Arctic Field Projects



Project Title: Collaborative Research: Firn Structure, Interstitial Processes and the Composition of Firn Air at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0520445)

PI: Albert, Mary Remley (Mary.R.Albert@dartmouth.edu)
Phone:  (603) 646.0277 
Institute/Department: Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.erdc.usace.army.mil/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
An important issue of our time involves questions of how human activity has been impacted by the atmospheric composition of our planet. A major area as part of the International Polar Year (IPY) involves developing a better understanding of past climates and the impact of anthropogenic activity on the Earth's atmosphere. Because instrumental records of atmospheric chemistry are limited, natural archives of atmospheric composition must be made, such as polar firn. Its porous nature, tens of meters in depth, permits interstitial diffusion of gases over time with the oldest air at the bottom of the firn column which allows the sampling of large quantities of pre-industrial air to explore anthropogenic effects on the atmosphere. This project will investigate the underlying physics controlling firn's ability to store atmospheric samples from the past. The Principal Investigators will make high-resolution measurements of the diffusivity profile, permeability profile, and accompanying microstructure at Summit from the surface to pore close-off, and compare the results to the diffusivity profile inferred from measurements of firn air chemical composition. They will partner with Dr. Atsumu Ohmura, Swiss Federal Institute, and Dr. Christophe Ferrari of LGGE, France. This project has four goals: 1) Quantify the dependence of interstitial transport processes on firn microstructure, and determine the dependence of gas diffusivity on microstructure characteristics from the surface down to the pore close-off depth; 2) Quantify post-depositional changes in the physical properties of snow and firn and use measured properties of firn and meteorological data to evaluate and develop models of the physical transport processes which drive firnification where temperature gradients are large. 3) Conduct firn air chemical measurements as the firn characteristics are determined, and compare the co-registered diffusivity profile inferred from the firn air chemistry measurements to the high-resolution tracer gas measurements made on the firn core itself. 4) Use the measurements of firn air composition and firn structure to better quantify the differences between atmospheric composition (present and past), and the air trapped in both the firn, and in air bubbles within ice. Broader Impacts: This study will establish quantitative relationships that will enable a better understanding of the firn as a repository of past atmospheric composition, but will also enable us to understand mechanisms that may impact firn air composition at other sites. Results of the research will be published in journal articles and made widely available. This project will form one part of the PhD dissertation of a student from Dartmouth. Several undergraduates will be involved. They will interact with students from Switzerland and France to design and construct an IPY museum exhibit, at the Montshire Museum of Science in Norwich, Vermont. The exhibit will be interactive and will illustrate the ability of snow and firn to serve as an archive of important events of the past. It will allow the viewer to act as the "detective" to track down the meaning of different chemical composition profiles in the firn air.

Logistics Summary:
For this collaborative study of firn air and structure -- 0520445 (Albert, CRREL LEAD), 0520564 (Severinghaus, Scripps) and 0520460 (Battle, Bowdoin) -- investigators will conduct field work at Summit Station, Greenland. Beginning in 2006 a field team of up to 6 researchers and Ice Coring and Drilling Services (ICDS) personnel will travel to Summit, Greenland, for a 6-week field season. In year 1 the team will collaborate with the French team led by Cristophe Ferrari, and with the support of ICDS, will drill firn cores for gas sampling. The cores will be shipped to CRREL for later physical measurements. During all three years of the grant, the team will collaborate with the Swiss team lead by Atsumu Ohmura to conduct near-surface studies to measure the changes of the physical characteristics of surface snow and firn over time. The team collected the firn core and gas samples as planned in 2006, but shipment inefficiencies compromised the material. As a result, the researchers will drill another firn core in 2007 and repeat the firn air sampling, which will increase the scope of their plans for that year. PolarTREC teacher Jo Dodds (0632401JD) will join the field team for their work during that season. In 2008, the team will return to Summit for surface measurements. Approximately 5 people will spend 2-3 weeks retrieving and measuring snow metamorphism in the top meters of firn, both in snow pits and using a hand auger, and comparing the measurements to radar & radiometer measurements. ICDS will not drill this year, though they will provide a hand auger, shipped separately to Scotia. The team will conduct the permeability, thermal conductivity, and other measurements in two cold rooms (covered pits) near the stake forest, in the same pit in which they have been measuring properties other years. Approximately 5 ice core boxes of firn samples will be sent back to CRREL for analysis. Tom Neumann (UVM) will join the field team to conduct comparison radar measurements. These measurements are experimental, pulled by a snowmobile, and can be done in any undisturbed snow area. Neumann will pull the radar in a grid pattern ~ 1km x .5 km. The radar targets will be the Steffen AWS and drill areas from the 2007 campaign.

CPS will support the project via ANG arrangements, user days in Greenland, access to Summit infrastructure, establishment of two plywood covered pits or other cold-room measurement sites at Summit, and will arrange transport of the core from Summit to CRREL in Hanover, NH, and of the ice samples to Scripps Institute of Oceanography in La Jolla, California (2007). ICDS will provide drill support in drilling years. All other logistics will be handled by the investigators from the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 21 / 2006 06 / 12 / 20066
2006Greenland - Summit05 / 22 / 2006 06 / 07 / 20066
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 14 / 2007 06 / 08 / 20079
2007Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2007 06 / 07 / 20079
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 02 / 2008 06 / 28 / 20086
2008Greenland - Summit06 / 03 / 2008 06 / 24 / 20085
 


Project Title: SST: Sensor Network for 3D Geophysical Imaging of Glaciers and Ice Sheets (Award# 0427714)

PI: Anandakrishnan, Sridhar (sak@essc.psu.edu)
Phone:  (814) 863.6742 
Institute/Department: Penn State University, Earth System Science Center 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\CS
Program Manager: Dr. Dennis Conlon (conlond@onr.navy.mil)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
There is a serious lack of knowledge of physical processes within and beneath glaciers and ice sheets, at a time when modeling needs are acute for predicting ice sheet and glacier movement, and associated sea-level changes. Under this grant, a network of wirelessly interconnected geophysical sensors (so-called "geobricks") will be developed that will simultaneously include: seismic reflection and refraction imaging, radar imaging at high- and low-frequencies, and a dense array of continuously operating GPS receivers. Along with the "geobricks", a source, both radar and seismic, will be developed which can be towed by snowmobiles. With this network, measurements can be made of: basal roughness, subglacial sedimentary and hydrologic conditions, englacial crystal fabric, accumulation rate variability, and the "4D" (time and space) variability of the ice sheet flow field.

Logistics Summary:
This project will develop and test GEOBRICKs, a network of wirelessly interconnected sensors that will allow researchers to carry out simultaneous geophysical experiments. In early summer 2006, a field team of 2-3 people will travel to Summit and Swiss Camp to test the GEOBRICKs. VPR will provide flight support to Summit and Swiss Camp and infrastructure at Summit.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 05 / 2006 06 / 14 / 20062
2006Greenland - Summit06 / 07 / 2006 06 / 10 / 20062
 


Project Title: Core Measurements at Summit, Greenland Environmental Observatory (Award# 0336450)

PI: Bales, Roger (rbales@ucmerced.edu)
Phone:  (209) 724.4348 
Institute/Department: U of California, Merced, School of Engineering 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Martin Jeffries (martin.jeffries@navy.mil)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Geological Sciences | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://cdp.ucar.edu/
Data: http://www.aoncadis.org/projects/core_atmospheric_...
Institute: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
This project involves long-term core measurements of the Arctic atmosphere, snow and other Earth system components at the Summit Greenland Environmental Observatory (GEOSummit). GEOSummit was the site of the GISP2 ice core, completed in 1993, and has been a site of atmospheric, snow and other geophysical measurements ever since. It is currently the only high-altitude site for atmospheric and related measurements in the Arctic. As global atmospheric temperatures rise, the Arctic environment is expected to undergo more rapid change in response to human influences than are other parts of the Earth system, in part due to feedbacks related to decreasing snowcover and sea-ice extent. Observed changes in Arctic temperature, atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric circulation are expected to have potentially broad but uncertain effects on Arctic systems. A number of processes that could amplify atmospheric change need consistent measurements and systematic study. For example, recent evidence indicates that important atmospheric chemical constituents undergo temperature-dependent exchange with ice/snow, and that some species are photochemically transformed and/or produced within the sunlit surface snowpack. Because changes in Arctic atmospheric circulation are cyclic over 4-5 year or longer times, long-duration measurements are needed to understand circulation and to place observed changes in a long-term perspective. The project involves continuing and expanding the core suite of baseline measurements at GEOSummit for a five-year period, beginning in spring 2003. It also provides for the continued operation of GEOSummit as long-term site for year-round disciplinary and interdisciplinary measurements and research. Baseline measurements include meteorology, radiation, tropospheric chemistry, snow properties and snow chemistry. Some measurements will be made in cooperation with NOAA-CMDL, e.g. carbon cycle, chlorofluorocarbons, radiation, and ozone. GEOSummit staff will also carry out measurements initiated by individual investigators. The atmospheric gas-phase and aerosol species being studied are all either sensitive indicators of anthropogenic impacts on regional and global atmospheric change, or are important chemically coupled species whose concentrations may be strongly influenced by changes in the Arctic, including changes in snow/ice surface temperatures, ice/snow cover, and atmospheric circulation. Related chemical measurements in the snow provide the needed link to investigate feedbacks between Arctic climate change, air-snow exchange, and atmospheric composition. Understanding this change requires a quantitative understanding of the environmental controls (e.g., temperature, radiation, humidity, ozone concentration) on air-snow feedbacks, and the impact of these processes on the entire Arctic atmosphere. Broader impacts. The measurements at GEOSummit have wide applicability for detecting, understanding and modeling Arctic change, and are responsive to a number of community initiatives, including the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmospheric Watch, SEARCH (A Study of Environmental Arctic Change) and other proposed initiatives. As such, this project provides the platform and baseline measurements for a wide number of scientists and individual research projects. There are at least three main broader impacts of the project. First and foremost, by definition an environmental observatory enhances infrastructure for research and education. Second GEOSummit serves as a vehicle to broadly disseminate scientific understanding of the Arctic system by making data and information widely available, both real time data and scientific understanding that is developed using those data. Third, education of the global community is an objective of the long-term measurements, using www-available data and educational materials. GEOSummit was chosen as the site for long-term measurements because it is in the remote free troposphere, and the chemical compositional changes observed in the long term reflect wide-scale change, uncomplicated by local biochemical processes, or by local changes in land use or emission patterns. The international science community has chosen Summit for multidisciplinary, multi-investigator studies, infrastructure is in place, and a number of Arctic researchers are collaborating there. The current project builds on the intermittent (but inadequate in terms of development of reliable models) atmospheric and surface-snow measurements that have been conducted over the past decade.

Logistics Summary:
This project. Long Term Observations (LTO), will conduct a suite of year-round core measurements from 2003 through 2008. In addition to core measurements, staff will also carry out measurements initiated by up to 15-20 individual investigators, including a significant sampling campaign by NOAA (see NOAASummit). Investigators from the project will travel to Summit annually to set-up, monitor, and repair experiments as well as to conduct on-site training of the science technicians. In June 2004, two field team members assisted the Summit crew with laying out and marking the boundaries for the undisturbed, no traffic, and clean air sectors with green-flagged bamboo. In summer 2005, two team members from University of California, Merced, travelled to Summit for a single flight period. While on-site, the team conducted experiment maintenance, trained technicians, and worked with UNAVCO representatives to gather data for a topographic map of Summit. Additionally, they travelled to Nuuk to deliver a GEOSummit presentation to the Greenland Technical Society. For 2006 and onward, science technicians will continue experiments to gather baseline measurements at Summit. The PIs will combine any required site visits for this grant with fieldwork planned under other funded campaigns. In 2007, Ryan Banta will take over as the POC for the LTO grant. He and Roger Bales, along with Mark Twickler (Science Coordination Office, SCO, 0455623), will visit Summit for familiarization. In 2008, the team will not visit Summit but technicians and camp staff will continue regular maintenance to the projects. Beginning in summer 2009, measurements for this grant will be continued under 0856845 (McConnell, DRI). CPS is responsible for hiring science technicians to support the sampling and for providing the Summit infrastructure to support the work. This project combines fieldwork in support of the Summit Science Coordination Office (SCO) grant, 0455623.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 28 / 2003 08 / 02 / 20031
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 29 / 2003 08 / 01 / 20031
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 13 / 2004 07 / 15 / 20041
2004Greenland - Summit06 / 14 / 2004 06 / 17 / 20041
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 08 / 2005 08 / 13 / 20052
2005Greenland - Nuuk08 / 04 / 2005 08 / 08 / 20052
2005Greenland - Summit08 / 09 / 2005 08 / 10 / 20052
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 18 / 2007 06 / 22 / 20072
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 19 / 2007 06 / 21 / 20072
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 22 / 2008 07 / 24 / 20081
2008Greenland - Summit07 / 22 / 2008 07 / 24 / 20081
 


Project Title: Development of a Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer for Measurements of Trace Gases in the Polar Troposphere (Award# 0421016)

PI: Bales, Roger (rbales@ucmerced.edu)
Phone:  (209) 724.4348 
Institute/Department: U of California, Merced, School of Engineering 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\MRI
Program Manager: Dr. Martin Jeffries (martin.jeffries@navy.mil)
Discipline(s): | Instrument Development |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.geosummit.org
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
The Arctic environment is undergoing rapid changes, possibly due in part to anthropogenic causes. A number of these changes involve interaction with, and possibly feedback from, the atmosphere, so it is particularly important to investigate and monitor processes that could amplify atmospheric change. Complex exchange processes in the ocean-ice-atmosphere system often influence the levels of important atmospheric trace gases, such as the hydroxyl radical and ozone, and trace species are also photochemically transformed or produced within the sunlit snowpack. Because changes in Arctic atmospheric circulation are cyclic over 4-5 year or longer times, long-duration measurements are needed to understand circulation and to place observed changes in a long-term perspective. This proposal will include the development of a new generation of multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instruments to continually measure concentrations of the important trace species formaldehyde (HCHO), nitrous acid (HONO), nitric oxide (NO2), and halogen oxides in the Arctic. The instrument will augment ongoing observations at the Summit Greenland Environmental Observatory (GEOSummit), located at an elevation of 3100 m on the Greenland ice sheet. GEOSummit is currently the only high-altitude site for atmospheric and related measurements in the Arctic. The proposal has a strong broader impacts, especially in the area of education.

Logistics Summary:
This project will develop, install, and operate a new generation of multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instruments that will measure atmospheric trace gas absorption as a supplement to ongoing observations at Summit Station. The investigators plan to install MAX-DOAS at Summit in 2006. After installation and testing, the instrument will operate autonomously year-round with station science technician support. The researchers will return annually throughout the life of the grant for service and maintenance. In 2007 and 2008, PI Stutz will do any work needed on the instrument while visiting Summit Station on the Jack Dibb-led collaborative (0612075) with which he also has a grant. In 2009, a team will visit Summit Station in May to remove MAX-DOAS instruments prior to the Green House relocation. CPS will support the project via science technician services and access to the Summit Station infrastructure.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 28 / 2006 08 / 23 / 20062
2006Greenland - Summit07 / 29 / 2006 08 / 18 / 20062
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2007Greenland - Summit0
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2008Greenland - Summit0
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 27 / 2009 06 / 06 / 20092
2009Greenland - Summit05 / 29 / 2009 06 / 04 / 20092
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Science Coordination Office for Summit Station, Greenland (Award# 0455623)

PI: Bales, Roger (rbales@ucmerced.edu)
Phone:  (209) 724.4348 
Institute/Department: U of California, Merced, School of Engineering 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL
Program Manager: Ms. Renee Crain (rcrain@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach | Legacy Projects |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This activity will continue support for an office that assists the community of scientist that uses an international research site on the summit of the Greenland ice sheet. Over 20 groups from the U.S. and Europe are using the site and others have projects pending. One key to success of this shared facility is to closely coordinate measurements, share facility resources and exchange data of common interest between investigators to make most efficient use of the facility and resources. Since this coordination goes well beyond what individual investigators can efficiently do through one-to-one interactions, NSF has supported a Science Coordination Office (SCO) since 1999 to work with scientists, the logistic contractor and others to plan both near and long term activities that require strong involvement from the science community. This proposal provides for continuation of the SCO, which has three main objectives: Plan and coordinating measurements including sharing of facilities and personnel, data and requests to funding agencies for upgrades and maintenance to facilitate science;working with the logistics contractor and NSF to plan, develop and operate the station to serve a growing international and multidisciplinary community while maintaining scientific integrity of the site during the transition; and carrying out strategic planning, working with international and national agencies who are involved with supporting activities at Summit, facilitating communication between investigators and reporting to funding agencies.

Logistics Summary:
The Summit Science Coordination Office (SCO) was established to coordinate measurements between investigators and the sharing of facilities and personnel on-site; to provide scientific requirements to NSF, its support contractor and European partners as the facility is developed; and to stimulate sharing of data among science projects. In support of these goals, SCO members will conduct regular trips to Summit, often combined with already-planned fieldwork in support of other grants. CPS will work closely with the SCO to develop and implement plans for Summit that meet the evolving needs of the science community. In 2007, 2008 and 2009 one member of this SCO grant will travel to Summit, Greenland. In 2010 SCO members will visit Summit as part of other planned deployments. CPS will work closely with the SCO in developing and implementing plans for Summit that meet the evolving needs of the science community.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2005Greenland - Summit0
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 18 / 2007 06 / 22 / 20071
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 19 / 2007 06 / 21 / 20071
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 21 / 2008 08 / 24 / 20082
2008Greenland - Summit07 / 22 / 2008 08 / 21 / 20082
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 17 / 2009 08 / 24 / 20091
2009Greenland - Summit08 / 18 / 2009 08 / 21 / 20091
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2010Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Firn structure, interstitial processes and the composition of firn air at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0520460)

PI: Battle, Mark (mbattle@bowdoin.edu)
Phone:  (207) 725.3410 
Institute/Department: Bowdoin College, Department of Physics and Astronomy 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.erdc.usace.army.mil/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
An important issue of our time involves questions of how human activity has been impacted by the atmospheric composition of our planet. A major area as part of the International Polar Year (IPY) involves developing a better understanding of past climates and the impact of anthropogenic activity on the Earth's atmosphere. Because instrumental records of atmospheric chemistry are limited, natural archives of atmospheric composition must be made, such as polar firn. Its porous nature, tens of meters in depth, permits interstitial diffusion of gases over time with the oldest air at the bottom of the firn column which allows the sampling of large quantities of pre-industrial air to explore anthropogenic effects on the atmosphere. This project will investigate the underlying physics controlling firn's ability to store atmospheric samples from the past. The Principal Investigators will make high-resolution measurements of the diffusivity profile, permeability profile, and accompanying microstructure at Summit from the surface to pore close-off, and compare the results to the diffusivity profile inferred from measurements of firn air chemical composition. They will partner with Dr. Atsumu Ohmura, Swiss Federal Institute, and Dr. Christophe Ferrari of LGGE, France. This project has four goals: 1) Quantify the dependence of interstitial transport processes on firn microstructure, and determine the dependence of gas diffusivity on microstructure characteristics from the surface down to the pore close-off depth; 2) Quantify post-depositional changes in the physical properties of snow and firn and use measured properties of firn and meteorological data to evaluate and develop models of the physical transport processes which drive firnification where temperature gradients are large. 3) Conduct firn air chemical measurements as the firn characteristics are determined, and compare the co-registered diffusivity profile inferred from the firn air chemistry measurements to the high-resolution tracer gas measurements made on the firn core itself. 4) Use the measurements of firn air composition and firn structure to better quantify the differences between atmospheric composition (present and past), and the air trapped in both the firn, and in air bubbles within ice. Broader Impacts: This study will establish quantitative relationships that will enable a better understanding of the firn as a repository of past atmospheric composition, but will also enable us to understand mechanisms that may impact firn air composition at other sites. Results of the research will be published in journal articles and made widely available. This project will form one part of the PhD dissertation of a student from Dartmouth. Several undergraduates will be involved. They will interact with students from Switzerland and France to design and construct an IPY museum exhibit, at the Montshire Museum of Science in Norwich, Vermont. The exhibit will be interactive and will illustrate the ability of snow and firn to serve as an archive of important events of the past. It will allow the viewer to act as the "detective" to track down the meaning of different chemical composition profiles in the firn air.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative study of firn air and structure: 0520445 (Albert, CRREL LEAD), 0520564 (Severinghaus, Scripps) and 0520460 (Battle, Bowdoin), will conduct field work at Summit Station, Greenland. Logistics details can be found under 0520445.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Greenland - Summit0
2008Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: A Field Test Of The Subsurface Ice Probe (Award# NASA-SIPR)

PI: Behar, Alberto (alberto.behar@jpl.nasa.gov)
Phone:  (818) 687.8627 
Institute/Department: National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Mr. Simon Stephenson (sstephen@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Instrument Development |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org

Science Summary:
BACKGROUND The Subsurface Ice Probe (SIPR) is a development being conducted within the Planetary Instrument Definition and Development Program (PIDDP). SIPR is an open-hole thermal drill designed to obtain profile data over a few hundred meters of the Mars polar cap by melting ice and pumping the meltwater out of the hole. The meltwater is then supplied to flow-through instruments located on the surface. This strategy minimizes the power required for such a subsurface mission and it enables a broad range of instrumentation to be deployed in the analysis. In addition to being an ideal technology for a planetary mission, it is expected that SIPR will find Earth-based applications, providing in-situ analysis of terrestrial polar ice. In the final year of the PIDDP task, a field test was proposed to demonstrate the SIPR concept. FIELD TEST OBJECTIVES The field test is designed to challenge and demonstrate subsystems that have performed in laboratory tests in the recognition that it is not possible to perfectly anticipate realworld situations even on terrestrial sites. In these demonstrations we seek not only to verify functionality but additionally to check for possible surprises; watching something first operate in its intended environment is always educational, and it helps in conceiving of operations in foreign environments such as Mars. Objectives: -- Test the performance of SIPR as it descends through at least 100 m of ice, under conditions that approximate (as best as possible) the thermal characteristics expected on Mars. -- Demonstrate continuous profiling of an ice sheet using flow-through analysis of meltwater delivered by the SIPR sampling line. -- Acquire a publishable data set on ice sheet characteristics, including thermal, isotope, dust, and conductivity data. -- Explore and evaluate problems with use of SIPR in an autonomous mode EXPECTED OUTCOME Laboratory tests of SIPR prototypes and subsystems have demonstrated that the fundamental approach is robust and efficient. A previous field demonstration under temperate conditions at Athabasca Glacier, Alberta successfully drilled into the ice but experienced difficulty in meltwater removal. We have since addressed the sources of that difficulty by improving pumping and tether construction. In addition, the colder temperatures of Greenland and Antarctica have been simulated in a laboratory cold room, with SIPR melting through a depth of approximately 1.5 meters. We anticipate that an NSF-supported demonstration will synthesize our current knowledge while accomplishing all field-test objectives. However, fieldwork is always different from laboratory work, and there are elements of the SIPR approach that call for special attention and from which we expect to learn important lessons for the next phase. These elements include: aspects of autonomous operations and performance monitoring, issues related to initiation of drilling, tether handling and management realities, environmental wear, and possible weather impacts. ADDENDUM: Late in spring of 2006, VPR learned that this project had received approval to test additional equipment -- "Cryobots"--intended to explore the ice caps of Mars. The PI is Michael Hecht from JPL, the Co-PI is Oded Aharonson from Caltech. The project manager is Miles Smith from JPL. The Logistics manager is Alberto Behar from JPL. Hermann Englehardt (a retired Caltech faculty member) is a project consultant.

Logistics Summary:
For this NASA test of two autonomous ice probes ("cryobots") designed to eventually drill into the Mars polar cap, two field teams will visit Greenland during the 2006 summer season. One team of 4 will travel to Kangerlussuaq in June, to test the CalTech probe on the blue ice near the transition to the ice cap. They will stay at the KISS, and make day trips via truck to the ice edge. Power, some field gear and a shelter will be needed at the site. Another team of 6 will travel to Summit Station in July to test the JPL probe. They will spend about two weeks at the station, using their cryobot to drill about 100 m into the ice cap at a location not far from the station. The team will need a sled to transport about 350 lbs of equipment to the test site; at the location itself, they will need a drill structure and power to run the probe.

For the Summit Station ice probe work, -VPR will provide ANG flight coordination to/from Greenland, Kangerlussuaq user days, access to the Summit infrastructure, a drill structure, power to run the probe, and a sled to transport the 350lb of equipment to the test site. For the Kangerlussuaq-based test of the Mars Cryobot, -KISS will arrange user days at their facility, and provide transportation, some field gear, a tent, and 2 generators. -VPR will provide flight arrangements to/from Kangerlussuaq, and will augment support requirements from NSF stock as needed.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 05 / 2006 07 / 31 / 20069
2006Greenland - Summit07 / 13 / 2006 07 / 25 / 20066
 


Project Title: Ice Coring and Drilling Services (Award# ICDS)

PI: Bentley, Charles R (bentley@geology.wisc.edu)
Phone:  
Institute/Department: U of Wisconsin, Madison, Geophysical & Polar Research Center 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL
Program Manager: Dr. Julie Palais (jpalais@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://icedrill.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
The University of Wisconsin will support projects funded by NSF's Office of Polar Programs (OPP) by taking ice-cores from, or drilling into, glaciers and ice-sheets. This involves maintaining the NSF's current inventory of drill systems and making them available to science projects, or operating them for projects. The projects are expected to be diverse, and to vary from year to year. They will occur at both poles, and at more temperate and high altitude sites. University of Wisconsin will work with the science community to define requirements and scope solutions before formal proposals are submitted to OPP. Additional engineering development to occur during the first year of the contract will include the development of a drill to rapidly make shot-holes in polar firn, and another system to prepare a 300 meter bore-hole in the ice sheet at the South Pole for a broad-band seismometer array. A longer term activity will be to evaluate the current 5.2" deep drill system to recommend improvement, and make a development plan to implement the improvements.

Logistics Summary:
This group deploys with various projects around the Greenland ice sheet to provide drilling support services. Specific seasonal logistics information will be carried under the PI's project for whom the drilling services are provided.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2004Greenland - Summit0
2005Greenland - Summit0
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Particulate Organic Carbon in the Air and Snow at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0425471)

PI: Bergin, Michael H (mhb34@duke.edu)
Phone:  (919) 660.5401  
Institute/Department: Duke University, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Atmospheric aerosols are of concern due to their ability to influence climate by altering the radiation balance of the Earth and due to the fact that they are harmful to human health. Recent work has shown that fine particulate matter (defined as the particles having diameters less than 2.5 µm) contains a significant amount of both organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), which can account for a considerable fraction of the fine particulate mass (Gray et al., 1986; Sloane et al., 1991; McInnes et al., 1998; Bergin et al., 2001a). The organic carbon fraction of atmospheric aerosols is composed of a wide variety of compounds from both anthropogenic and natural sources including fossil fuel combustion (i.e. coal burning, diesel exhaust, and gasoline exhaust), biomass burning, cooking, and plant matter (Schauer et al., 1996). At this time there is little known about the historical concentrations, sources and emissions of carbonaceous aerosols. Ice core concentrations of OC and specific organic compounds have the potential to yield information on the past influence of carbonaceous aerosols on climate as well as the sources of these aerosols. Before ice core concentrations of carbonaceous compounds related to particulate matter deposition can be evaluated, it is important to determine the link between the concentrations in air and snow. In addition, the extent to which carbonaceous aerosol is modified after deposition to snow needs to be determined before specific compounds can be used to infer past atmospheric concentrations. Preliminary results of water insoluble particulate organic carbon (IPOC) in a snow pit from Summit, Greenland show a decrease of ~ 50% in IPOC concentrations in the top 50 cm, hinting that early post depositional processes may be very important. These results are consistent with recent suggestions that organic carbon in surface snow may play an important role in snow photochemistry (Domine and Shepson, 2002). In order to address these issues, we propose to conduct a field study at Summit, Greenland during the summer of 2006. We will measure the concentrations of particulate organic carbon, elemental carbon, and specific organic compounds that serve as source tracers in the air, surface snow, and snow pits. We will use both well established filter techniques as well as new, fast, in-situ techniques we have developed and are continuing to refine to measure the concentrations of particulate organic and elemental carbon in the atmosphere and snow at Summit. To assess the influence of post depositional processes, in particular photochemistry, taking place in surface snow, we will measure the concentrations of water-soluble gas-phase organic compounds (WSGOC) in the atmospheric and firn air with the expectation that the degradation of IPOC in surface snow leads to the formation of WSGOC. We will also deposit carbon-13- and deuterium-labeled particulate organic compounds to surface snow, and measure the change in concentration of these compounds over the duration of the field season. In addition, we will conduct specific experiments where surface snow is shaded from solar radiation in order to determine the relative influence of photochemistry on the degradation of particulate organic compounds deposited to surface snow. Overall, the proposed research will yield insights into the processes that influence the concentrations of particulate carbon in the air and snow at Summit, Greenland. These results will serve as the groundwork for future modeling, laboratory and field studies that will focus on the deposition, and transformation of particulate organic compounds in snow.

Logistics Summary:
With this collaborative project--0425471 (Bergin, GATech Lead), 0425399 (Schauer, U of WI, Madison) and 0425406 (Dibb, UNH)--researchers aim to achieve a better understanding of the link between concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the air and the snow and of how carbonaceous aerosols are modified once they are deposited in the snow. This study of interactions and deposition processes will allow for a better historical analysis of ice cores for clues to the role of carbonaceous aerosols in past climate change. A team of three will travel to Summit, Greenland in July, 2005 to conduct preliminary air and snow measurements. Then, a team of six will return for a full season during the summer of 2006. At a study site south of the station near the science tower or the sat camp, researchers will conduct a suite of measurements of the air, the snow surface and in snow pits. VPR will support the team via ANG arrangements, user days in Greenland, and access to the Summit infrastructure. Logistics details are combined under the lead PI, Bergin.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 11 / 2005 07 / 30 / 20053
2005Greenland - Summit07 / 12 / 2005 07 / 27 / 20053
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 21 / 2006 07 / 31 / 20069
2006Greenland - Summit05 / 22 / 2006 07 / 25 / 20069
 


Project Title: NSF Office of Polar Programs UV Spectral Irradiance Monitoring Network (UVSIMN) (Award# UVSIMN)

PI: Booth, Charles R (booth@biospherical.com )
Phone:  (619) 686.1888 
Institute/Department: Biospherical Instruments, Inc.,  
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ANT\ABM
Program Manager: Dr. Roberta Marinelli ( rmarinel@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate\Radiation |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://cdp.ucar.edu/
Institute: http://www.biospherical.com/NSF/default.asp

Science Summary:
The National Science Foundation (NSF) Ultraviolet (UV) Spectroradiometer Network was established in 1987 by the Division of Polar Programs in response to serious ozone depletion reported in Antarctica. Biospherical Instruments installed the first instruments in 1988 and has operated the network continuously since. The network was the first automated, high-resolution UV scanning spectroradiometer network in the world. It continues to successfully operate in the harshest environments on Earth (Antarctica and the Arctic), and is currently providing data to researchers studying the effects of ozone depletion on terrestrial and marine biological systems. Network data is also used to ground-truth satellite observations, develop and verify models of atmospheric light transmission, and evaluate ozone depletion impacts. The network currently consists of six SUV-100 scanning spectroradiometers installed at three sites in Antarctica (McMurdo Station, Palmer Station, and South Pole Station), one site in Argentina (Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego), and two sites in the United States (Barrow, AK, and San Diego. CA). The San Diego site is a multi-purpose system facility, and used for training site operators, testing new configurations, and collecting data. In July/August 2004, a Biospherical Instruments Inc. SUV-150B scanning spectroradiometer system will be installed, and begin monitoring at Summit, Greenland. This system is to be installed in the “Green House” facility. Dependent on the time of the year, solar scans are conducted quarter-hourly when the sun is above the horizon. A complementary GUV filter-detector spectroradiometer is part of the system, which provides one minute averaged global irradiance values at several UV wavelengths. Ancillary data (Eppley PSP, Total Scene Irradiance (TSI) sensor, various system temperatures, and monochromator position) are collected over 24 hours at intervals ranging from 1 to 60 minutes. Data are collected on a reduced schedule at night. At sites inside the Arctic or Antarctic circles, instrument operation is on a reduced scan schedule during the winter darkness. Dependent on internet bandwidth and connection reliability, our objectives for data availability are: - Real-time data updates (hourly - limited due to bandwidth) from the GUV filter-detector radiometers. This data will have one-minute resolution (an average of 60-120 samples per channel, per minute), of 30+ data products, available as it is for our other sites, e.g.: www.biospherical.com/nsf/login/GuvSAN.asp (except Ushuaia, where a fixed-IP full time internet connection is cost prohibitive). - We provide weekly updates of "preliminary" data from the SUV scanning spectroradiometers, as available at: www.biospherical.com/nsf/login/update.asp . - Post-processed, final QA/QC'd data products, including full spectra, are made available on a schedule to be determined – typically annual. These data are characteristically the same as what can be obtained at www.biospherical.com/nsf/login/login.asp . - We also provide grantees with additional data products; weighted integrals, preliminary spectra, etc. from the SUVs, with greater frequency of availability, in support of specific scientific protocols. A request in the SIP and to nsfdata@biospherical.com by the grantee(s), is the method to begin the process for obtaining this additional support.

Logistics Summary:
Biospherical Instruments Inc. (BSI) operates the NSF OPP’s Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitoring Network (UVSIMN). One of the UVSIMN's systems is located at Summit, Greenland. In 2004 two BSI engineers visited Summit Station to install a scanning spectroradiometer that made Summit Camp a part of the NSF Polar Programs UV Spectroradiometer Network (as it was then called). In 2005, BSI engineers returned to characterize/calibrate, partially dismantle, reinstall, re-characterize/re-calibrate the instrument as a result of the raising of the Greenhouse (where the sytem is housed) to the surface of the snow. CPS (formerly known as VPR) assisted BSI with transportation to/from Summit (via Scotia, NY), and the parital dismantling and re-installation of the insturment, as well as with science technician support for year-round operation (approximately 5 hours/week). Thereafter, BSI engineers will perform as-needed visits to Summit for calibration, service, and upgrades. In those years that site visits are not necessary, CPS science technicians will continue to operate the UV spectroradiometer on BSI's behalf. In 2006, due to planned Summit Camp population constraints, BSI personnel planned to visit Summit for calibration, service, and/or upgrades only if needed. CPS continued to provide science technician support for year-round operation (approximately 5 hours/week). As it turned out, BSI did not need to make a site visit to the station. In July 2007, one technical staff member from BSI will visit Summit to perform system characterizations, and any necessary system engineering updates and/or service. While the BSI staff is on station, up to 16 hours of additional science technical support will be provided. CPS will assist BSI with transportation to/from Summit (via Scotia, NY); in the performance of the site visit’s objectives at Summit Camp; and provide the UVSIMN with science technician support for year-round operation (approximately 5 hours/week). In 2007 and 2008, BSI engineers will visit Barrow, AK, to perform annual site visits to the BSI's UV intrument at NARL. The objectives of these visits are to perform system calibrations, service, and engineering upgrades to the system. BASC assists BSI with a co-location laboratory (at UIC-NARL) and infrastructure matters – principally in the areas of IT support, communications, and cargo logistics. No trip is planned to Summit for 2008.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2004Alaska - Barrow1
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 25 / 2004 08 / 19 / 20042
2004Greenland - Summit07 / 26 / 2004 08 / 18 / 20042
2005Alaska - Barrow06 / 01 / 2005 06 / 30 / 20051
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 16 / 2005 08 / 13 / 20053
2005Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2005 08 / 11 / 20052
2006Alaska - Barrow06 / 01 / 2006 06 / 30 / 20061
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Alaska - Barrow06 / 01 / 2007 06 / 30 / 20071
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 09 / 2007 07 / 13 / 20071
2007Greenland - Summit07 / 10 / 2007 07 / 12 / 20071
2008Alaska - Barrow1
 


Project Title: Inter-comparison of organic pollutant deposition and transport: NILU-GEOSummit collaborative research (Award# NILU-Summit)

PI: Burkhart, John F (jburkhart@ucmerced.edu)
Phone:  (617) 543.2188 
Institute/Department: U of California, Merced, School of Engineering 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: NO\Research/Higher Ed\NILU
Program Manager: Ms. Renee Crain (rcrain@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
IPY: http://classic.ipy.org/development/eoi/index.htm
IPY: http://classic.ipy.org/index.php
Initiative: http://transport.nilu.no/projects/polarcat-1
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org
Institute: http://www.nilu.no/

Science Summary:
Higher concentrations of persistent pollutants in remote regions resulting from atmospheric transport have been identified. The Arctic in particular has been heavily impacted despite being sparsely populated, resulting from complicated transport mechanisms. With respect to certain compounds, the Arctic even acts as a sink through a process identified as the “global distillation effect” whereby the fate of contaminants is a function of their volatility and ambient temperatures. Contaminants with higher vapor pressures remain in the atmosphere and are transported over long distances until they encounter lower temperatures and condense onto snow, ice and water, ultimately being deposited into the Arctic environment. This process of a "cold sink" explains higher than expected concentrations of persistent pollutants in the Arctic. Paradoxically, this unfortunate process may yield a valuable tool to better understand the dynamics controlling the fate of these compounds. As pollutants are deposited into the cryospheric environment they are continually buried by subsequent snowfalls. Over time, a record of deposition is generated from which one may create a temporal history of the evolution of the compounds in the Arctic. A priority to the development of a proxy record is the defining of a ‘transfer function’ for these reversibly deposited compounds. For example, recent evidence indicates that important atmospheric constituents undergo temperature-dependent exchange with ice/snow, and that some species are photochemically transformed and/or produced within the sunlit surface snowpack. An objective of this reseach is to model the ‘transfer function’ for target compounds and develop a temporal history of their concentrations in the Arctic to better understand the mechanisms controlling their transport.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between University of California, Merced, and the Norwegian Institute of Air Research (NILU) will study atmospheric transport mechanisms and the depositional fate of persistent pollutant compounds in the Arctic cryospheric environment. During the summer of 2006 field team members will set up their experiment and initiate a sampling program at Summit Station, Greenland. After station closing, science technicians will continue to deploy passive samplers on a monthly basis. In 2007, a team of up to 2 researchers will spend approximately 3 weeks at Summit Station collecting snow pit samples for comparison with compounds they are analyzing in the passive samplers. In 2008 and 2009, no team members will deploy but CPS science techs at Summit Station will continue the year round 'bird feeder' POPs sampling through the 2008-2009 season.

CPS will arrange for ANG transport for a team of two and their cargo between NY and Summit, pay for user days at Kangerlussuaq and Summit Station, and maintain the project experiments year-round.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 10 / 2006 07 / 31 / 20061
2006Greenland - Summit07 / 12 / 2006 07 / 25 / 20061
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 18 / 2007 08 / 12 / 20072
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 20 / 2007 08 / 09 / 20072
 


Project Title: NOAA Summit Clean Air and Ozonosonde Program (Award# NOAASummit)

PI: Butler, James H (James.H.Butler@noaa.gov)
Phone:  (303) 497.6898 
Institute/Department: National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, Global Monitoring Division 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\DOC\NOAA
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@associates.nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aero/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/hats/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ozwv/
Media: http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2005/s2393.htm

Science Summary:
Researchers at NOAA’s Earth System Research Lab (ESRL) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) conduct a suite of continuous and campaign measurements at Summit Station, including surface and upper atmospheric ozone measurements, air sampling of carbon cycle gases, and elemental carbon measurements. Continuous measurements include: 1. Halocarbon Gases / HATS Flasks (Steve Montzka), a twice-monthly air sampling effort to measure trace gases that are important components of global halocarbon chemistry. These measurements have been ongoing since 2004. 2. Surface ozone measurements (Samuel Oltmans), continual tropospheric air sampling efforts for ozone levels. These measurements were taken from 2000 to 2002, and from 2003 on. 3. Aethelometer / Black Carbon (Andrew Clarke), continual measurements of aerosol elemental carbon (e.g., black carbon) levels. These measurements have been ongoing since 2003. 4. Greenhouse gases / MAKS Flasks (Tom Conway), a weekly air sampling experiement to analyze levels of trace gases that are part of the global carbon cycle. These measurements were taken during winter of 1997-1998, 2000-2001, 2001-2002, and have been onoing since the 2003-2004 winter period. 5. Balloon-borne ozonesondes (David Hofmann) to measure springtime depletion of ozone in the stratosphere. These measurements were first conducted during the late-winter of 2005. All-winter campaigns are expected for subsequent years. 6. Gas chromatograph (James W. Elkins). The Halocarbons and other Atmospheric Trace Species Group of the Global Monitoring Division plan to install a two-channel gas chromatograph that measures atmospheric nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, CFC-12, CFC-11, CFC-113, chloroform, methyl chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride once every hour at Summit Station. All are greenhouse gases and all but sulfur hexafluoride cause stratospheric ozone depletion.This instrument will be added in 2007. 7. The Camera Lidar (CLidar) (John Barnes) profiles aerosols in the nighttime boundary-layer. The altitude resolution of the aerosol profiles is sub-meter near the ground, which decreases in the upper atmosphere. The technique accurately measures aerosols starting a few meters above the ground where they can be compared with surface measurements and uses a cooled scientific CCD camera with a fisheye lens to image a vertical laser beam that is a few hundred meters away. Normally an additional laser would be needed, but at Summit the laser from the present ICECAPS Lidar is used. The entire 100 degree image is acquired simultaneously (no moving parts) and then analyzed to get the aerosol profile.The CLidar acquires an aerosol-scattered-light profile about every five minutes. It is very sensitive to thin layers of ice and other particulates which help in interpreting some of the other measurements currently made at Summit.

Logistics Summary:
For this NOAA program, on-site science technicians maintain a suite of year-round measurements on behalf of NOAA researchers. These measurements began in the mid 1990s and are ongoing (part of GEOSummit since 2003). NOAA representatives visit Summit Station annually to install / maintain instruments, train science technicians, and conduct measurements. Starting in 2005, NOAA began staffing science technician rotations as Summit Station during the winter phases. Beginning in 2008 NOAA increased staffing to be year-round. Monitoring projects on site include: carbon cycle gas sampling flasks, black carbon measurement, halocarbons and trace species flask sampling, meteorology suite, stratospheric ozonesondes, aerosol measurements, surface ozone measurements, and an in-situ gas chromatograph for greenhouse gas measurements. NOAA will continue to collaborate with Georgia Tech on activities related to the aerosol instrument suite that was previously installed and maintained by the Bergin project (NSF grant #1023227). NOAA program highlights at Summit Station over the last few years include: - During summer 2007 a four channel gas chromatograph was added to the suite of NOAA instruments. - During summer 2008, in addition to ongoing work, researchers extended the ozonesonde experiment by launching about 20 additional balloons in April and again in July for an intensive field campaign. - In February 2009, a NOAA staff member flew to Summit Station via the Twin Otter on a crew turnover flight to repair an instrument, departing the station on the return flight approximately one week later. - During August 2009, the NOAA field coordinator attended an on-site planning meeting. - In 2010, in addition to ongoing measurements, CPS staff relocated the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory (TAWO) and instrument tower (where the NOAA instruments are mounted) to approximately 1 km south of Summit Station. - During 2011 and 2012 the NOAA field coordinator made a routine visit to Summit Station for instrument maintenance. - During 2013 the TAWO building was lifted and the TAWO tower was extended. The on-site science technicians coordinated with the Boulder-based NOAA team to support the instrumentation during the transition. - Also during 2013, the NOAA ESRL GMD deputy director traveled to Summit Station in late June for a site visit. During 2014, one NOAA researcher will travel to Summit in June for maintenance and upgrade activities. NOAA will continue to hire and deploy science technicians for all the three staffing phases. During 2015, three researchers will travel to Summit in June, July, and August for maintenance and upgrade activities. These include upgrading the meteorological sensor suite, assisting with the science impacts from the TAWO facility raise project, and performing a quality control visit to evaluate the setup of the aerosol measuring suite of instrumentation. In 2016, NOAA researchers will travel to Summit to relocate the meteorological suite of instruments from the TAWO tower to the 50m tower, install broadband solar radiometers to inter-compare with existing solar measurements from Summit station, reinstall instrument inlets on the TAWO inlet mast, and potentially reconfigure the TAWO interior layout of instruments to optimize the available footprint. Additionally, NOAA is planning to modify the CATS GC to eliminate methane containing P5 carrier gas to directly address concerns about elevated methane levels within the facility. Researchers will return in 2017, details are TBD.

CPS will coordinate personnel and cargo transport to and from Summit; and provide access to Summit Station infrastructure, Summit user days, Kangerlussuaq user days, purchase of ozone sondes, construction support, and science technician support with tasking shared between the NOAA and CPS year-round technicians. The PI will arrange and pay for all other logistics through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
1997Greenland - Summit0
1998Greenland - Summit0
2000Greenland - Summit0
2001Greenland - Summit0
2002Greenland - Summit0
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 28 / 2003 08 / 16 / 20032
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 29 / 2003 08 / 14 / 20032
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 13 / 2004 06 / 26 / 20041
2004Greenland - Summit06 / 14 / 2004 06 / 24 / 20041
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 09 / 2005 12 / 31 / 20054
2005Greenland - Summit02 / 11 / 2005 12 / 31 / 20054
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2006 12 / 31 / 20063
2006Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2006 12 / 31 / 20063
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2007 07 / 27 / 20073
2007Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2007 07 / 26 / 20073
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 04 / 2008 11 / 13 / 20086
2008Greenland - Summit02 / 15 / 2008 11 / 13 / 20086
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 05 / 2009 10 / 30 / 20094
2009Greenland - Summit02 / 09 / 2009 08 / 21 / 20093
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 02 / 2010 12 / 31 / 20108
2010Greenland - Summit02 / 02 / 2010 12 / 31 / 20108
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2011 11 / 08 / 20116
2011Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2011 12 / 31 / 20116
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2012 08 / 22 / 20125
2012Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2012 12 / 31 / 20126
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 21 / 2013 08 / 21 / 20135
2013Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2013 12 / 31 / 20137
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 02 / 2014 06 / 30 / 20143
2014Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2014 12 / 31 / 20144
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 29 / 2015 08 / 22 / 20154
2015Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2015 10 / 16 / 20155
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 23 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20163
2016Greenland - Summit06 / 25 / 2016 08 / 17 / 20163
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq3
2017Greenland - Summit3
 


Project Title: Operation of a magnetometer array on the Greenland Ice Cap (MAGIC) and interhemispherical investigation of multi-scale currents systems (Award# 0220735)

PI: Clauer, Robert C (rclauer@vt.edu)
Phone:  (734) 763.6248 
Institute/Department: U of Michigan, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic & Space Science 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Jane Dionne (jdionne@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Space Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://mist.nianet.org/magic.html
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This proposal is directed toward the continuation of the operation of the Magnetometer Array on the Greenland Ice Cap (MAGIC) and the continued analysis of the data from these stations together with data from other ground based and satellite instruments. The overarching objective of our proposed continuing effort is to explore a new approach to investigate the multi-scale solar wind - magnetosphere - ionosphere electrodynamic system through high temporal and spatial resolution, magnetically conjugate arrays of digital magnetometers deployed in Greenland and Eastern Antarctica. Major new elements of the proposed investigation include: (1) the upgrade of existing Greenland magnetometers to 1-second samples, (2) simultaneous visualization of interhemispheric ground geomagnetic ?eld variations with the goal to investigate multi-scale magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, and (3) the detailed study of the transition in magnetospheric electrodynamic morphology from weakly southward IMF to weakly northward IMF conditions and vice versa. This project is a cooperative effort between the University of Michigan and the Danish Meteorological Institute. The project is a continuation of a collaboration which began with the installation of the original magnetometer stations on the Greenland ice cap in 1991. The autonomous magnetometer systems in central Greenland provided valuable intermediate variometer measurements of magnetic perturbations between the Greenland west and east coast stations. One station is located at the central Greenland summit site to provide continuity between the west and east coast stations, and one station was placed at the Air National Guard LC130 Raven skiway to provide a dense two-dimensional array for detailed current calculations. The MAGIC data in combination with data from the Greenland coastal stations and Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar have been crucial in resolving the spatial and evolutionary characteristics of various dynamic ionospheric current systems, including traveling convection vortices, poleward propagating DPY currents, and the transition of large scale convection systems from one state to another. Using data from the Greenland stations in combination with Canadian, Scandinavian, and Antarctic magnetic data, and coordinated with other ancillary ground based and satellite data, we propose a program of research to investigate high latitude magnetic pulsations and interhemispheric auroral oval and polar cap relationships. Our focus is on understanding the various electrodynamic current systems which couple energy and momentum from the solar wind to the magnetosphere and ionosphere.

Logistics Summary:
This project has operated a magnetometer array on the Greenland ice cap since 1991. This grant covers upgrade and maintenance of the array from 2003-2005. During those years, four to six field team members visit the magnetometer sites at Summit and Raven for several flight periods each year. During their stay at the sites, field team members dig up the magnetometers, collect data, and bury them again. Occasionally they return later in the season to conduct repairs. In 2003 the project will also undertake an upgrade of the magnetometers that will allow for higher resolution data acquisition. The plan for 2006 is to remove the magnetometers from both Summit Station and Camp Raven. VPR will coordinate Air National Guard flights, pay for user days in Kangerlussuaq, and support the team while at Summit and Raven.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 12 / 2003 08 / 02 / 20037
2003Greenland - Raven05 / 16 / 2003 08 / 17 / 20036
2003Greenland - Summit05 / 13 / 2003 07 / 30 / 20036
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 02 / 2004 06 / 19 / 20044
2004Greenland - Raven05 / 03 / 2004 05 / 06 / 20044
2004Greenland - Summit05 / 03 / 2004 06 / 17 / 20043
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 16 / 2005 08 / 13 / 20055
2005Greenland - Raven05 / 17 / 2005 08 / 11 / 20054
2005Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2005 05 / 24 / 20054
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 05 / 2006 06 / 17 / 20064
2006Greenland - Raven06 / 06 / 2006 06 / 10 / 20064
2006Greenland - Summit06 / 10 / 2006 06 / 15 / 20064
 


Project Title: CEDAR: Interhemispheric High Latitude Ionospheric Electrodynamics Using a Coordinated Analysis of AMISR, Sondrestrom, SuperDARN and Other Data Sets (Award# 0535381)

PI: Clauer, Robert C (rclauer@vt.edu)
Phone:  (734) 763.6248 
Institute/Department: U of Michigan, Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic & Space Science 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\AGS
Program Manager: Dr. Robert Robinson (rmrobins@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Space Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
The investigators will examine the simultaneous development of the transpolar ionospheric electric potential distribution in both northern winter / southern summer, northern summer / southern winter, and equinox conditions. The purpose of this examination will be to answer questions regarding: (1) the simultaneous assymetrical summer/winter development of transpolar potential saturation during strong solar wind driving, when the interplanetary magnetic field is strongly southward, (2) the simultaneous development of reversed electric potential cells in both hemispheres in response to northward interplanetary magnetic field and to determine if there is a similar saturation of the reverse potential cells during periods when the interplanetary magnetic field is strongly northward, and (3) to elucidate the simultaneous electrodynamic response of both hemispheric electric potential patterns in response to solar wind shock waves. Two types of response to solar wind shocks have been identified, the so-called typical response and the atypical response. Examination of the global ionospheric electrodynamics will be undertaken to confirm the hypothesis of the field-aligned electric current distribution that forms to produce the atypical response. The measurements to accomplish these goals will be acquired from the SuperDARN HF radar data base for both hemispheres, augmented by incoherent scatter radar ionospheric drift measurements, DMSP polar satellite ionospheric drift data, and measurements from arrays of high latitude magnetometers. These measurements will be inverted to obtain polar electric potential patterns using the Assimilative Mapping of Electrodynamics procedure. A measurement program using the new AMISR radars in Poker Flat, Alaska and Resolute Canada together with the Sondrestrom radar will enable significant improvement in the specification of the northern potential pattern. A significant aspect of the project will be the training of a graduate student in the measurement and analysis techniques that utilize upper atmospheric radars. The project will accumulate data and understanding that can be utilized to validate various global models and specifically magnetohydrodynamic simulation models of the global, coupled thermosphere - ionosphere - magnetosphere - solar wind system.

Logistics Summary:
With this project, the researcher plans to use the SuperDARN HF radar data for both hemispheres, augmented by incoherent scatter radar ionospheric drift measurements, DMSP polar satellite ionospheric drift data, and measurements from arrays of high latitude magnetometers to better understand differences between the electromagnetic signals in the ionosphere at high northern and high southern latitudes. Radar data from sites near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland; Poker Flat, Alaska; and Resolute, Canada; will help the PI clarify the northern signal in particular. The grant funds four years of research. In 2006, the PI expects to send a graduate student to Kellyville, near Kangerlussuaq, for training. During 2007, the student will visit the Poker Flat facility and potentially revisit the Kangerlussuaq site. During the last two field seasons of the grant, the PI expects to build on measurements made in the first two years, and site visits to Kangerlussuaq, Poker Flat, and/or Resolute may again be requested. In addition to this work, the PI has been funded with a supplemental grant (0622626) to run a pilot, one-week summer field camp in Greenland for atmospheric and space science undergraduates. The course, to be held in late May, 2006, will consist of up to 10 students, 2 faculty and 1 graduate student instructor. Most of the fieldwork will be conducted at Kellyville, with an overnight to Summit to make atmospheric measurements and to meet with other researchers to discuss their work. Support requirements for the undergraduate class will be combined with those of the primary grant. For the main grant, VPR will provide ANG coordination of as-required trips to Kangerlussuaq. For the field course supplement, VPR will arrange ANG transport of the field class to/from Greenland, Kangerlussuaq/Summit user days, and as-needed cold weather and camping gear. VPR will also arrange for a vehicle rental.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 21 / 2006 05 / 26 / 200612
2006Greenland - Summit05 / 23 / 2006 05 / 24 / 200612
2007Alaska - Poker Flats Research Range1
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Particulate Organic Carbon in the Air and Snow at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0425406)

PI: Dibb, Jack E. (jack.dibb@unh.edu)
Phone:  (603) 862.3063 
Institute/Department: U of New Hampshire, Glacier Research Group 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Atmospheric aerosols are of concern due to their ability to influence climate by altering the radiation balance of the Earth and due to the fact that they are harmful to human health. Recent work has shown that fine particulate matter (defined as the particles having diameters less than 2.5 µm) contains a significant amount of both organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), which can account for a considerable fraction of the fine particulate mass (Gray et al., 1986; Sloane et al., 1991; McInnes et al., 1998; Bergin et al., 2001a). The organic carbon fraction of atmospheric aerosols is composed of a wide variety of compounds from both anthropogenic and natural sources including fossil fuel combustion (i.e. coal burning, diesel exhaust, and gasoline exhaust), biomass burning, cooking, and plant matter (Schauer et al., 1996). At this time there is little known about the historical concentrations, sources and emissions of carbonaceous aerosols. Ice core concentrations of OC and specific organic compounds have the potential to yield information on the past influence of carbonaceous aerosols on climate as well as the sources of these aerosols. Before ice core concentrations of carbonaceous compounds related to particulate matter deposition can be evaluated, it is important to determine the link between the concentrations in air and snow. In addition, the extent to which carbonaceous aerosol is modified after deposition to snow needs to be determined before specific compounds can be used to infer past atmospheric concentrations. Preliminary results of water insoluble particulate organic carbon (IPOC) in a snow pit from Summit, Greenland show a decrease of ~ 50% in IPOC concentrations in the top 50 cm, hinting that early post depositional processes may be very important. These results are consistent with recent suggestions that organic carbon in surface snow may play an important role in snow photochemistry (Domine and Shepson, 2002). In order to address these issues, we propose to conduct a field study at Summit, Greenland during the summer of 2006. We will measure the concentrations of particulate organic carbon, elemental carbon, and specific organic compounds that serve as source tracers in the air, surface snow, and snow pits. We will use both well established filter techniques as well as new, fast, in-situ techniques we have developed and are continuing to refine to measure the concentrations of particulate organic and elemental carbon in the atmosphere and snow at Summit. To assess the influence of post depositional processes, in particular photochemistry, taking place in surface snow, we will measure the concentrations of water-soluble gas-phase organic compounds (WSGOC) in the atmospheric and firn air with the expectation that the degradation of IPOC in surface snow leads to the formation of WSGOC. We will also deposit carbon-13- and deuterium-labeled particulate organic compounds to surface snow, and measure the change in concentration of these compounds over the duration of the field season. In addition, we will conduct specific experiments where surface snow is shaded from solar radiation in order to determine the relative influence of photochemistry on the degradation of particulate organic compounds deposited to surface snow. Overall, the proposed research will yield insights into the processes that influence the concentrations of particulate carbon in the air and snow at Summit, Greenland. These results will serve as the groundwork for future modeling, laboratory and field studies that will focus on the deposition, and transformation of particulate organic compounds in snow.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative 0425471 (Bergin, GATech Lead), 0425399 (Schauer, U of WI, Madison) and 0425406 (Dibb, UNH) aims to achieve a better understanding of the link between concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the air and the snow as well as of the how carbonaceous aerosols are modified once they are deposited in the snow. This study of interactions and deposition processes knowledge will allow for a better historical analysis of ice cores for clues to the role of carbonaceous aerosols in past climate change. To facilitate this work a team of six will travel to Summit Greenland for a month in the summer of 2006. At a study site south of the station near the science tower or the sat camp, the team will conduct a suite of measurements of the air, the snow surface and in snow pits. VPR will support the team via ANG arrangements, user days in Greenland, and access to the Summit infrastructure. Logistics details are combined under the lead PI, Bergin.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2006Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Science Coordination Office for Summit Station, Greenland (Award# 0455299)

PI: Dibb, Jack E. (jack.dibb@unh.edu)
Phone:  (603) 862.3063 
Institute/Department: U of New Hampshire, Glacier Research Group 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL
Program Manager: Mr. Simon Stephenson (sstephen@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach | Legacy Projects |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This activity will continue support for an office that assists the community of scientist that uses an international research site on the summit of the Greenland ice sheet. Over 20 groups from the U.S. and Europe are using the site and others have projects pending. One key to success of this shared facility is to closely coordinate measurements, share facility resources and exchange data of common interest between investigators to make most efficient use of the facility and resources. Since this coordination goes well beyond what individual investigators can efficiently do through one-to-one interactions, NSF has supported a Science Coordination Office (SCO) since 1999 to work with scientists, the logistic contractor and others to plan both near and long term activities that require strong involvement from the science community. This proposal provides for continuation of the SCO, which has three main objectives: Plan and coordinating measurements including sharing of facilities and personnel, data and requests to funding agencies for upgrades and maintenance to facilitate science;working with the logistics contractor and NSF to plan, develop and operate the station to serve a growing international and multidisciplinary community while maintaining scientific integrity of the site during the transition; and carrying out strategic planning, working with international and national agencies who are involved with supporting activities at Summit, facilitating communication between investigators and reporting to funding agencies.

Logistics Summary:
The Summit Science Coordination Office (SCO) was established to coordinate measurements between investigators and the sharing of facilities and personnel on-site, to provide scientific requirements to NSF, it's support contractor and European partners as the facility is developed, and to stimulate sharing of data among science projects. In support of that goal, SCO members will conduct regular trips to Summit, often combined with already-planned fieldwork in support of other grants. VPR will work closely with the SCO in developing and implementing plans for Summit that meet the evolving needs of the science community.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2005Greenland - Summit0
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Mercury transfer processes between the lower atmosphere, snow, firn and ice of the last 150 000 years at Summit, Greenland (Award# FRMercury)

PI: Ferrari, Cristophe (ferrari@lgge.obs.ujf-grenoble.fr)
Phone: 33(476) 82.-4239 
Institute/Department: Universite Joseph Fourier, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement (LGGE) 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: FR\Research/Higher Ed\U. J. Fourier\LGGE
Program Manager: Mr. Simon Stephenson (sstephen@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://lgge.obs.ujf-grenoble.fr/?lang=fr

Science Summary:
This research hopes to increase knowledge of the reactivity of mercury in the snow cover of the continental polar zone. Analysis of atmospheric mercury is of great interest to climate change research as well as to improve understanding of the processes of contamination of Arctic ecosystems. To properly analyze atmospheric mercury, it is necessary to know the evolution of the concentrations between the atmosphere, snow, the firn and the ice. This transfer function of atmospheric mercury Hg° will be researched at Summit, Greenland (72°20 ' N; 38°45 ' W; 3270 m). Ground campaigns will sample snow and firn; a firn air sampling system will be adapted to avoid all contamination. Ice experiments will be completed on samples of the GRIP deep core.

Logistics Summary:
For this study of mercury transfer functions, researchers will travel to Summit Greenland for several weeks in July/August of 2005 and 2006. At Summit, researchers will collect snow samples and analyze them for snow air gaseous mercury. They will also collect frozen samples from 2 meter pits in the snow for further mercury studies at their home institute. VPR will support the project via ANG coordination and access to Summit Station infrastructure.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 11 / 2005 07 / 30 / 20051
2005Greenland - Summit07 / 12 / 2005 07 / 28 / 20051
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 22 / 2006 06 / 10 / 20061
2006Greenland - Summit05 / 23 / 2006 06 / 07 / 20061
 


Project Title: Push-broom Laser Altimeter Demonstration for Space-based Cyospheric Topographic and Surface Property Mapping (Award# NASA-IIPLaser)

PI: Harding, David J (David.J.Harding@nasa.gov)
Phone:  (301) 614.6503  
Institute/Department: National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Waleed Abdalati (waleed.abdalati@colorado.edu)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):

Science Summary:
The goal of this project's field effort is to obtain a series of samples from specific ice sheet ‘facies’ in climatological regions of Greenland and to return them securely frozen to NASA's Snow and Ice Research Facility for ground-truth testing of the PI's developing laser instrument. The samples will be studied to ensure full knowledge of their general properties when examined by specific remote sensing techniques. A total of twelve ‘box’ samples and some shallow firn cores will be obtained from 4 major facies regions.

Logistics Summary:
The researcher conducting field work for this NASA project plans to travel to Greenland in June of 2006 to gather a series of snow samples from different snow facies 'across' Greenland. Basing in Kangerlussuaq, the investigator will first travel to the edge of the inland ice sheet via 4WD vehicle to collect bare ice samples. He then plans to travel to Camp Raven and/or Summit Station via flights of opportunity to take several samples. Finally, he plans to use a Twin Otter to conduct sampling and shallow coring. Samples will be stored in a Kangerlussuaq freezer until the completion of the fieldwork. They will then be transported via cold-deck to Scotia, New York, where the PI will arrange for a freezer truck to retrieve them. VPR support will include ANG arrangements, Kangerlussuaq user days, sample storage, guide support, and Twin Otter charter costs. All other arrangements will be paid by the PI from the grant.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 08 / 2006 06 / 14 / 20061
2006Greenland - Raven1
2006Greenland - Summit1
 


Project Title: Danish Automatic Weather Station (Award# DKAWS)

PI: Kern-Hansen, Claus (CKH@dmi.dk )
Phone: 45(391) 57580 
Institute/Department: Danish Meteorological Institute,  
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: DK\Federal\MT\DMI
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@associates.nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.dmi.dk/en/vejr/
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/

Science Summary:
The Danish Meteorological Institute operates an Autonomous Weather Station (AWS) at Summit. This AWS is part of a network that provides forecasting and warning services as well as continuous monitoring of weather, sea state, climate, and related environmental conditions in the atmosphere, over land and in the sea.

Logistics Summary:
When required for AWS maintenance, the principal investigator and sometimes another team member will spend two to three days annually tent-camping at Summit Station. At Summit Station, he/they will remove snow from around the AWS as well as inspect and provide maintenance to the station. In 2007, the team dug out and elevated the weather station by 1 meter.

CPS will provide ANG transport between Kangerlussuaq and Summit Station and Summit user days. The PI will arrange and pay for all other logistics, including KISS user days.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
1997Greenland - Summit1
1998Greenland - Summit1
1999Greenland - Summit1
2000Greenland - Summit07 / 17 / 2001 07 / 19 / 20011
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 08 / 2002 06 / 14 / 20022
2002Greenland - Summit06 / 10 / 2002 06 / 13 / 20022
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 28 / 2003 08 / 02 / 20033
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 29 / 2003 08 / 01 / 20032
2004Greenland - Summit0
2005Greenland - Summit1
2006Greenland - Summit08 / 20 / 2006 08 / 21 / 20062
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 19 / 2007 06 / 21 / 20072
2008Greenland - Summit0
2009Greenland - Summit0
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 23 / 2010 06 / 30 / 20102
2010Greenland - Summit06 / 25 / 2010 06 / 28 / 20102
2011Greenland - Summit0
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 05 / 2012 06 / 13 / 20122
2012Greenland - Summit06 / 06 / 2012 06 / 11 / 20122
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 30 / 2013 06 / 05 / 20132
2013Greenland - Summit05 / 31 / 2013 06 / 04 / 20132
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 10 / 2014 07 / 17 / 20142
2014Greenland - Summit07 / 11 / 2014 07 / 16 / 20142
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 30 / 2015 06 / 07 / 20152
2015Greenland - Summit06 / 03 / 2015 06 / 09 / 20152
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: A Unique Opportunity for In-Situ Measurement of Seasonally-Varying Firn Densification at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0352511)

PI: McConnell, Joseph R ( joe.mcconnell@dri.edu)
Phone:  (775) 673.7348 
Institute/Department: Desert Research Institute, Division of Hydrologic Sciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
In this project we will make detailed measurements of the temporal and spatial variations of firn compaction. This will advance knowledge and understanding within the field of ice deformation and across different fields, such as remote sensing, snow morphology, and paleoclimatology. We will make these detailed measurements throughout 2 winter and 3 summer seasons using the concept of Borehole Optical Stratigraphy, which uses a borehole camera to record details of a borehole wall. These details can be tracked over time to determine vertical motion and strain, which in the shallow depth of our study is dominated by firn compaction. Quantitative understanding of firn compaction is important for remote-sensing mass-balance studies, which seek to measure and interpret the changing height of the ice sheet; the surface can rise due to snow accumulation, and fall due to ice flow and increased densification rates. Quantitative knowledge of all 3 processes is essential. Evidence suggests that the rate of densification, which is thermally activated, undergoes a seasonal cycle, related to the seasonal cycle of temperature. When interpreting trapped-gas data from an ice core for paleoclimate, it is important to know at what point the gas was actually trapped in the ice. The pores in the ice do not close off until deep in the firn, leading to a difference between the age of the ice and the age of the trapped gas. If summer high temperatures have more impact on compaction than mean annual temperatures, the gas-age/ice-age offset might be incorrectly calculated. Greater understanding of firn densification physics will help the interpretation of these records.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative between 0352584 (Waddington, UW) and 0352511 (McConnell, DRI) will study firn densification at several locations in Greenland using optical logging techniques the investigators developed. All logistics are combined under 0352584.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2004Greenland - Raven0
2004Greenland - Summit0
2005Greenland - Raven0
2005Greenland - Summit0
2006Greenland - Raven0
2006Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (Award# TREC-McMahon)

PI: McMahon, Kevin M ()
Phone:  (404) 385.4568 
Institute/Department: Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARE\TREC
Program Manager: Ms. Renee Crain (rcrain@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: https://www.polartrec.com/

Science Summary:
The Teachers and Researchers - Exploring and Collaborating (TREC) program is an educational research experience in which K-12 teachers participate in Arctic research, working closely with scientists, as a pathway to improving science education through teachers' experiences in scientific inquiry. The participating TREC teachers serve as a conduit for reciprocal exchange of experience and knowledge between researchers and educators, and as a foundation for a growing community of students, educators, researchers and the general public that is engaged in science teaching and learning. TREC is a collaborative network of teachers, researchers, students, and community members. Through TREC, teachers will have the opportunity to increase their knowledge, enhance teaching skills, transfer their experiences to the classroom, engage in leadership roles, and develop a supportive network of researchers and education colleagues.

Logistics Summary:
This teacher will work with researchers as they conduct a suite of measurements of the air, the snow surface and in snow pits at Summit, Greenland. See 0425471 (Bergin) for more information.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2006Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Support of UNAVCO Community and Facility Activities (Award# 0321760)

PI: Meertens, Charles (chuckm@unavco.org)
Phone:  (303) 381-7465 
Institute/Department: UNAVCO,  
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\EAR
Program Manager: Dr. Russell Kelz (rkelz@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Dense GPS observations in space and time are resulting in fundamental new discoveries in the earth sciences, discoveries that have an enormous impact on our understanding of global and regional plate tectonic interactions and have implications for mitigating earthquake and volcanic hazards in densely populated regions of the world. Support through this cooperative agreement will provide for the management and operation of the UNAVCO national Global Positioning System (GPS) support facility over a period of four years. The UNAVCO facility has historically provided centralized support to assist the geosciences community with the acquisition, archival, distribution, and application of high-precision GPS data to study solid-Earth processes and hazards through NSF and NASA support. Management responsibility for facility operations will be under UNAVCO, Inc., a recently incorporated (April 2001) and independent 501(c)(3) non-profit research organization. The UNAVCO, Inc. managed facility will provide assistance to researchers in all phases of GPS-facilitated geosciences research including: planning; equipment selection and equipment loans and/or procurement and budgeting assistance for necessary equipment; logistics and field engineering support for the monumentation and commissioning of GPS receivers in either permanent, continuously operated networks (CGPS) or discrete campaign-style occupations of GPS benchmarks; technology development activities; and data security, quality control, retrieval, archiving and analysis. The facility will also support NASA/Solid Earth and Natural Hazards (SENH) program activities and plays a crucial role in monitoring and maintaining a subset of NASA's GPS Global Network (GGN). In the latter, the UNAVCO facility will provide maintenance and security for the continuous operation of a large number of stations within the International GPS Service (IGS) network. The IGS network provides fiducial stations, orbits, and clock estimates for GPS users worldwide. Facility leadership serves as an advocate and technology advisor for high precision GPS research in the earth sciences. The facility will support community involvement in the governance and operation of the facility through providing support for interactions including: an annual community meeting; meetings of the steering committees and support of focused scientific workshops. Educational and outreach (E&O) activities will include the addition of a full time E&O Coordinator and the development of a student intern program. The UNAVCO, Inc. facility and management structure provide NSF and NASA with a single point of contact that allows for effective and accountable management of facility resources. NASA support of this facility will occur via annual interagency transfers through NSF.

Logistics Summary:
This grant establishes a Cooperative Agreement between NSF and UNAVCO for UNAVCO-provided GPS services from the period of 2003 to 2008 (prior to this, NSF’s collaborative agreements were with UCAR/NCAR). Via this funding mechanism, UNAVCO provides a variety of GPS support to NSF-funded scientists, including the maintenance of three GPS base stations in Alaska--at Toolik Field Station (established in summer, 2001), Barrow and Atqasuk (established in May 2002)—and at Summit Station, Greenland (established in April 2006). While UNAVCO supports a number of individual research projects per year with customized GPS support, that information is not carried in this record (instead it is carried under the grant receiving the UNAVCO support). This record focuses on work related to the installation/maintenance of the four arctic base stations. For each year of the grant, from 2003-2007 a researcher from UNAVCO will establish (under the timeline described above) or thereafter maintain the arctic base stations in Alaska and Greenland. Services and infrastructure at Toolik, Barrow/Atqasuk, and Summit will be provided by IAB, BASC, and CPS respectively. Note: funding for this Cooperative Agreement continues with NSF grant 0735156.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2003Alaska - Atqasuk1
2003Alaska - Barrow1
2003Alaska - Toolik1
2004Alaska - Atqasuk1
2004Alaska - Barrow1
2004Alaska - Toolik1
2005Alaska - Atqasuk1
2005Alaska - Barrow1
2005Alaska - Toolik1
2006Alaska - Atqasuk1
2006Alaska - Barrow1
2006Alaska - Toolik1
2006Greenland - Summit1
2007Alaska - Atqasuk1
2007Alaska - Barrow1
2007Alaska - Toolik1
2007Greenland - Summit1
 


Project Title: CryoSat Calibration / Validation (Award# CRYOSAT)

PI: Morris, Elizabeth M (emm36@cam.ac.uk)
Phone: 44(1223) 33.-6568 
Institute/Department: U of Cambridge, Scott Polar Research Institute 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: Intl\ESA
Program Manager: Ms. Renee Crain (rcrain@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Observing_the_Ea...
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/

Science Summary:
CryoSat is a European Space Agency-sponsored radar altimetry mission, scheduled for launch in 2004, to determine variations in the thickness of the Earth’s continental ice sheets and marine ice cover. Its primary objective is to test the prediction of thinning arctic ice due to global warming. The ice on land and floating in the oceans of the Arctic and Antarctic has a central role in the global climate. Although thousands of kilometres away from most populated regions, the ice can determine the climate for example in Europe, Asia and America by influencing the circulation of water in the oceans. The Arctic is the region on Earth where the greatest changes due to global warming are predicted. If Arctic sea ice becomes thinner over the next few decades, as some observations indicate, it could change the circulation pattern of the north Atlantic, changing the supply of heat to western Europe. The sources for the observed rise in global sea level are not well documented. Are the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets melting and therefore contributing to the world-wide rise in sea level? As yet this question cannot be answered. CryoSat will help to find answers to these questions and contribute to scientific studies of the polar climate, the sea ice and the ice sheets with a level of detail that is not possible today. Determining the uncertainty in CryoSat products requires a wide range of surface measurements of ice character, geometry and distribution, and the change of these properties with time. These uncertainties may be correlated over considerable time scales. In principal, this may be achieved by examining the difference between the CryoSat data product and a suitably large number of independent, accurate measurements. Campaigns are required which help to reduce the number of independent estimates of errors to a necessary minimum that, on the basis of some physical argument, may be extrapolated to the satellite data as a whole. Following ESA's Announcement of Opportunity for CryoSat Calibration and Validation proposals issued in 2001, a team of scientists comprising 18 different projects were selected to form the CryoSat Calibration, Validation and Retrieval team. This team is responsible for formulating the strategy for calibrating and validating CryoSat. In August 2003, the draft version of the CryoSat Validation Implementation Plan was released. This document, which provides a comprehensive plan for campaign activities between 2003 and 2006, calls for a set of key experiments to be carried out on the ground, from ships and from airborne platforms in order to fully validate the scientific data from CryoSat.

Logistics Summary:
For this portion of the Cryosat Calibration/Validation project, researchers from the UK will take a number of measurements along the International Glaciological Expedition Greenland (EGIG) line that crosses central Greenland. In both 2004 and 2006 a team of 4 from University of Glasgow AKA "UK2" plan to spend about a month visiting sites in the west using site T0005 (69.83 N -47.27 E) as a base. A 2-person "UK1" team from Scott Polar Research Institute plans a 400km traverse between T0012 and Summit, conducting snow density measurements via the neutron scattering technique. The UK1 researchers will establish caches at locations T0021 and T0041 to aid them in their traverse. In 2008, a two-person party will travel by commercial air to Kangerlussuaq in mid-April. They will travel on to Qaanaq via Twin Otter, and from there, put in via Twin Otter to their traverse starting point on the north-west part of the ice sheet at approximately 79 N 50 W. The pair will then travel via snowmachine along the 2100 m contour to approximately 77 52 N 57 W and thence to the NEEM drilling site (77 30 N 51 W). From NEEM, they will return to Kangerlussuaq via LC-130 early in June. For 2010, a team of two will travel to Kangerlussuaq via commercial air from England in late May. After spending about a week at the hub preparing for the traverse, the pair will fly into Summit with the ANG in early June. From there, they will launch a skidoo traverse. The team will depart Summit and traverse to the southwest, taking snow-density measurements en route, and then will return to Summit. They will resupply fuel and other supplies via caches established previously. When they've finished the work, the two researchers will fly back to Kangerlussuaq and depart Greenland from there. The 2011 effort is organized in two phases, each of which involves a snow machine traverse accomplished by two pairs of researchers. In spring, a team of two, dubbed “UK1,” will fly to Summit Station from Kangerlussuaq via ANG around April 20, from whence they will launch the traverse several days later. This team will travel to T21, collecting snow density measurements along the way. About 2.5 weeks later, the second team of two, dubbed “UK2,” will meet the traverse at T21 during a series of Twin Otter resupply, personnel change-out, and depot-laying flights. UK2 will then ride toward Summit Station using the traverse infrastructure used by UK1. UK 1 will return to Kangerlussuaq and fly home via commercial air. (A fifth team member will deploy to Kangerlussuaq to assist with the Twin Otter resupply/personnel change out activities; he will spend about 3 days in Kangerlussuaq before departing Greenland). After they arrive at Summit Station via the traverse, UK2 will store the project’s gear and depart Summit Station, returning via commercial air to their homes. UK 1 will return in July to Summit via ANG, and then spend around 10 days traversing to T21 via T41. Meanwhile, UK2 will fly via Twin Otter from Kangerlussuaq to T21, working locally along the EGIG line. When UK1 arrives at T21, the four researchers will spend a few days working at the site before UK1 returns to Summit (and then to Kangerlussuaq via ANG for onward commercial travel); UK2 will be taken out of the field and returned to Kangerlussuaq via Twin Otter flights that are also laying depots at T21. No fieldwork will be conducted in 2012 -2014.

In 2004, KMS will provide Twin Otter support and snowmachines, while VPR will provide communications gear and support at Summit, in addition to cost-reimbursable fuel and cargo transport. In 2006 CPS will provide cost reimbursable air support, snowmachines, fuel, and cargo transport. In 2008, DNSC (Forsberg) will provide most of the logistics support. CPS will provide cargo transport by C-130 from Kangerlussuaq to Thule; fuels (Mogas, Coleman fuel, skidoo oil); packing space and assistance while the team transits Kangerlussuaq and Thule; Iridium phone and daily safety check-ins; two new snowmachines; and C-130 transport from NEEM to Kangerlussuaq. Support will be provided on a billable basis. In 2010 and 2011, CPS will provide ANG flight coordination for passengers and cargo, Summit user days, some fuel(s), safety/communications gear, Air Greenland and Norlandair flight coordination for fuel depots, and Kangerlussuaq and Summit staff assistance. This support will be provided on a billable basis.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2004Greenland - EGIG T000504 / 20 / 2004 09 / 18 / 20044
2004Greenland - EGIG T001204 / 20 / 2004 09 / 19 / 20042
2004Greenland - EGIG T002104 / 20 / 2004 09 / 19 / 20042
2004Greenland - EGIG T004104 / 20 / 2004 09 / 19 / 20042
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 18 / 2004 09 / 20 / 20045
2004Greenland - Summit06 / 01 / 2004 08 / 18 / 20042
2006Greenland - EGIG T000504 / 20 / 2006 08 / 16 / 20064
2006Greenland - EGIG T001204 / 20 / 2006 06 / 02 / 20062
2006Greenland - EGIG T002104 / 20 / 2006 06 / 02 / 20062
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 12 / 2006 08 / 17 / 20066
2006Greenland - Summit06 / 01 / 2006 06 / 07 / 20063
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 17 / 2008 06 / 03 / 20082
2008Greenland - NEEM05 / 30 / 2008 06 / 03 / 20082
2008Greenland - Qaanaaq04 / 19 / 2008 05 / 29 / 20082
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 28 / 2010 07 / 23 / 20102
2010Greenland - Summit05 / 20 / 2010 07 / 19 / 20102
2011Greenland - EGIG T002104 / 29 / 2011 08 / 17 / 20114
2011Greenland - EGIG T004104 / 29 / 2011 05 / 10 / 20113
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 17 / 2011 08 / 12 / 20116
2011Greenland - Summit04 / 20 / 2011 08 / 12 / 20115
 


Project Title: BSRN-compatible irradiance measurements and the stable boundary layer (Award# CHAntenna)

PI: Ohmura, Atsumu (ohmura@env.ethz.ch)
Phone: 41(44) 632.8283 
Institute/Department: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Research 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: CH\Federal\NSF
Program Manager: Mr. Simon Stephenson (sstephen@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
Institute: http://www.iac.ethz.ch/content/main/en.html

Science Summary:
With this project, Swiss investigators plan to gain a better understanding of the earth's surface heat balance and the structure of the boundary layer. Investigators will make year-round observations of the surface energy balance and turbulence in the boundary layer using an instrumented, 50-meter meteorological tower, a wind-profiler, a radiometer system, and possibly an instrumented aircraft. Radiation measurements will be taken in accordance with specifications established by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network project.

Logistics Summary:
This work involves ongoing studies of the Earth's boundary layer at Summit, Greenland. In 2000, a team of six installed a 50-meter tower at Summit Station. In 2001, the team returned early in the field season to install a suite of meteorological instruments on the tower. Measurements began during the summer, and continued throughout the winter by a member of the team. In the summer of 2002, boundary layer measurements continued. After a severe storm knocked over the 50-meter tower during the winter, the team turned its prime research focus in 2003 to the investigation of the heat balance of the snow cover and detailed observations of the radiation and temperature profiles in snow. These measurements continued in 2004. In addition, the team rebuilt the tower to 35 meters for future installation of a suite of meteorological instruments. In 2005, a team of two traveled to Summit in May to dismantle the project’s equipment in the Green House in preparation for the uplift of that building. In mid-June, a team returned to reinstall equipment, conduct extensive studies of the radiation characteristics of the snow cover, collect missing data sets to capture the whole picture of the snow reflectant characteristics, extend the tower to 50 meters for boundary layer studies, and maintain and monitor radiation balance experiments. In 2006, a team of two visited to do maintenance on the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) Radiation station, and to update hard- and software to fulfill BSRN standards. In 2007, a team of two will return for a brief season to replace BRSN hardware and do maintenance on the boundary layer instruments including installing heated wind sensors. New infrastructure developments will impact current BSRN infrastructure. The BSRN is currently powered off of lines routed through the science trench. The science trench and associated power panel are being replaced by the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory (TAWO). VPR will coordinate with ETH to assure that the new power system accommodates the BSRN site (both fixed and tracker locations). At the end of August, Koni Steffen of CU Boulder will become the point of contact for both the ETH 50m tower and the BSRN site. Wintering science technicians will continue to follow the same protocols, but data will be delivered to and warehoused by Koni Steffen. VPR will coordinate the team's travel to Summit, and provide accommodations at Kangerlussuaq and Summit. VPR will also provide a dedicated weatherport for the team. In 2007, VPR will also provide lab space in the Green House. For project plans after 2007, please see grant "CHAntennaKS".

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2000Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 09 / 2000 07 / 14 / 20005
2000Greenland - Summit06 / 21 / 2000 07 / 11 / 20005
2001Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 27 / 2001 05 / 06 / 20028
2001Greenland - Summit05 / 03 / 2001 05 / 03 / 20028
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 22 / 2002 08 / 14 / 20026
2002Greenland - Summit04 / 24 / 2002 08 / 13 / 20026
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 12 / 2003 08 / 13 / 20034
2003Greenland - Summit05 / 13 / 2003 08 / 12 / 20034
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 17 / 2004 07 / 14 / 20044
2004Greenland - Summit05 / 18 / 2004 07 / 13 / 20044
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 29 / 2005 07 / 29 / 20055
2005Greenland - Summit05 / 02 / 2005 07 / 28 / 20055
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 16 / 2006 06 / 08 / 20062
2006Greenland - Summit05 / 24 / 2006 06 / 07 / 20062
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 07 / 2007 05 / 21 / 20072
2007Greenland - Summit05 / 08 / 2007 05 / 17 / 20072
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Particulate Organic Carbon in the Air and Snow at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0425399)

PI: Schauer, James J (jjschauer@wisc.edu)
Phone:  (608) 262.4495 
Institute/Department: U of Wisconsin, Madison, Civil and Environmental Engineering 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Atmospheric aerosols are of concern due to their ability to influence climate by altering the radiation balance of the Earth and due to the fact that they are harmful to human health. Recent work has shown that fine particulate matter (defined as the particles having diameters less than 2.5 µm) contains a significant amount of both organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC), which can account for a considerable fraction of the fine particulate mass (Gray et al., 1986; Sloane et al., 1991; McInnes et al., 1998; Bergin et al., 2001a). The organic carbon fraction of atmospheric aerosols is composed of a wide variety of compounds from both anthropogenic and natural sources including fossil fuel combustion (i.e. coal burning, diesel exhaust, and gasoline exhaust), biomass burning, cooking, and plant matter (Schauer et al., 1996). At this time there is little known about the historical concentrations, sources and emissions of carbonaceous aerosols. Ice core concentrations of OC and specific organic compounds have the potential to yield information on the past influence of carbonaceous aerosols on climate as well as the sources of these aerosols. Before ice core concentrations of carbonaceous compounds related to particulate matter deposition can be evaluated, it is important to determine the link between the concentrations in air and snow. In addition, the extent to which carbonaceous aerosol is modified after deposition to snow needs to be determined before specific compounds can be used to infer past atmospheric concentrations. Preliminary results of water insoluble particulate organic carbon (IPOC) in a snow pit from Summit, Greenland show a decrease of ~ 50% in IPOC concentrations in the top 50 cm, hinting that early post depositional processes may be very important. These results are consistent with recent suggestions that organic carbon in surface snow may play an important role in snow photochemistry (Domine and Shepson, 2002). In order to address these issues, we propose to conduct a field study at Summit, Greenland during the summer of 2006. We will measure the concentrations of particulate organic carbon, elemental carbon, and specific organic compounds that serve as source tracers in the air, surface snow, and snow pits. We will use both well established filter techniques as well as new, fast, in-situ techniques we have developed and are continuing to refine to measure the concentrations of particulate organic and elemental carbon in the atmosphere and snow at Summit. To assess the influence of post depositional processes, in particular photochemistry, taking place in surface snow, we will measure the concentrations of water-soluble gas-phase organic compounds (WSGOC) in the atmospheric and firn air with the expectation that the degradation of IPOC in surface snow leads to the formation of WSGOC. We will also deposit carbon-13- and deuterium-labeled particulate organic compounds to surface snow, and measure the change in concentration of these compounds over the duration of the field season. In addition, we will conduct specific experiments where surface snow is shaded from solar radiation in order to determine the relative influence of photochemistry on the degradation of particulate organic compounds deposited to surface snow. Overall, the proposed research will yield insights into the processes that influence the concentrations of particulate carbon in the air and snow at Summit, Greenland. These results will serve as the groundwork for future modeling, laboratory and field studies that will focus on the deposition, and transformation of particulate organic compounds in snow.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative 0425471 (Bergin, GATech Lead), 0425399 (Schauer, U of WI, Madison) and 0425406 (Dibb, UNH) aims to achieve a better understanding of the link between concentrations of carbonaceous aerosols in the air and the snow as well as of the how carbonaceous aerosols are modified once they are deposited in the snow. This study of interactions and deposition processes knowledge will allow for a better historical analysis of ice cores for clues to the role of carbonaceous aerosols in past climate change. To facilitate this work a team of six will travel to Summit Greenland for a month in the summer of 2006. At a study site south of the station near the science tower or the sat camp, the team will conduct a suite of measurements of the air, the snow surface and in snow pits. VPR will support the team via ANG arrangements, user days in Greenland, and access to the Summit infrastructure. Logistics details are combined under the lead PI, Bergin.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2006Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Firn structure, interstitial processes and the composition of firn air at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0520564)

PI: Severinghaus, Jeffrey P (jseveringhaus@ucsd.edu)
Phone:  (858) 822.2483 
Institute/Department: U of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.erdc.usace.army.mil/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
An important issue of our time involves questions of how human activity has been impacted by the atmospheric composition of our planet. A major area as part of the International Polar Year (IPY) involves developing a better understanding of past climates and the impact of anthropogenic activity on the Earth's atmosphere. Because instrumental records of atmospheric chemistry are limited, natural archives of atmospheric composition must be made, such as polar firn. Its porous nature, tens of meters in depth, permits interstitial diffusion of gases over time with the oldest air at the bottom of the firn column which allows the sampling of large quantities of pre-industrial air to explore anthropogenic effects on the atmosphere. This project will investigate the underlying physics controlling firn's ability to store atmospheric samples from the past. The Principal Investigators will make high-resolution measurements of the diffusivity profile, permeability profile, and accompanying microstructure at Summit from the surface to pore close-off, and compare the results to the diffusivity profile inferred from measurements of firn air chemical composition. They will partner with Dr. Atsumu Ohmura, Swiss Federal Institute, and Dr. Christophe Ferrari of LGGE, France. This project has four goals: 1) Quantify the dependence of interstitial transport processes on firn microstructure, and determine the dependence of gas diffusivity on microstructure characteristics from the surface down to the pore close-off depth; 2) Quantify post-depositional changes in the physical properties of snow and firn and use measured properties of firn and meteorological data to evaluate and develop models of the physical transport processes which drive firnification where temperature gradients are large. 3) Conduct firn air chemical measurements as the firn characteristics are determined, and compare the co-registered diffusivity profile inferred from the firn air chemistry measurements to the high-resolution tracer gas measurements made on the firn core itself. 4) Use the measurements of firn air composition and firn structure to better quantify the differences between atmospheric composition (present and past), and the air trapped in both the firn, and in air bubbles within ice. Broader Impacts: This study will establish quantitative relationships that will enable a better understanding of the firn as a repository of past atmospheric composition, but will also enable us to understand mechanisms that may impact firn air composition at other sites. Results of the research will be published in journal articles and made widely available. This project will form one part of the PhD dissertation of a student from Dartmouth. Several undergraduates will be involved. They will interact with students from Switzerland and France to design and construct an IPY museum exhibit, at the Montshire Museum of Science in Norwich, Vermont. The exhibit will be interactive and will illustrate the ability of snow and firn to serve as an archive of important events of the past. It will allow the viewer to act as the "detective" to track down the meaning of different chemical composition profiles in the firn air.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative study of firn air and structure: 0520445 (Albert, CRREL LEAD), 0520564 (Severinghaus, Scripps) and 0520460 (Battle, Bowdoin), will conduct field work at Summit Station, Greenland. Logistics details can be found under 0520445.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Greenland - Summit0
2008Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Isotopic composition of HNO3 and NOx at Summit Greenland (Award# 0454803)

PI: Steig, Eric J (steig@uw.edu)
Phone:  (206) 685.3715 
Institute/Department: U of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Space Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Variability in the burden of reactive nitrogen compounds (primarily NOx = NO + NO2) is a first-order research question in atmospheric chemistry. Because of their central role in the tropospheric ozone (O3) cycle, these compounds largely determine the lifetimes of volatile organic compounds, methane and other natural and anthropogenic trace gases. Little is known about the magnitude of natural variability from sources such as biomass burning, soils, and lightning. Records of nitric acid or nitrate (NO3 -) concentrations from polar ice cores offer a means to extend our knowledge of natural NOx variability. However nitrate deposition rates are only indirectly related to atmospheric NOx mixing ratios, and interpretation of concentration data from ice cores is complicated by post-depositional changes. Significantly more could be gained by utilizing the additional information available from nitrate isotope ratios. Recent work by our group and others suggests that the triple-isotopic composition (15N/14N, 18O/16O and 17O/16O) of deposited nitrate can be related directly to NO2/NO ratios and OH and O3 photochemistry, and can possibly be used to infer NOx mixing ratios in the past. Our results also show that there is potential to diagnose changes in NOx source. Our analytical technique, using bacterial denitrification to convert NO3 - to N2O for mass spectrometric measurement, permits the analysis of isotope ratios in solutions with very low (~1 µM) nitrate concentrations, necessary for the low atmospheric and wet-deposition concentrations typical of remote regions. Before we can fully utilize the potential of nitrate-isotope measurements in ice core research, we will need more complete knowledge of the various factors controlling NOx and HNO3 isotope ratios. Both modeling studies and laboratory and field-based measurements will be necessary. This proposal addresses the field-based aspect of the problem, with emphasis on obtaining data from Summit Greenland, where the deep GISP2 and GRIP ice cores were drilled. Our goal is to better characterize the isotopic variability in NOy (= NOx + HNO3, HONO, etc.) in air and snow. We will collect and analyze samples of fresh snowfall, aged snow surfaces, and buried snow in snow pits over the course of several summer and winter field seasons to examine variability in nitrate isotope concentrations due both to diurnal, seasonal, and interannual changes in source, and to depositional and post-depositional processes. We will also task the staff of the Greenland Summit Observatory to collect fresh snowfall and surface snow on a daily basis throughout the year. These snow and firn measurements will be complemented by analysis of isotopes in atmospheric NOy, using a combination of air sampling techniques (mist chambers for HNO3 and HONO, triethanolamine scavengers for NOx and PAN, and aerosol filters for particulate NO3 -). The atmospheric sampling will be conducted in parallel with routine meteorological and atmospheric sampling programs that are ongoing at the Greenland Summit Observatory and funded by NSF, NOAA and ESH, to allow for a comprehensive record of both isotope variability and relevant mixing ratios of important chemical (NOx, O3) and environmental (e.g. temperature, actinic flux) variables. We will also obtain a new 4? diameter ice core to a depth of ~100 m, to obtain a record of the last ~200 ? 300 years at subannual resolution, allowing us to investigate longer term variations in mean nitrate isotope ratios.

Logistics Summary:
Over the course of 3 years, this project plans four trips to Summit, Greenland to characterize variabilty of isotopes in atmospheric NO2, NO, HNO3, and HNO3 in Summit snow. A team of researchers will travel to Summit in July 2005, March through August 2006, and July 2007, where they will conduct continuous atmospheric sampling and will obtain snow and firn samples. During the first summer the team will test their field-sampling equipment and optimize collection protocols. They also plan to document long-term variability in isotope concentrations in 2005 by taking a new 100m core with support from the Ice Coring and Drilling Services Office at University of Wisconsin. In 2006 (and due to a major failure in the freezer where the 2005 ice core was stored), ICDS will drill another 100m core for the project in May or June. One ICDS person will do this work adjacent to the site used to support the Albert/Ferrari firn studies, after that core has been drilled. VPR will coordinate this work and the shipment of the ice core to the home institution. The cost of shipping the core from Scotia, NY, to Washington will be paid by the University of Washington. In 2007, the University of Washington team will be in the field from early June through early August. The project's researchers will also have access to the clean lab area and millipore water at Summit Station. Atmospheric sampling equipment (aerosol filters and mist chambers) will be set up in the old "Freshies Shack" building, near the Bally Building. Additionally, the team will have some radar equipment on site (a a high-frequency system for examining snow properties in the upper 2 m of the snow pack) which they hope to test as opportunity allows. A graduate student (Koenig) will dig one or two snow pits at a field-chosen location along the line out to last year's Steig bore holes. At Summit, this project will also have access to the clean lab area and millipore water. Atmospheric sampling equipment (aerosol filters and mist chambers) will be set up at the Bally Building located near the science trench, and later will be moved to the Satellite Camp. A data logger in the Bally Building will be used to record flow rates and temperatures. VPR will support the team via infrastructure at Summit. In addition, VPR science technicians will collect fresh snow samples when no team members are on-station.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 11 / 2005 07 / 30 / 20054
2005Greenland - Summit07 / 12 / 2005 07 / 28 / 20054
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq03 / 13 / 2006 07 / 14 / 200610
2006Greenland - Summit03 / 15 / 2006 07 / 12 / 200610
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 03 / 2007 08 / 12 / 20075
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 04 / 2007 08 / 07 / 20075
 


Project Title: GEOFON (GEOFOrschungsNetz - Geo Research Network) (Award# DESeismic)

PI: Strollo, Angelo ( strollo@gfz-potsdam.de)
Phone: 49(331) 288.1285 
Institute/Department: GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, GEOFON Program 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: DE\Research/Higher Ed\GFZ Potsdam
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@associates.nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://geofon.gfz-potsdam.de/
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/

Science Summary:
Most knowledge about the deeper interior of the earth is derived from seismological records. Seismic waves generated by earthquakes travel through the globe and sample its major structures on the way. Important information about seismic velocities and densities, structural boundaries, mineral composition, temperature and pressure regimes etc are hidden in each recorded seismogram and can be retrieved by inverse methods. To obtain a complete picture, globally distributed high quality broadband seismological stations are required to record a full seismologically range in terms of frequency content (10**2 – 10**-6 Hz) and dynamic range (10**-9 – 10**-1 m/s). The technical equipment of the GEOFON network fullfills these requirements and is installed in 50 stations worldwide. (Near) real-time data transmission (via the Internet) from most stations makes the GEOFON data immediately available to the scientifc community and provides a perfect tool for rapid determination of earthquake source parameters for scientific purposes but also for earthquake and tsunami early warnings and for use by disaster management. Both near real-time and archive data are openly available to the community from the GEOFON Data Center and are shared with other national and international data centers such as the european ORFEUS Data Center in De Bilt (Netherlands) and the global FDSN/IRIS Data Center (Seattle, USA).

Logistics Summary:
This project makes broadband seismological recordings of global earthquakes at Summit, Greenland. Formerly a part of the temporary GLATIS network, project responsibility has been turned over to GFZ Potsdam. Summit instruments have been included in that institute's GEOFON network. The PI (Hanka, then Strollo starting in 2015) will visit Summit Station annually to service and maintain the project's seismological station. Over the years, in addition to the scheduled maintenance, project personnel have visited Summit for various other project needs: In 2002, they installed an upgraded datalogger for the seismological station and a "Seiscomp" box that connected the station to the Summit LAN for Internet real-time data transmission; in 2004, another major station upgrade overcame technical problems and minimized required local support; finally, in 2007, two technicians raised and relocated the seismometer bunker, routing power and communications connections out of the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory. In 2009, a technician will return to Summit in May to conduct minor maintenance on the seismometer. Station staff will assist the technician as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2010, a team of two researchers will return to Summit in July. The seismometer bunker will be raised and relocated to a new site so that power and communications can continue to be connected out of the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory, which is also being relocated during this time. Station staff will assist the technicians as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2011, one researcher will return to Summit in mid-June to conduct minor maintenance on the seismometer. Summit staff will assist the researcher as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2012, two researchers will return to Summit Station in July to conduct minor maintenance on the seismometer. In 2013, two researchers will return to Summit Station in July with the following objectives: (1) relocate the seismometer to a new trench, and (2) replace the cable between the TAWO and the new seismometer trench. Summit Station staff will assist the researchers as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2014, no researchers will deploy to Summit Station. Instead, station staff will assist with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities as needed. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2015, two researchers will deploy to Summit Station in June to perform maintenance on the seismometer system, including relocating it to a new vault, raising all cables above the snow surface and checking out all hardware. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument, maintain data and power cables above the snow surface and provide as-needed assistance. No researchers will deploy in 2016. Instead, station technical staff replaced a broken seiscompbox. The replacement box is expected in fall 2016; when functioning, it will allow remote mass centering. Two researchers will visit Summit in May-June 2017 to perform maintenance on the seismometer system, including relocating it to a new vault, raising all cables above the snow surface, and checking out all hardware.

CPS will provide travel to/from Summit Station, Summit Station user days, and access to infrastructure (for years with participant travel) and science technician support year-round (re-leveling the instrument, maintain data and power cables above the snow surface and provide as-needed). The PI will pay NSF directly for costs associated with this support. All other logistics will be provided by the PI.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2000Greenland - Summit05 / 15 / 2000 09 / 05 / 20002
2001Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 14 / 2001 1
2001Greenland - Summit07 / 17 / 2001 07 / 19 / 20011
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 07 / 2002 06 / 14 / 20022
2002Greenland - Summit06 / 10 / 2002 06 / 13 / 20022
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 12 / 2003 08 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - Summit05 / 13 / 2003 08 / 01 / 20031
2004Greenland - Summit0
2005Greenland - Summit0
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 08 / 2006 05 / 11 / 20061
2006Greenland - Summit05 / 09 / 2006 05 / 11 / 20061
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 01 / 2007 06 / 08 / 20072
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 04 / 2007 06 / 06 / 20072
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 21 / 2008 04 / 27 / 20081
2008Greenland - Summit04 / 22 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20081
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 11 / 2009 05 / 18 / 20091
2009Greenland - Summit05 / 12 / 2009 05 / 14 / 20091
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 20 / 2010 07 / 30 / 20102
2010Greenland - Summit07 / 21 / 2010 07 / 29 / 20102
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 07 / 2011 06 / 15 / 20111
2011Greenland - Summit06 / 09 / 2011 06 / 13 / 20111
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 14 / 2012 07 / 21 / 20122
2012Greenland - Summit07 / 16 / 2012 07 / 20 / 20122
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 15 / 2013 08 / 01 / 20132
2013Greenland - Summit07 / 16 / 2013 07 / 31 / 20132
2014Greenland - Summit0
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 29 / 2015 06 / 11 / 20152
2015Greenland - Summit06 / 03 / 2015 06 / 09 / 20152
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq2
2017Greenland - Summit2
 


Project Title: Preparation for a Deep Ice Coring Project in West Antarctica (Award# 0230396)

PI: Taylor, Kendrick (kendrick@dri.edu)
Phone:  (702) 673.7375 
Institute/Department: Desert Research Institute, Division of Hydrologic Sciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ANT\AG
Program Manager: Dr. Julie Palais (jpalais@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Instrument Development |

Project Web Site(s):
Logistics: http://icedrill.org/
Institute: http://waisdivide.unh.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Polar ice cores provide critical insights to societally relevant issues and ice core results underpin much of global change research. The Ice Core Working Group (which, under the coordination of the National Ice Core Laboratory Science Management Office, provides guidance to the National Science Foundation and the United States Geological Survey on issues pertaining to ice cores) has recommended a community-wide ice-coring program in West Antarctica at a location referred to as the Inland Site. A deep ice core from there will enable studies of climate and sea-level change and life in extreme environments, and will help educate many new Earth-system scientists. This project is for the design, construction and testing of a deep-ice-coring drill, and for other preparations required to recover a deep ice core from the Inland Site.

Logistics Summary:
Kendrick Taylor will lead a team of investigators planning for a deep coring project in West Antarctica. In support of this project. Ice Coring and Drilling Services (ICDS) is developing a new Deep Ice Sheet Coring (DISC) drill, which will be tested at Greenland’s Summit Station during summer, 2006. VPR will support the project by providing a majority of infrastructure for the drill test. VPR staff and ICDS personnel will prepare the drill site in 2005. In 2006, VPR will coordinate airlift and infrastructure support for the 24-hour drilling program. VPR will provide living/sleeping space and meals for up to 15 ICDS personnel at the station for the duration of the DISC test. At the DISC test site, VPR will provide power, an enclosure to house the drill system, a separate heated work/break structure to support drilling operations, an outhouse, a wireless communications link for Internet access, as well as radios and satellite telephones for voice communications. Once the drill site set-up is complete in 2006, VPR will maintain continuous power for the project (maintenance and fueling of the generators), provide heavy equipment operations support to the site as needed, food and shelter for the drill team, emergency medical support, and any other support as needed/requested.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 12 / 2005 08 / 13 / 200511
2005Greenland - Summit06 / 13 / 2005 08 / 11 / 200511
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 19 / 2006 07 / 31 / 200619
2006Greenland - Summit04 / 21 / 2006 07 / 26 / 200619
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: A Unique Opportunity for In-Situ Measurement of Seasonally-Varying Firn Densification at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0352584)

PI: Waddington, Edwin D (edw@uw.edu)
Phone:  (206) 543.4585 
Institute/Department: U of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://coldclimes.blogspot.com/
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
In this project we will make detailed measurements of the temporal and spatial variations of firn compaction. This will advance knowledge and understanding within the field of ice deformation and across different fields, such as remote sensing, snow morphology, and paleoclimatology. We will make these detailed measurements throughout 2 winter and 3 summer seasons using the concept of Borehole Optical Stratigraphy, which uses a borehole camera to record details of a borehole wall. These details can be tracked over time to determine vertical motion and strain, which in the shallow depth of our study is dominated by firn compaction. Quantitative understanding of firn compaction is important for remote-sensing mass-balance studies, which seek to measure and interpret the changing height of the ice sheet; the surface can rise due to snow accumulation, and fall due to ice flow and increased densification rates. Quantitative knowledge of all 3 processes is essential. Evidence suggests that the rate of densification, which is thermally activated, undergoes a seasonal cycle, related to the seasonal cycle of temperature. When interpreting trapped-gas data from an ice core for paleoclimate, it is important to know at what point the gas was actually trapped in the ice. The pores in the ice do not close off until deep in the firn, leading to a difference between the age of the ice and the age of the trapped gas. If summer high temperatures have more impact on compaction than mean annual temperatures, the gas-age/ice-age offset might be incorrectly calculated. Greater understanding of firn densification physics will help the interpretation of these records.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative between 0352584 (Waddington, UW) and 0352511 (McConnell, DRI) will study firn densification at several locations in Greenland using optical logging techniques the investigators developed. In 2004, this project will work closely with that of Lamorey/Waddington 0082469/0083132, combining resources and field team members. A team of two will spend 3 weeks at Summit during the setting up the winter-over experiment, collecting preliminary data, and training science technicians. The team will also conduct comparison studies at Raven for one week. At the end of the summer, a field team member will return to Raven for repeat measurements (1 week). Winter-over measurements will be carried out by science technicians already stationed at Summit as part of the winter-over science program. In 2005 and 2006, Robert Hawley will return to Summit for approximately one week in May to maintain and repair the experimental equipment, collect data, and train any new science technicians. In 2005 two British Antarctic Survey (BAS) participants will join Hawley at Summit to run high frequency Ground Penetrating Radar to obtain a detailed look at the spatial variability in firn layering. Hawley will also conduct comparison studies at Raven for one week in May of each year. At the end of the summer, he will return to Raven for a day visit to repeat the measurements. At the end of the summer 2006, he will return to Raven and Summit for a day to repeat the measurements. Accompanying him in August will be 4 staff from the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) who are working on a documentary on Greenland, climate change, sea level, etc. They plan to feature the borehole optical stratigraphy research in their documentary, which is expected to be a main feature in the Hall of Planet Earth (estimated to be viewed by 10 million visitors per year). In addition to trips to Summit Station and Camp Raven, the field team will also visit Russell Glacier via truck after they return to Kangerlussuaq. In August 2007, Hawley will return to Summit and Raven (under a no-cost extension) to lay the ground work for an additional year of logging. First, he will visit Raven to make borehole measurements there. While at Raven he also will assist Steve Warren (University of Washington, 0612636) in collecting snow samples. At Summit, Hawley will maintain project property, including the weather station, train new wintering staff, and make "logs of opportunity" in recently drilled boreholes near camp. In addition, he will inspect the main GISP 2 borehole casing to establish what (if any) repairs need to be made. In 2008, Hawley will travel to Summit (but not Raven Camp) to retrieve and retrograde project equipment. In addition to closing out his winter-over experiment, he will undertake (as time and resources allow) 3 opportunistic experiments/activities: 1) Extend GRIP casing, if Danish scientist Dorthe Dahl-Jensen determines it is needed, and provides casing to do the job. Time to complete: one day total. 2) Make P-res measurements: this effort is collaborative with the BAS/Hindmarsh (NERCRadar) project, if time permits; the team will collect phase-sensitive radar sounding profiles at the borehole site to attempt to use the radar to measure vertical strain (in comparison to this project’s video measurements). 3) Make density-log of SUFA06: this effort is collaborative with the SPRI/Morris project. This work at the “Sandy/Zoe” site entails 40 hours of logging. Hawley plans an intensive logging effort, and expects to remain overnight at the site and complete the work in 3 to 4 days. CPS will provide infrastructure support in Kangerlussuaq, as well as access to infrastructure and services at Summit, including cold weather clothing, sleep kits and tents, use of snowmachines and communications gear.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 25 / 2004 07 / 31 / 20041
2004Greenland - Raven05 / 16 / 2004 05 / 29 / 20044
2004Greenland - Summit05 / 29 / 2004 06 / 05 / 20042
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 16 / 2005 08 / 12 / 20053
2005Greenland - Raven05 / 18 / 2005 08 / 10 / 20051
2005Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2005 05 / 24 / 20053
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 21 / 2006 08 / 23 / 20065
2006Greenland - Raven05 / 22 / 2006 08 / 16 / 20065
2006Greenland - Summit05 / 24 / 2006 08 / 18 / 20065
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 05 / 2007 08 / 23 / 20071
2007Greenland - Raven08 / 07 / 2007 08 / 08 / 20071
2007Greenland - Summit08 / 09 / 2007 08 / 21 / 20071
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 21 / 2008 08 / 01 / 20081
2008Greenland - Summit07 / 22 / 2008 07 / 31 / 20081
 


Generated from:
 
Parameters used to generate this report:Region = "Greenland", Location = "Summit", Season = "2006", IPY = "ALL" 
     Number of projects returned based on your query parameters = 30
 
ARLSS_ProjectsDetail