Arctic Field Projects



Project Title: Collaborative Research: Firn Structure, Interstitial Processes and the Composition of Firn Air at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0520445)

PI: Albert, Mary Remley (Mary.R.Albert@dartmouth.edu)
Phone:  (603) 646.0277 
Institute/Department: Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.erdc.usace.army.mil/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
An important issue of our time involves questions of how human activity has been impacted by the atmospheric composition of our planet. A major area as part of the International Polar Year (IPY) involves developing a better understanding of past climates and the impact of anthropogenic activity on the Earth's atmosphere. Because instrumental records of atmospheric chemistry are limited, natural archives of atmospheric composition must be made, such as polar firn. Its porous nature, tens of meters in depth, permits interstitial diffusion of gases over time with the oldest air at the bottom of the firn column which allows the sampling of large quantities of pre-industrial air to explore anthropogenic effects on the atmosphere. This project will investigate the underlying physics controlling firn's ability to store atmospheric samples from the past. The Principal Investigators will make high-resolution measurements of the diffusivity profile, permeability profile, and accompanying microstructure at Summit from the surface to pore close-off, and compare the results to the diffusivity profile inferred from measurements of firn air chemical composition. They will partner with Dr. Atsumu Ohmura, Swiss Federal Institute, and Dr. Christophe Ferrari of LGGE, France. This project has four goals: 1) Quantify the dependence of interstitial transport processes on firn microstructure, and determine the dependence of gas diffusivity on microstructure characteristics from the surface down to the pore close-off depth; 2) Quantify post-depositional changes in the physical properties of snow and firn and use measured properties of firn and meteorological data to evaluate and develop models of the physical transport processes which drive firnification where temperature gradients are large. 3) Conduct firn air chemical measurements as the firn characteristics are determined, and compare the co-registered diffusivity profile inferred from the firn air chemistry measurements to the high-resolution tracer gas measurements made on the firn core itself. 4) Use the measurements of firn air composition and firn structure to better quantify the differences between atmospheric composition (present and past), and the air trapped in both the firn, and in air bubbles within ice. Broader Impacts: This study will establish quantitative relationships that will enable a better understanding of the firn as a repository of past atmospheric composition, but will also enable us to understand mechanisms that may impact firn air composition at other sites. Results of the research will be published in journal articles and made widely available. This project will form one part of the PhD dissertation of a student from Dartmouth. Several undergraduates will be involved. They will interact with students from Switzerland and France to design and construct an IPY museum exhibit, at the Montshire Museum of Science in Norwich, Vermont. The exhibit will be interactive and will illustrate the ability of snow and firn to serve as an archive of important events of the past. It will allow the viewer to act as the "detective" to track down the meaning of different chemical composition profiles in the firn air.

Logistics Summary:
For this collaborative study of firn air and structure -- 0520445 (Albert, CRREL LEAD), 0520564 (Severinghaus, Scripps) and 0520460 (Battle, Bowdoin) -- investigators will conduct field work at Summit Station, Greenland. Beginning in 2006 a field team of up to 6 researchers and Ice Coring and Drilling Services (ICDS) personnel will travel to Summit, Greenland, for a 6-week field season. In year 1 the team will collaborate with the French team led by Cristophe Ferrari, and with the support of ICDS, will drill firn cores for gas sampling. The cores will be shipped to CRREL for later physical measurements. During all three years of the grant, the team will collaborate with the Swiss team lead by Atsumu Ohmura to conduct near-surface studies to measure the changes of the physical characteristics of surface snow and firn over time. The team collected the firn core and gas samples as planned in 2006, but shipment inefficiencies compromised the material. As a result, the researchers will drill another firn core in 2007 and repeat the firn air sampling, which will increase the scope of their plans for that year. PolarTREC teacher Jo Dodds (0632401JD) will join the field team for their work during that season. In 2008, the team will return to Summit for surface measurements. Approximately 5 people will spend 2-3 weeks retrieving and measuring snow metamorphism in the top meters of firn, both in snow pits and using a hand auger, and comparing the measurements to radar & radiometer measurements. ICDS will not drill this year, though they will provide a hand auger, shipped separately to Scotia. The team will conduct the permeability, thermal conductivity, and other measurements in two cold rooms (covered pits) near the stake forest, in the same pit in which they have been measuring properties other years. Approximately 5 ice core boxes of firn samples will be sent back to CRREL for analysis. Tom Neumann (UVM) will join the field team to conduct comparison radar measurements. These measurements are experimental, pulled by a snowmobile, and can be done in any undisturbed snow area. Neumann will pull the radar in a grid pattern ~ 1km x .5 km. The radar targets will be the Steffen AWS and drill areas from the 2007 campaign.

CPS will support the project via ANG arrangements, user days in Greenland, access to Summit infrastructure, establishment of two plywood covered pits or other cold-room measurement sites at Summit, and will arrange transport of the core from Summit to CRREL in Hanover, NH, and of the ice samples to Scripps Institute of Oceanography in La Jolla, California (2007). ICDS will provide drill support in drilling years. All other logistics will be handled by the investigators from the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 21 / 2006 06 / 12 / 20066
2006Greenland - Summit05 / 22 / 2006 06 / 07 / 20066
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 14 / 2007 06 / 08 / 20079
2007Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2007 06 / 07 / 20079
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 02 / 2008 06 / 28 / 20086
2008Greenland - Summit06 / 03 / 2008 06 / 24 / 20085
 


Project Title: Thermistor string testing at Summit Station (Award# 0538495)

PI: Albert, Mary Remley (Mary.R.Albert@dartmouth.edu)
Phone:  (603) 646.0277 
Institute/Department: Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Julie Palais (jpalais@nsf.gov)


Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This project is based on scientific investigations along two overland traverses in East Antarctica: one going from the Norwegian Troll Station (72deg. S, 2deg. E) to the United States South Pole Station (90deg. S, 0deg. E) in 2007-2008; and a return traverse starting at South Pole Station and ending at Troll Station by a different route in 2008-2009. The project will investigate climate change in East Antarctica, with the goals of understanding climate variability in Dronning Maud Land of East Antarctica on time scales of years to centuries and determining the surface and net mass balance of the ice sheet in this sector to understand its impact on sea level. The project will also investigate the impact of atmospheric and oceanic variability and human activities on the chemical composition of firn and ice in the region, and will revisit areas and sites first explored by traverses in the 1960's, for detection of possible changes and to establish benchmark datasets for future research efforts. For the Arctic portion of the grant, in 2007 researchers will field test some thermistor string in an empty borehole at Summit Station, Greenland, in preparation for the Antarctic work.

Logistics Summary:
As this database focuses on research conducted in the Arctic, information for this grant is limited to the 2007 field testing of thermistor string at Summit Station, Greenland. One researcher from Konrad Steffen's AWS research team (NASAAWS) will spend about one week at Summit testing a thermistor string in an empty borehole, down to 50 - 100 meters depth. Logistics for the Arctic field work will be carried under the NASAAWS grant in this database.

For support related to the Arctic work in 2007, review the record in this database for grant NASAAWS.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2007Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Core Measurements at Summit, Greenland Environmental Observatory (Award# 0336450)

PI: Bales, Roger (rbales@ucmerced.edu)
Phone:  (209) 724.4348 
Institute/Department: U of California, Merced, School of Engineering 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Martin Jeffries (martin.jeffries@navy.mil)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Geological Sciences | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://cdp.ucar.edu/
Data: http://www.aoncadis.org/projects/core_atmospheric_...
Institute: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
This project involves long-term core measurements of the Arctic atmosphere, snow and other Earth system components at the Summit Greenland Environmental Observatory (GEOSummit). GEOSummit was the site of the GISP2 ice core, completed in 1993, and has been a site of atmospheric, snow and other geophysical measurements ever since. It is currently the only high-altitude site for atmospheric and related measurements in the Arctic. As global atmospheric temperatures rise, the Arctic environment is expected to undergo more rapid change in response to human influences than are other parts of the Earth system, in part due to feedbacks related to decreasing snowcover and sea-ice extent. Observed changes in Arctic temperature, atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric circulation are expected to have potentially broad but uncertain effects on Arctic systems. A number of processes that could amplify atmospheric change need consistent measurements and systematic study. For example, recent evidence indicates that important atmospheric chemical constituents undergo temperature-dependent exchange with ice/snow, and that some species are photochemically transformed and/or produced within the sunlit surface snowpack. Because changes in Arctic atmospheric circulation are cyclic over 4-5 year or longer times, long-duration measurements are needed to understand circulation and to place observed changes in a long-term perspective. The project involves continuing and expanding the core suite of baseline measurements at GEOSummit for a five-year period, beginning in spring 2003. It also provides for the continued operation of GEOSummit as long-term site for year-round disciplinary and interdisciplinary measurements and research. Baseline measurements include meteorology, radiation, tropospheric chemistry, snow properties and snow chemistry. Some measurements will be made in cooperation with NOAA-CMDL, e.g. carbon cycle, chlorofluorocarbons, radiation, and ozone. GEOSummit staff will also carry out measurements initiated by individual investigators. The atmospheric gas-phase and aerosol species being studied are all either sensitive indicators of anthropogenic impacts on regional and global atmospheric change, or are important chemically coupled species whose concentrations may be strongly influenced by changes in the Arctic, including changes in snow/ice surface temperatures, ice/snow cover, and atmospheric circulation. Related chemical measurements in the snow provide the needed link to investigate feedbacks between Arctic climate change, air-snow exchange, and atmospheric composition. Understanding this change requires a quantitative understanding of the environmental controls (e.g., temperature, radiation, humidity, ozone concentration) on air-snow feedbacks, and the impact of these processes on the entire Arctic atmosphere. Broader impacts. The measurements at GEOSummit have wide applicability for detecting, understanding and modeling Arctic change, and are responsive to a number of community initiatives, including the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmospheric Watch, SEARCH (A Study of Environmental Arctic Change) and other proposed initiatives. As such, this project provides the platform and baseline measurements for a wide number of scientists and individual research projects. There are at least three main broader impacts of the project. First and foremost, by definition an environmental observatory enhances infrastructure for research and education. Second GEOSummit serves as a vehicle to broadly disseminate scientific understanding of the Arctic system by making data and information widely available, both real time data and scientific understanding that is developed using those data. Third, education of the global community is an objective of the long-term measurements, using www-available data and educational materials. GEOSummit was chosen as the site for long-term measurements because it is in the remote free troposphere, and the chemical compositional changes observed in the long term reflect wide-scale change, uncomplicated by local biochemical processes, or by local changes in land use or emission patterns. The international science community has chosen Summit for multidisciplinary, multi-investigator studies, infrastructure is in place, and a number of Arctic researchers are collaborating there. The current project builds on the intermittent (but inadequate in terms of development of reliable models) atmospheric and surface-snow measurements that have been conducted over the past decade.

Logistics Summary:
This project. Long Term Observations (LTO), will conduct a suite of year-round core measurements from 2003 through 2008. In addition to core measurements, staff will also carry out measurements initiated by up to 15-20 individual investigators, including a significant sampling campaign by NOAA (see NOAASummit). Investigators from the project will travel to Summit annually to set-up, monitor, and repair experiments as well as to conduct on-site training of the science technicians. In June 2004, two field team members assisted the Summit crew with laying out and marking the boundaries for the undisturbed, no traffic, and clean air sectors with green-flagged bamboo. In summer 2005, two team members from University of California, Merced, travelled to Summit for a single flight period. While on-site, the team conducted experiment maintenance, trained technicians, and worked with UNAVCO representatives to gather data for a topographic map of Summit. Additionally, they travelled to Nuuk to deliver a GEOSummit presentation to the Greenland Technical Society. For 2006 and onward, science technicians will continue experiments to gather baseline measurements at Summit. The PIs will combine any required site visits for this grant with fieldwork planned under other funded campaigns. In 2007, Ryan Banta will take over as the POC for the LTO grant. He and Roger Bales, along with Mark Twickler (Science Coordination Office, SCO, 0455623), will visit Summit for familiarization. In 2008, the team will not visit Summit but technicians and camp staff will continue regular maintenance to the projects. Beginning in summer 2009, measurements for this grant will be continued under 0856845 (McConnell, DRI). CPS is responsible for hiring science technicians to support the sampling and for providing the Summit infrastructure to support the work. This project combines fieldwork in support of the Summit Science Coordination Office (SCO) grant, 0455623.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 28 / 2003 08 / 02 / 20031
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 29 / 2003 08 / 01 / 20031
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 13 / 2004 07 / 15 / 20041
2004Greenland - Summit06 / 14 / 2004 06 / 17 / 20041
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 08 / 2005 08 / 13 / 20052
2005Greenland - Nuuk08 / 04 / 2005 08 / 08 / 20052
2005Greenland - Summit08 / 09 / 2005 08 / 10 / 20052
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 18 / 2007 06 / 22 / 20072
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 19 / 2007 06 / 21 / 20072
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 22 / 2008 07 / 24 / 20081
2008Greenland - Summit07 / 22 / 2008 07 / 24 / 20081
 


Project Title: Development of a Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer for Measurements of Trace Gases in the Polar Troposphere (Award# 0421016)

PI: Bales, Roger (rbales@ucmerced.edu)
Phone:  (209) 724.4348 
Institute/Department: U of California, Merced, School of Engineering 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\MRI
Program Manager: Dr. Martin Jeffries (martin.jeffries@navy.mil)
Discipline(s): | Instrument Development |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.geosummit.org
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
The Arctic environment is undergoing rapid changes, possibly due in part to anthropogenic causes. A number of these changes involve interaction with, and possibly feedback from, the atmosphere, so it is particularly important to investigate and monitor processes that could amplify atmospheric change. Complex exchange processes in the ocean-ice-atmosphere system often influence the levels of important atmospheric trace gases, such as the hydroxyl radical and ozone, and trace species are also photochemically transformed or produced within the sunlit snowpack. Because changes in Arctic atmospheric circulation are cyclic over 4-5 year or longer times, long-duration measurements are needed to understand circulation and to place observed changes in a long-term perspective. This proposal will include the development of a new generation of multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instruments to continually measure concentrations of the important trace species formaldehyde (HCHO), nitrous acid (HONO), nitric oxide (NO2), and halogen oxides in the Arctic. The instrument will augment ongoing observations at the Summit Greenland Environmental Observatory (GEOSummit), located at an elevation of 3100 m on the Greenland ice sheet. GEOSummit is currently the only high-altitude site for atmospheric and related measurements in the Arctic. The proposal has a strong broader impacts, especially in the area of education.

Logistics Summary:
This project will develop, install, and operate a new generation of multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instruments that will measure atmospheric trace gas absorption as a supplement to ongoing observations at Summit Station. The investigators plan to install MAX-DOAS at Summit in 2006. After installation and testing, the instrument will operate autonomously year-round with station science technician support. The researchers will return annually throughout the life of the grant for service and maintenance. In 2007 and 2008, PI Stutz will do any work needed on the instrument while visiting Summit Station on the Jack Dibb-led collaborative (0612075) with which he also has a grant. In 2009, a team will visit Summit Station in May to remove MAX-DOAS instruments prior to the Green House relocation. CPS will support the project via science technician services and access to the Summit Station infrastructure.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 28 / 2006 08 / 23 / 20062
2006Greenland - Summit07 / 29 / 2006 08 / 18 / 20062
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2007Greenland - Summit0
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2008Greenland - Summit0
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 27 / 2009 06 / 06 / 20092
2009Greenland - Summit05 / 29 / 2009 06 / 04 / 20092
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Science Coordination Office for Summit Station, Greenland (Award# 0455623)

PI: Bales, Roger (rbales@ucmerced.edu)
Phone:  (209) 724.4348 
Institute/Department: U of California, Merced, School of Engineering 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL
Program Manager: Ms. Renee Crain (rcrain@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach | Legacy Projects |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This activity will continue support for an office that assists the community of scientist that uses an international research site on the summit of the Greenland ice sheet. Over 20 groups from the U.S. and Europe are using the site and others have projects pending. One key to success of this shared facility is to closely coordinate measurements, share facility resources and exchange data of common interest between investigators to make most efficient use of the facility and resources. Since this coordination goes well beyond what individual investigators can efficiently do through one-to-one interactions, NSF has supported a Science Coordination Office (SCO) since 1999 to work with scientists, the logistic contractor and others to plan both near and long term activities that require strong involvement from the science community. This proposal provides for continuation of the SCO, which has three main objectives: Plan and coordinating measurements including sharing of facilities and personnel, data and requests to funding agencies for upgrades and maintenance to facilitate science;working with the logistics contractor and NSF to plan, develop and operate the station to serve a growing international and multidisciplinary community while maintaining scientific integrity of the site during the transition; and carrying out strategic planning, working with international and national agencies who are involved with supporting activities at Summit, facilitating communication between investigators and reporting to funding agencies.

Logistics Summary:
The Summit Science Coordination Office (SCO) was established to coordinate measurements between investigators and the sharing of facilities and personnel on-site; to provide scientific requirements to NSF, its support contractor and European partners as the facility is developed; and to stimulate sharing of data among science projects. In support of these goals, SCO members will conduct regular trips to Summit, often combined with already-planned fieldwork in support of other grants. CPS will work closely with the SCO to develop and implement plans for Summit that meet the evolving needs of the science community. In 2007, 2008 and 2009 one member of this SCO grant will travel to Summit, Greenland. In 2010 SCO members will visit Summit as part of other planned deployments. CPS will work closely with the SCO in developing and implementing plans for Summit that meet the evolving needs of the science community.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2005Greenland - Summit0
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 18 / 2007 06 / 22 / 20071
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 19 / 2007 06 / 21 / 20071
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 21 / 2008 08 / 24 / 20082
2008Greenland - Summit07 / 22 / 2008 08 / 21 / 20082
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 17 / 2009 08 / 24 / 20091
2009Greenland - Summit08 / 18 / 2009 08 / 21 / 20091
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2010Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Firn structure, interstitial processes and the composition of firn air at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0520460)

PI: Battle, Mark (mbattle@bowdoin.edu)
Phone:  (207) 725.3410 
Institute/Department: Bowdoin College, Department of Physics and Astronomy 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.erdc.usace.army.mil/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
An important issue of our time involves questions of how human activity has been impacted by the atmospheric composition of our planet. A major area as part of the International Polar Year (IPY) involves developing a better understanding of past climates and the impact of anthropogenic activity on the Earth's atmosphere. Because instrumental records of atmospheric chemistry are limited, natural archives of atmospheric composition must be made, such as polar firn. Its porous nature, tens of meters in depth, permits interstitial diffusion of gases over time with the oldest air at the bottom of the firn column which allows the sampling of large quantities of pre-industrial air to explore anthropogenic effects on the atmosphere. This project will investigate the underlying physics controlling firn's ability to store atmospheric samples from the past. The Principal Investigators will make high-resolution measurements of the diffusivity profile, permeability profile, and accompanying microstructure at Summit from the surface to pore close-off, and compare the results to the diffusivity profile inferred from measurements of firn air chemical composition. They will partner with Dr. Atsumu Ohmura, Swiss Federal Institute, and Dr. Christophe Ferrari of LGGE, France. This project has four goals: 1) Quantify the dependence of interstitial transport processes on firn microstructure, and determine the dependence of gas diffusivity on microstructure characteristics from the surface down to the pore close-off depth; 2) Quantify post-depositional changes in the physical properties of snow and firn and use measured properties of firn and meteorological data to evaluate and develop models of the physical transport processes which drive firnification where temperature gradients are large. 3) Conduct firn air chemical measurements as the firn characteristics are determined, and compare the co-registered diffusivity profile inferred from the firn air chemistry measurements to the high-resolution tracer gas measurements made on the firn core itself. 4) Use the measurements of firn air composition and firn structure to better quantify the differences between atmospheric composition (present and past), and the air trapped in both the firn, and in air bubbles within ice. Broader Impacts: This study will establish quantitative relationships that will enable a better understanding of the firn as a repository of past atmospheric composition, but will also enable us to understand mechanisms that may impact firn air composition at other sites. Results of the research will be published in journal articles and made widely available. This project will form one part of the PhD dissertation of a student from Dartmouth. Several undergraduates will be involved. They will interact with students from Switzerland and France to design and construct an IPY museum exhibit, at the Montshire Museum of Science in Norwich, Vermont. The exhibit will be interactive and will illustrate the ability of snow and firn to serve as an archive of important events of the past. It will allow the viewer to act as the "detective" to track down the meaning of different chemical composition profiles in the firn air.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative study of firn air and structure: 0520445 (Albert, CRREL LEAD), 0520564 (Severinghaus, Scripps) and 0520460 (Battle, Bowdoin), will conduct field work at Summit Station, Greenland. Logistics details can be found under 0520445.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Greenland - Summit0
2008Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Tumbleweed Rover Test (Award# NASABehar)

PI: Behar, Alberto (alberto.behar@jpl.nasa.gov)
Phone:  (818) 687.8627 
Institute/Department: National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Jet Propulsion Laboratory 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Thomas Wagner (thomas.wagner@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Instrument Development |

Project Web Site(s):
Media: http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/spotlight/tumbleweedAll.h...
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/

Science Summary:
The Tumbleweed Ball is a large, inflated ball that can be windblown and used to explore the surfaces of Mars, Venus, Titan, and perhaps Saturn’s moon Io (supersonic volcanic wind) and Neptune’s moon Triton (significant surface wind erosion). For Venus and Titan, the ball could also be used as a superpressure balloon that could make periodic descents to the surface be means of brief venting of helium at altitude, causing descent, and then dropping light ballast or experiments on the surface, causing ascent. Variations of PBO balloon materials studied for Venus and Titan could potentially be used for the Tumbleweed on both planets. For each of these applications, various central payloads would be held in place by a series of lines that extend to the outside of the ball. Various versions of this basic concept have been proposed in the past in the U.S. and France, but JPL is the first to actually develop the ball and prove its feasibility experimentally and analytically. In the case of Mars, the 6-m diameter ball is easily capable of climbing over one meter rocks and up 25º hills (well over 99.9% of the Martian surface) with typical global winds that occur during the southern summer. The ball could also potentially be used as a parachute on Mars (30 m/sec descent rate) and as an airbag. Similar large balls but without the central payload have also been shown to be useful as tires for an Inflatable Rover that has been successfully tested at JPL.

Logistics Summary:
With this NASA project, the investigator will travel to several arctic sites to test JPL's "Tumbleweed Rover," a 2m inflated ball containing an interior payload. The ball can travel over various uneven surfaces while the interior instruments take measurements. In winter 2002 the ball was tested at Barrow, Alaska, with support provided by BASC. 2003 and 2004 deployments at Summit were supported by CPS. In 2007, CPS technicians were scheduled to deploy another Tumbleweed Rover at Summit Station but the deployment was unsuccessful due to technical difficulties with wind and temperatures. The PI planned to deploy the Tumbleweed Rover at Summit in May of 2008 after visiting Swiss Camp for field work supporting his NASA moulin study (NASAMoulin in this database). The Summit visit was cancelled due to delays in completing the Moulin field work. CPS will provide ANG travel arrangements, access to and use of Summit infrastructure, including snowmobile use for an afternoon and lab space. Aside from user days in Kangerlussuaq, the NSF will cover logistics outlined in this plan. All other logistics will be arranged by the PI and paid via the grant.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2002Alaska - Barrow11 / 01 / 2002 12 / 01 / 20021
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 14 / 2003 08 / 02 / 20031
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 15 / 2003 07 / 29 / 20031
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 02 / 2004 05 / 08 / 20041
2004Greenland - Summit05 / 03 / 2004 05 / 06 / 20041
2007Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Ice Coring and Drilling Services (Award# ICDS)

PI: Bentley, Charles R (bentley@geology.wisc.edu)
Phone:  
Institute/Department: U of Wisconsin, Madison, Geophysical & Polar Research Center 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL
Program Manager: Dr. Julie Palais (jpalais@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://icedrill.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
The University of Wisconsin will support projects funded by NSF's Office of Polar Programs (OPP) by taking ice-cores from, or drilling into, glaciers and ice-sheets. This involves maintaining the NSF's current inventory of drill systems and making them available to science projects, or operating them for projects. The projects are expected to be diverse, and to vary from year to year. They will occur at both poles, and at more temperate and high altitude sites. University of Wisconsin will work with the science community to define requirements and scope solutions before formal proposals are submitted to OPP. Additional engineering development to occur during the first year of the contract will include the development of a drill to rapidly make shot-holes in polar firn, and another system to prepare a 300 meter bore-hole in the ice sheet at the South Pole for a broad-band seismometer array. A longer term activity will be to evaluate the current 5.2" deep drill system to recommend improvement, and make a development plan to implement the improvements.

Logistics Summary:
This group deploys with various projects around the Greenland ice sheet to provide drilling support services. Specific seasonal logistics information will be carried under the PI's project for whom the drilling services are provided.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2004Greenland - Summit0
2005Greenland - Summit0
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Radical Chemistry over Sunlit Snow: Interactions between HOx and Halogen Chemistry at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0612426)

PI: Blake, Donald R (drblake@uci.edu)
Phone:  (949) 824.4195 
Institute/Department: U of California, Irvine, Department of Chemistry 
IPY Project? YES
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\AGS
Program Manager: Ms. Anne-Marie Schmoltner (aschmolt@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
IPY: http://classic.ipy.org/index.php
Data: http://transport.nilu.no/projects/polarcat-1
IPY: http://www.ipy.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Researchers on this collaborative project will investigate the importance of halogen chemistry in OH and HO2 radical production and loss above sunlit snow, and identify significant halogen sources and transport mechanisms to this unique and remote environment. Methods: They will integrate a set of field measurements focused on the impact of halogen chemistry on the production and fate of free radicals in the Summit, Greenland surface layer. They plan to make the first measurements of BrO in the boundary layer at Summit. In addition to direct measurements of HOx, the radical precursors and sinks thought to play an important role in the OH budget in this environment (O3, NO, NO2, H2O, HONO, RONO2, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3COOH, CO, CH4, and reactive NMHCs) will be measured, as well as a number of halogen species (BrO, IO, OIO, and soluble gas phase bromide). Measurements of various mercury species and NMHC oxidation products will provide additional evidence of reactive halogens. Rates of photochemical reactions will be measured above and within the snow. Measurements over a wide range of environmental (e.g., temperature, light, wind speed) conditions as well as a variety of transport regimes will help to discriminate the relative importance of halogens on HOx photochemical cycling. Field measurements will be interpreted with the aid of state-of-the-art back-trajectory tools (FLEXPART) and by employing a photochemical steady-state box-model to determine the HOx cycling within the Summit boundary layer. An advanced 1D multiphase chemical transport model (MISTRA) allows the assessment of the researchers’ understanding of HOx/halogen interactions, the discrimination of the proposed halogen sources, as well as allowing the extrapolation of their observations to other snow covered regions. Broader impacts: With only a handful of HOx measurements in snow covered regions to date, lack of understanding of HOx photochemical cycling is not surprising. If halogens play a role in the HOx cycling at Summit, atmospheric modelers will need to adjust their chemical mechanisms accordingly. This project provides an unusual opportunity for graduate and undergraduate students to participate in ground-breaking science. The researchers place a high priority on conveying their excitement and the significance of the program to students and the public through web pages tracking field campaigns and via outreach presentations in local schools. Direct teacher participation will ensure the development of materials suitable for dissemination and use in schools nationwide. The team will work with news media - including radio, newspapers, and television - to provide broad public exposure.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration is composed of the following: 0612075 (Dibb, UNH LEAD), 0612387 (Huey, Gatech), 0612136 (Lefer, U of Houston), 0612426 (Blake, UCI), 0612568 (Brooks, NOAA), and 0612279 (Stutz, UCLA). The researchers will study photochemical processes during intensive sampling seasons planned for the summer of 2007, when sunlight is at a maximum, and spring of 2008, during rapid temperature changes. At those times, a field team of 10-12 will participate in a 6-8 week effort to install experiments, and then to collect data from and maintain the same. Logistics details will be carried in this database under 0612075, Dibb.

For field support details, please see the record for grant 0612075.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2007Greenland - Summit0
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2008Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: NSF Office of Polar Programs UV Spectral Irradiance Monitoring Network (UVSIMN) (Award# UVSIMN)

PI: Booth, Charles R (booth@biospherical.com )
Phone:  (619) 686.1888 
Institute/Department: Biospherical Instruments, Inc.,  
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ANT\ABM
Program Manager: Dr. Roberta Marinelli ( rmarinel@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate\Radiation |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://cdp.ucar.edu/
Institute: http://www.biospherical.com/NSF/default.asp

Science Summary:
The National Science Foundation (NSF) Ultraviolet (UV) Spectroradiometer Network was established in 1987 by the Division of Polar Programs in response to serious ozone depletion reported in Antarctica. Biospherical Instruments installed the first instruments in 1988 and has operated the network continuously since. The network was the first automated, high-resolution UV scanning spectroradiometer network in the world. It continues to successfully operate in the harshest environments on Earth (Antarctica and the Arctic), and is currently providing data to researchers studying the effects of ozone depletion on terrestrial and marine biological systems. Network data is also used to ground-truth satellite observations, develop and verify models of atmospheric light transmission, and evaluate ozone depletion impacts. The network currently consists of six SUV-100 scanning spectroradiometers installed at three sites in Antarctica (McMurdo Station, Palmer Station, and South Pole Station), one site in Argentina (Ushuaia, Tierra del Fuego), and two sites in the United States (Barrow, AK, and San Diego. CA). The San Diego site is a multi-purpose system facility, and used for training site operators, testing new configurations, and collecting data. In July/August 2004, a Biospherical Instruments Inc. SUV-150B scanning spectroradiometer system will be installed, and begin monitoring at Summit, Greenland. This system is to be installed in the “Green House” facility. Dependent on the time of the year, solar scans are conducted quarter-hourly when the sun is above the horizon. A complementary GUV filter-detector spectroradiometer is part of the system, which provides one minute averaged global irradiance values at several UV wavelengths. Ancillary data (Eppley PSP, Total Scene Irradiance (TSI) sensor, various system temperatures, and monochromator position) are collected over 24 hours at intervals ranging from 1 to 60 minutes. Data are collected on a reduced schedule at night. At sites inside the Arctic or Antarctic circles, instrument operation is on a reduced scan schedule during the winter darkness. Dependent on internet bandwidth and connection reliability, our objectives for data availability are: - Real-time data updates (hourly - limited due to bandwidth) from the GUV filter-detector radiometers. This data will have one-minute resolution (an average of 60-120 samples per channel, per minute), of 30+ data products, available as it is for our other sites, e.g.: www.biospherical.com/nsf/login/GuvSAN.asp (except Ushuaia, where a fixed-IP full time internet connection is cost prohibitive). - We provide weekly updates of "preliminary" data from the SUV scanning spectroradiometers, as available at: www.biospherical.com/nsf/login/update.asp . - Post-processed, final QA/QC'd data products, including full spectra, are made available on a schedule to be determined – typically annual. These data are characteristically the same as what can be obtained at www.biospherical.com/nsf/login/login.asp . - We also provide grantees with additional data products; weighted integrals, preliminary spectra, etc. from the SUVs, with greater frequency of availability, in support of specific scientific protocols. A request in the SIP and to nsfdata@biospherical.com by the grantee(s), is the method to begin the process for obtaining this additional support.

Logistics Summary:
Biospherical Instruments Inc. (BSI) operates the NSF OPP’s Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitoring Network (UVSIMN). One of the UVSIMN's systems is located at Summit, Greenland. In 2004 two BSI engineers visited Summit Station to install a scanning spectroradiometer that made Summit Camp a part of the NSF Polar Programs UV Spectroradiometer Network (as it was then called). In 2005, BSI engineers returned to characterize/calibrate, partially dismantle, reinstall, re-characterize/re-calibrate the instrument as a result of the raising of the Greenhouse (where the sytem is housed) to the surface of the snow. CPS (formerly known as VPR) assisted BSI with transportation to/from Summit (via Scotia, NY), and the parital dismantling and re-installation of the insturment, as well as with science technician support for year-round operation (approximately 5 hours/week). Thereafter, BSI engineers will perform as-needed visits to Summit for calibration, service, and upgrades. In those years that site visits are not necessary, CPS science technicians will continue to operate the UV spectroradiometer on BSI's behalf. In 2006, due to planned Summit Camp population constraints, BSI personnel planned to visit Summit for calibration, service, and/or upgrades only if needed. CPS continued to provide science technician support for year-round operation (approximately 5 hours/week). As it turned out, BSI did not need to make a site visit to the station. In July 2007, one technical staff member from BSI will visit Summit to perform system characterizations, and any necessary system engineering updates and/or service. While the BSI staff is on station, up to 16 hours of additional science technical support will be provided. CPS will assist BSI with transportation to/from Summit (via Scotia, NY); in the performance of the site visit’s objectives at Summit Camp; and provide the UVSIMN with science technician support for year-round operation (approximately 5 hours/week). In 2007 and 2008, BSI engineers will visit Barrow, AK, to perform annual site visits to the BSI's UV intrument at NARL. The objectives of these visits are to perform system calibrations, service, and engineering upgrades to the system. BASC assists BSI with a co-location laboratory (at UIC-NARL) and infrastructure matters – principally in the areas of IT support, communications, and cargo logistics. No trip is planned to Summit for 2008.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2004Alaska - Barrow1
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 25 / 2004 08 / 19 / 20042
2004Greenland - Summit07 / 26 / 2004 08 / 18 / 20042
2005Alaska - Barrow06 / 01 / 2005 06 / 30 / 20051
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 16 / 2005 08 / 13 / 20053
2005Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2005 08 / 11 / 20052
2006Alaska - Barrow06 / 01 / 2006 06 / 30 / 20061
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Alaska - Barrow06 / 01 / 2007 06 / 30 / 20071
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 09 / 2007 07 / 13 / 20071
2007Greenland - Summit07 / 10 / 2007 07 / 12 / 20071
2008Alaska - Barrow1
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Radical Chemistry over Sunlit Snow: Interactions between HOx and Halogen Chemistry at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0612568)

PI: Brooks, Steven B. (steve.brooks@noaa.gov)
Phone:  (865) 576.1233 
Institute/Department: National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division 
IPY Project? YES
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\AGS
Program Manager: Ms. Anne-Marie Schmoltner (aschmolt@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
IPY: http://classic.ipy.org/index.php
Data: http://transport.nilu.no/projects/polarcat-1
IPY: http://www.ipy.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Researchers on this collaborative project will investigate the importance of halogen chemistry in OH and HO2 radical production and loss above sunlit snow, and identify significant halogen sources and transport mechanisms to this unique and remote environment. Methods: They will integrate a set of field measurements focused on the impact of halogen chemistry on the production and fate of free radicals in the Summit, Greenland surface layer. They plan to make the first measurements of BrO in the boundary layer at Summit. In addition to direct measurements of HOx, the radical precursors and sinks thought to play an important role in the OH budget in this environment (O3, NO, NO2, H2O, HONO, RONO2, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3COOH, CO, CH4, and reactive NMHCs) will be measured, as well as a number of halogen species (BrO, IO, OIO, and soluble gas phase bromide). Measurements of various mercury species and NMHC oxidation products will provide additional evidence of reactive halogens. Rates of photochemical reactions will be measured above and within the snow. Measurements over a wide range of environmental (e.g., temperature, light, wind speed) conditions as well as a variety of transport regimes will help to discriminate the relative importance of halogens on HOx photochemical cycling. Field measurements will be interpreted with the aid of state-of-the-art back-trajectory tools (FLEXPART) and by employing a photochemical steady-state box-model to determine the HOx cycling within the Summit boundary layer. An advanced 1D multiphase chemical transport model (MISTRA) allows the assessment of the researchers’ understanding of HOx/halogen interactions, the discrimination of the proposed halogen sources, as well as allowing the extrapolation of their observations to other snow covered regions. Broader impacts: With only a handful of HOx measurements in snow covered regions to date, lack of understanding of HOx photochemical cycling is not surprising. If halogens play a role in the HOx cycling at Summit, atmospheric modelers will need to adjust their chemical mechanisms accordingly. This project provides an unusual opportunity for graduate and undergraduate students to participate in ground-breaking science. The researchers place a high priority on conveying their excitement and the significance of the program to students and the public through web pages tracking field campaigns and via outreach presentations in local schools. Direct teacher participation will ensure the development of materials suitable for dissemination and use in schools nationwide. The team will work with news media - including radio, newspapers, and television - to provide broad public exposure.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration is composed of the following: 0612075 (Dibb, UNH LEAD), 0612387 (Huey, Gatech), 0612136 (Lefer, U of Houston), 0612426 (Blake, UCI), 0612568 (Brooks, NOAA), and 0612279 (Stutz, UCLA). The researchers will study photochemical processes during intensive sampling seasons planned for the summer of 2007, when sunlight is at a maximum, and spring of 2008, during rapid temperature changes. At those times, a field team of 10-12 will participate in a 6-8 week effort to install experiments, and then to collect data from and maintain the same. Logistics details will be carried in this database under 0612075, Dibb.

For field support details, please see the record for grant 0612075.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2007Greenland - Summit0
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2008Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Inter-comparison of organic pollutant deposition and transport: NILU-GEOSummit collaborative research (Award# NILU-Summit)

PI: Burkhart, John F (jburkhart@ucmerced.edu)
Phone:  (617) 543.2188 
Institute/Department: U of California, Merced, School of Engineering 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: NO\Research/Higher Ed\NILU
Program Manager: Ms. Renee Crain (rcrain@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
IPY: http://classic.ipy.org/development/eoi/index.htm
IPY: http://classic.ipy.org/index.php
Initiative: http://transport.nilu.no/projects/polarcat-1
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org
Institute: http://www.nilu.no/

Science Summary:
Higher concentrations of persistent pollutants in remote regions resulting from atmospheric transport have been identified. The Arctic in particular has been heavily impacted despite being sparsely populated, resulting from complicated transport mechanisms. With respect to certain compounds, the Arctic even acts as a sink through a process identified as the “global distillation effect” whereby the fate of contaminants is a function of their volatility and ambient temperatures. Contaminants with higher vapor pressures remain in the atmosphere and are transported over long distances until they encounter lower temperatures and condense onto snow, ice and water, ultimately being deposited into the Arctic environment. This process of a "cold sink" explains higher than expected concentrations of persistent pollutants in the Arctic. Paradoxically, this unfortunate process may yield a valuable tool to better understand the dynamics controlling the fate of these compounds. As pollutants are deposited into the cryospheric environment they are continually buried by subsequent snowfalls. Over time, a record of deposition is generated from which one may create a temporal history of the evolution of the compounds in the Arctic. A priority to the development of a proxy record is the defining of a ‘transfer function’ for these reversibly deposited compounds. For example, recent evidence indicates that important atmospheric constituents undergo temperature-dependent exchange with ice/snow, and that some species are photochemically transformed and/or produced within the sunlit surface snowpack. An objective of this reseach is to model the ‘transfer function’ for target compounds and develop a temporal history of their concentrations in the Arctic to better understand the mechanisms controlling their transport.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between University of California, Merced, and the Norwegian Institute of Air Research (NILU) will study atmospheric transport mechanisms and the depositional fate of persistent pollutant compounds in the Arctic cryospheric environment. During the summer of 2006 field team members will set up their experiment and initiate a sampling program at Summit Station, Greenland. After station closing, science technicians will continue to deploy passive samplers on a monthly basis. In 2007, a team of up to 2 researchers will spend approximately 3 weeks at Summit Station collecting snow pit samples for comparison with compounds they are analyzing in the passive samplers. In 2008 and 2009, no team members will deploy but CPS science techs at Summit Station will continue the year round 'bird feeder' POPs sampling through the 2008-2009 season.

CPS will arrange for ANG transport for a team of two and their cargo between NY and Summit, pay for user days at Kangerlussuaq and Summit Station, and maintain the project experiments year-round.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 10 / 2006 07 / 31 / 20061
2006Greenland - Summit07 / 12 / 2006 07 / 25 / 20061
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 18 / 2007 08 / 12 / 20072
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 20 / 2007 08 / 09 / 20072
 


Project Title: NOAA Summit Clean Air and Ozonosonde Program (Award# NOAASummit)

PI: Butler, James H (James.H.Butler@noaa.gov)
Phone:  (303) 497.6898 
Institute/Department: National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, Global Monitoring Division 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\DOC\NOAA
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@associates.nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aero/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/hats/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ozwv/
Media: http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2005/s2393.htm

Science Summary:
Researchers at NOAA’s Earth System Research Lab (ESRL) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) conduct a suite of continuous and campaign measurements at Summit Station, including surface and upper atmospheric ozone measurements, air sampling of carbon cycle gases, and elemental carbon measurements. Continuous measurements include: 1. Halocarbon Gases / HATS Flasks (Steve Montzka), a twice-monthly air sampling effort to measure trace gases that are important components of global halocarbon chemistry. These measurements have been ongoing since 2004. 2. Surface ozone measurements (Samuel Oltmans), continual tropospheric air sampling efforts for ozone levels. These measurements were taken from 2000 to 2002, and from 2003 on. 3. Aethelometer / Black Carbon (Andrew Clarke), continual measurements of aerosol elemental carbon (e.g., black carbon) levels. These measurements have been ongoing since 2003. 4. Greenhouse gases / MAKS Flasks (Tom Conway), a weekly air sampling experiement to analyze levels of trace gases that are part of the global carbon cycle. These measurements were taken during winter of 1997-1998, 2000-2001, 2001-2002, and have been onoing since the 2003-2004 winter period. 5. Balloon-borne ozonesondes (David Hofmann) to measure springtime depletion of ozone in the stratosphere. These measurements were first conducted during the late-winter of 2005. All-winter campaigns are expected for subsequent years. 6. Gas chromatograph (James W. Elkins). The Halocarbons and other Atmospheric Trace Species Group of the Global Monitoring Division plan to install a two-channel gas chromatograph that measures atmospheric nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, CFC-12, CFC-11, CFC-113, chloroform, methyl chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride once every hour at Summit Station. All are greenhouse gases and all but sulfur hexafluoride cause stratospheric ozone depletion.This instrument will be added in 2007. 7. The Camera Lidar (CLidar) (John Barnes) profiles aerosols in the nighttime boundary-layer. The altitude resolution of the aerosol profiles is sub-meter near the ground, which decreases in the upper atmosphere. The technique accurately measures aerosols starting a few meters above the ground where they can be compared with surface measurements and uses a cooled scientific CCD camera with a fisheye lens to image a vertical laser beam that is a few hundred meters away. Normally an additional laser would be needed, but at Summit the laser from the present ICECAPS Lidar is used. The entire 100 degree image is acquired simultaneously (no moving parts) and then analyzed to get the aerosol profile.The CLidar acquires an aerosol-scattered-light profile about every five minutes. It is very sensitive to thin layers of ice and other particulates which help in interpreting some of the other measurements currently made at Summit.

Logistics Summary:
For this NOAA program, on-site science technicians maintain a suite of year-round measurements on behalf of NOAA researchers. These measurements began in the mid 1990s and are ongoing (part of GEOSummit since 2003). NOAA representatives visit Summit Station annually to install / maintain instruments, train science technicians, and conduct measurements. Starting in 2005, NOAA began staffing science technician rotations as Summit Station during the winter phases. Beginning in 2008 NOAA increased staffing to be year-round. Monitoring projects on site include: carbon cycle gas sampling flasks, black carbon measurement, halocarbons and trace species flask sampling, meteorology suite, stratospheric ozonesondes, aerosol measurements, surface ozone measurements, and an in-situ gas chromatograph for greenhouse gas measurements. NOAA will continue to collaborate with Georgia Tech on activities related to the aerosol instrument suite that was previously installed and maintained by the Bergin project (NSF grant #1023227). NOAA program highlights at Summit Station over the last few years include: - During summer 2007 a four channel gas chromatograph was added to the suite of NOAA instruments. - During summer 2008, in addition to ongoing work, researchers extended the ozonesonde experiment by launching about 20 additional balloons in April and again in July for an intensive field campaign. - In February 2009, a NOAA staff member flew to Summit Station via the Twin Otter on a crew turnover flight to repair an instrument, departing the station on the return flight approximately one week later. - During August 2009, the NOAA field coordinator attended an on-site planning meeting. - In 2010, in addition to ongoing measurements, CPS staff relocated the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory (TAWO) and instrument tower (where the NOAA instruments are mounted) to approximately 1 km south of Summit Station. - During 2011 and 2012 the NOAA field coordinator made a routine visit to Summit Station for instrument maintenance. - During 2013 the TAWO building was lifted and the TAWO tower was extended. The on-site science technicians coordinated with the Boulder-based NOAA team to support the instrumentation during the transition. - Also during 2013, the NOAA ESRL GMD deputy director traveled to Summit Station in late June for a site visit. During 2014, one NOAA researcher will travel to Summit in June for maintenance and upgrade activities. NOAA will continue to hire and deploy science technicians for all the three staffing phases. During 2015, three researchers will travel to Summit in June, July, and August for maintenance and upgrade activities. These include upgrading the meteorological sensor suite, assisting with the science impacts from the TAWO facility raise project, and performing a quality control visit to evaluate the setup of the aerosol measuring suite of instrumentation. In 2016, NOAA researchers will travel to Summit to relocate the meteorological suite of instruments from the TAWO tower to the 50m tower, install broadband solar radiometers to inter-compare with existing solar measurements from Summit station, reinstall instrument inlets on the TAWO inlet mast, and potentially reconfigure the TAWO interior layout of instruments to optimize the available footprint. Additionally, NOAA is planning to modify the CATS GC to eliminate methane containing P5 carrier gas to directly address concerns about elevated methane levels within the facility. Researchers will return in 2017, details are TBD.

CPS will coordinate personnel and cargo transport to and from Summit; and provide access to Summit Station infrastructure, Summit user days, Kangerlussuaq user days, purchase of ozone sondes, construction support, and science technician support with tasking shared between the NOAA and CPS year-round technicians. The PI will arrange and pay for all other logistics through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
1997Greenland - Summit0
1998Greenland - Summit0
2000Greenland - Summit0
2001Greenland - Summit0
2002Greenland - Summit0
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 28 / 2003 08 / 16 / 20032
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 29 / 2003 08 / 14 / 20032
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 13 / 2004 06 / 26 / 20041
2004Greenland - Summit06 / 14 / 2004 06 / 24 / 20041
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 09 / 2005 12 / 31 / 20054
2005Greenland - Summit02 / 11 / 2005 12 / 31 / 20054
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2006 12 / 31 / 20063
2006Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2006 12 / 31 / 20063
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2007 07 / 27 / 20073
2007Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2007 07 / 26 / 20073
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 04 / 2008 11 / 13 / 20086
2008Greenland - Summit02 / 15 / 2008 11 / 13 / 20086
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 05 / 2009 10 / 30 / 20094
2009Greenland - Summit02 / 09 / 2009 08 / 21 / 20093
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 02 / 2010 12 / 31 / 20108
2010Greenland - Summit02 / 02 / 2010 12 / 31 / 20108
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2011 11 / 08 / 20116
2011Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2011 12 / 31 / 20116
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2012 08 / 22 / 20125
2012Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2012 12 / 31 / 20126
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 21 / 2013 08 / 21 / 20135
2013Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2013 12 / 31 / 20137
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 02 / 2014 06 / 30 / 20143
2014Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2014 12 / 31 / 20144
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 29 / 2015 08 / 22 / 20154
2015Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2015 10 / 16 / 20155
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 23 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20163
2016Greenland - Summit06 / 25 / 2016 08 / 17 / 20163
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq3
2017Greenland - Summit3
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: An Isotope MIF Study of Volcanic Events in Greenland Ice Cores (Award# 0612461)

PI: Cole-Dai, JiHong (jihong.cole-dai@sdstate.edu)
Phone:  (605) 688.4744 
Institute/Department: South Dakota State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate | Meteorology and Climate\Atmospheric Chemistry | Meteorology and Climate\Atmospheric Science | Meteorology and Climate\Paleoclimatology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/data/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This collaborative study between South Dakota State University (SDSU) and University of California, San Diego (UCSD) will investigate mechanisms of atmospheric oxidation chemistry using sulfur dioxide from volcanic eruptions. We propose to (1) obtain several shallow ice cores from central Greenland, (2) extract sulfate from a number of known large volcanic eruptions in the last 600 years, (3) measure the mass independent fractionation (MIF) of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in the volcanic sulfate, (4) test hypotheses of sulfur dioxide oxidation by active oxidation intermediates and by photochemistry, and (5) investigate the quantitative impact of atmospheric variables on ice core volcanic signals. The goals of the proposed research are (1) to better understand the chemical processes of atmospheric oxidation and the effect of atmospheric dynamics on ice core volcanic signals, and (2) to establish a new mechanism to track the sensitivity of the atmosphere to environmental disturbance. Achieving the goals of the proposed research will help advance the frontiers of environmental science, particularly in the areas of climate change and human impact. By providing educational and research opportunities to SDSU and UCSD students, the proposed project will promote the integration of research with education and contribute to human resource development in science and engineering. The project will contribute to a current REU chemistry site program at SDSU. This collaboration will utilize the complementary strengths of both labs and promote exchange between the two institutions. International collaboration will enhance scientific cooperation between France and US. NSF support for SDSU will contribute to the economic development and the strengthening of infrastructure for research and higher education in South Dakota, an EPSCoR state.

Logistics Summary:
This is a collaborative project between 0612461 (Cole-Dai, SDSU, LEAD) and 0612422 (Thiemens, UCSD). Researchers plan to collect several shallow ice cores (about 450 m total) at an undisturbed site close to Summit Station. In their institute labs, the scientists will identify prominent volcanic events in the cores and extract the volcanic sulfate for isotopic measurement. During one season of fieldwork, in summer 2007, a team of 4 researchers and 2 ICDS drillers will travel to Summit Station. They will spend 3 weeks on site drilling two 150 m cores and two 75 m cores (all 4 inch cores). The cores will be retrograded to Kangerlussuaq for storage at -15C until they are returned to Scotia and sent via refrigerated truck to NICL. The field team also will dig several pits for taking snow samples at the study site.

For this project, -- VPR will arrange/pay for Kangerlussuaq user days for the team of up to six transitioning to/from the field, and for the team's approximately three-week stay at Summit Station. VPR also will provide some core-storage boxes and a small amount of field/safety equipment and coordinate ANG travel for the team and cargo. -- ICDS will provide the drill rig, a two-person drill team, and core-storage boxes. -- NICL will archive the ice core in its Denver facility.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 01 / 2007 07 / 13 / 20076
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 04 / 2007 07 / 12 / 20076
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Science Coordination Office for Summit Station, Greenland (Award# 0455299)

PI: Dibb, Jack E. (jack.dibb@unh.edu)
Phone:  (603) 862.3063 
Institute/Department: U of New Hampshire, Glacier Research Group 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL
Program Manager: Mr. Simon Stephenson (sstephen@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach | Legacy Projects |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This activity will continue support for an office that assists the community of scientist that uses an international research site on the summit of the Greenland ice sheet. Over 20 groups from the U.S. and Europe are using the site and others have projects pending. One key to success of this shared facility is to closely coordinate measurements, share facility resources and exchange data of common interest between investigators to make most efficient use of the facility and resources. Since this coordination goes well beyond what individual investigators can efficiently do through one-to-one interactions, NSF has supported a Science Coordination Office (SCO) since 1999 to work with scientists, the logistic contractor and others to plan both near and long term activities that require strong involvement from the science community. This proposal provides for continuation of the SCO, which has three main objectives: Plan and coordinating measurements including sharing of facilities and personnel, data and requests to funding agencies for upgrades and maintenance to facilitate science;working with the logistics contractor and NSF to plan, develop and operate the station to serve a growing international and multidisciplinary community while maintaining scientific integrity of the site during the transition; and carrying out strategic planning, working with international and national agencies who are involved with supporting activities at Summit, facilitating communication between investigators and reporting to funding agencies.

Logistics Summary:
The Summit Science Coordination Office (SCO) was established to coordinate measurements between investigators and the sharing of facilities and personnel on-site, to provide scientific requirements to NSF, it's support contractor and European partners as the facility is developed, and to stimulate sharing of data among science projects. In support of that goal, SCO members will conduct regular trips to Summit, often combined with already-planned fieldwork in support of other grants. VPR will work closely with the SCO in developing and implementing plans for Summit that meet the evolving needs of the science community.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2005Greenland - Summit0
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Radical Chemistry over Sunlit Snow: Interactions between HOx and Halogen Chemistry at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0612075)

PI: Dibb, Jack E. (jack.dibb@unh.edu)
Phone:  (603) 862.3063 
Institute/Department: U of New Hampshire, Glacier Research Group 
IPY Project? YES
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\AGS
Program Manager: Ms. Anne-Marie Schmoltner (aschmolt@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
IPY: http://classic.ipy.org/index.php
Data: http://transport.nilu.no/projects/polarcat-1
IPY: http://www.ipy.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Researchers on this collaborative project will investigate the importance of halogen chemistry in OH and HO2 radical production and loss above sunlit snow, and identify significant halogen sources and transport mechanisms to this unique and remote environment. Methods: They will integrate a set of field measurements focused on the impact of halogen chemistry on the production and fate of free radicals in the Summit, Greenland surface layer. They plan to make the first measurements of BrO in the boundary layer at Summit. In addition to direct measurements of HOx, the radical precursors and sinks thought to play an important role in the OH budget in this environment (O3, NO, NO2, H2O, HONO, RONO2, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3COOH, CO, CH4, and reactive NMHCs) will be measured, as well as a number of halogen species (BrO, IO, OIO, and soluble gas phase bromide). Measurements of various mercury species and NMHC oxidation products will provide additional evidence of reactive halogens. Rates of photochemical reactions will be measured above and within the snow. Measurements over a wide range of environmental (e.g., temperature, light, wind speed) conditions as well as a variety of transport regimes will help to discriminate the relative importance of halogens on HOx photochemical cycling. Field measurements will be interpreted with the aid of state-of-the-art back-trajectory tools (FLEXPART) and by employing a photochemical steady-state box-model to determine the HOx cycling within the Summit boundary layer. An advanced 1D multiphase chemical transport model (MISTRA) allows the assessment of the researchers’ understanding of HOx/halogen interactions, the discrimination of the proposed halogen sources, as well as allowing the extrapolation of their observations to other snow covered regions. Broader impacts: With only a handful of HOx measurements in snow covered regions to date, lack of understanding of HOx photochemical cycling is not surprising. If halogens play a role in the HOx cycling at Summit, atmospheric modelers will need to adjust their chemical mechanisms accordingly. This project provides an unusual opportunity for graduate and undergraduate students to participate in ground-breaking science. The researchers place a high priority on conveying their excitement and the significance of the program to students and the public through web pages tracking field campaigns and via outreach presentations in local schools. Direct teacher participation will ensure the development of materials suitable for dissemination and use in schools nationwide. The team will work with news media - including radio, newspapers, and television - to provide broad public exposure.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration is composed of the following: 0612075 (Dibb, UNH, LEAD), 0612387 (Huey, Gatech), 0612136 (Lefer, U of Houston), 0612426 (Blake, UCI), 0612568 (Brooks, NOAA), and 0612279 (Stutz, UCLA). The researchers will study photochemical processes during intensive sampling seasons planned for the late-spring/early-summer of 2007 during rapid temperature changes, and mid-summer 2008 when sunlight is at a maximum. Original plans had the timing of the field campaigns reversed, and the change was made to better align with planned airborne campaigns that will be conducted by international groups in support of the IPY POLARCAT initiative. At those times, researchers will participate in a 6-8 week effort to install experiments, and then to collect data from and maintain the same. During the 2007-2008 campaigns, the research will be conducted at the Satellite Camp location from early May until mid/late June (2007) and from early June until mid-July (2008), upwind of local pollution sources from the station. The research team may total up to 15, to include one or two teacher participants and to accommodate some turnover between researchers. In 2007, PI Stutz will also conduct any work needed on his MAX-DOAS grant (0421016). PolarTREC teacher Jo Dodds (0632401JD) will join the Dibb field team as well. In 2008, Dr. Lefer will host PolarTREC teacher Craig Beals (0632401CB) who will join him in Greenland. Logistics details for this collaboration will be carried under this record, 0612075, Dibb.

For this project, --CPS will provide ANG coordination for field team and cargo transport between Scotia, NY, and Summit, Greenland, and access to infrastructure and services at Summit Station during each year of field work. --All other logistics requirements will be paid by the investigators with grant funds.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 06 / 2007 06 / 22 / 200717
2007Greenland - Summit05 / 07 / 2007 06 / 21 / 200717
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 02 / 2008 07 / 26 / 200821
2008Greenland - Summit06 / 03 / 2008 07 / 11 / 200821
 


Project Title: POLAR-PALOOZA (Award# 0632262)

PI: Haines-Stiles, Geoffrey (ghs@passporttoknowledge.com)
Phone:  (973) 656.9403 
Institute/Department: Geoff Haines-Stiles Productions, inc. (d/b/a PASSPORT TO KNOWLEDGE),  
IPY Project? YES
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\EHR\ESIE
Program Manager: Dr. Sandra Welch (swelch@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach | Legacy Projects |

Project Web Site(s):
IPY: http://www.ipy.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Despite the success of well-regarded movies like "March of the Penguins," the polar regions remain a great unknown for most people. Public knowledge about the Arctic and the Antarctic is either nonexistent, incomplete or burdened with misperceptions. The International Polar Year (2007-2009) presents an opportunity to change this. The people who can best effect this change are those who know the poles best, through living or working there. Based on innovative but proven models, POLAR-PALOOZA will use three complementary strategies to engage, inform and inspire large audiences. (1) A national tour, under the title "Stories from a Changing Planet," will include in-person presentations at over 25 science centers, museums, and libraries as well as many schools across North America. The presentations will be augmented by high-definition video taped on location at the poles, audio and video pod-casts, and special education and outreach activities for targeted audiences. "Stories from a Changing Planet" will provide these diverse audiences with an exciting opportunity to meet and interact directly with polar experts, and to appreciate why the Poles and the research being done there are directly relevant to their lives. (2) The “HiDef Video Science Story Capture Corps” (HDvCC) is a team of professional videographers, using the latest generation of low-cost, high-quality cameras, deployed to both poles. They will document the work of multiple researchers and projects, rather than focusing on one topic for one single broadcast. The resulting HD footage will be cataloged, archived and made available as public domain material (via NSF's Office of Legislative and Public Affairs), accessible to government research agencies for media releases, to the researchers and their home universities, and to science centers and museums. (3) POLAR-PALOOZA will edit short video and audio pod-casts from this archive, and distribute them nonexclusively through an open network of websites, including iTunes, Google, Yahoo, and the official IPY, US-IPY, NSF and NASA websites. Intellectual merit: Based on previous experience with the NSF- and NASA-supported MARSAPALOOZA initiative, which demonstrated that charismatic researchers and engineers, properly supported, could serve as effective scientific story-tellers, the project will demonstrate the power of this new model of informal science education, build a support structure for IPY activities, and extend this innovative approach to the critically important arena of environmental changes at the poles, and their global implications. POLARPALOOZA targets underserved groups and regions, and has developed a detailed strategy by which to reach out to females, minorities and mid-sized and smaller communities over the entire two years of IPY. A balanced cadre of researchers, both male and female, young and old, ethnically-diverse and representing the many disciplines engaged in polar research, has already been identified, and over 25 have committed to participating. The project’s Advisors include members of the National Academy’s Polar Research Board, and the two U.S. representatives to the international IPY Education and Outreach Committee. Selinda Research Associates, Inc. will offer formative and summative evaluation, periodically publishing findings of use not just to POLAR-PALOOZA but also to the entire IPY community.

Logistics Summary:
For this IPY education and outreach project, documentary and sound artists will visit both polar regions during 2007 and 2008 to collect new high-definition video (HDV) footage and sound recordings that will contribute to POLAR-PALOOZA (PPZA). In spring 2007 one team member will visit the APLIS field camp north of Prudhoe Bay for just under two weeks in early April. Another team member will accompany the North Pole Environmental Observatory project via Resolute to Alert. Note: Due to an early breakup of the Russian ice runway at "Borneo" the team was unable to document NPEO science activities close to the North Pole. Two PPZA team members will accompany the Lovvorn/Grebmeier teams (NSF grant 0454454) aboard the USCGC Healy for cruise 07-02 in the Bering Sea from mid-May through mid-June 2007. In late spring to summer of the same year, two team members will work in the field with Greenland researchers. The team will accompany researchers in the Ilulissat/Jakobshavn Glacier/Swiss Camp areas. The team also taped at Summit Station and Raven Camp. Later in the summer, a videographer will visit the Barrow, Alaska region for 2 weeks to videotape researchers in the field, including George Divoky and the Oechel group, and to interview Richard Glenn and others about climate change. PPZA may return to Barrow in early- to mid-summer 2008 for up to 4 weeks to videotape complementary fieldwork occurring later in the year and to document work occurring in Chukotka, Russia.

For this project, --VPR will provide ANG coordination and access to field sites on "flights of opportunity," as-needed camping gear and outerwear for a team of four, and any required commercial tickets and user days in Greenland. --The grant is responsible for tickets and lodging en route to Deadhorse, Alaska. Starting in Deadhorse, the participant will be absorbed into the APLIS logistics chain. --The PI will work directly with cruise lead scientist Jackie Grebmeier to arrange logistics for the Alaska/Bering Sea portion of the fieldwork. --For NPEO, the grant is responsible for tickets and lodging en route to Resolute. Starting in Resolute, the participant will be absorbed into the NPEO logistics chain. --BASC will provide access to infrastructure and support at Barrow (2 people for up to 4 weeks) in 2007/08. --The grant is responsible for tickets and lodging to/from Scotia, NY. Any side trips by the research team to non-VPR supported field sites are the financial responsibility of the grant. --For work in Russia, The PI will work directly with BASC to arrange for any work in far eastern Chukotka.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2007Alaska - Barrow05 / 25 / 2007 06 / 01 / 20072
2007Arctic Ocean and Seas - APLIS04 / 02 / 2007 04 / 16 / 20071
2007Arctic Ocean and Seas - Bering Sea0
2007Canada - Alert, Ellesmere Island04 / 14 / 2007 04 / 22 / 20071
2007Canada - Resolute, Cornwallis Island04 / 12 / 2007 04 / 14 / 20071
2007Greenland - Ilulissat05 / 09 / 2007 05 / 14 / 20071
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 06 / 2007 06 / 08 / 20073
2007Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2007 06 / 04 / 20072
2008Alaska - Barrow2
2008Russia - Chukotka1
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Radical Chemistry over Sunlit Snow: Interactions between HOx and Halogen Chemistry at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0612387)

PI: Huey, L. Greg (greg.huey@eas.gatech.edu)
Phone:  (404) 894.5541 
Institute/Department: Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences 
IPY Project? YES
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\AGS
Program Manager: Ms. Anne-Marie Schmoltner (aschmolt@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
IPY: http://classic.ipy.org/index.php
Data: http://transport.nilu.no/projects/polarcat-1
IPY: http://www.ipy.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Researchers on this collaborative project will investigate the importance of halogen chemistry in OH and HO2 radical production and loss above sunlit snow, and identify significant halogen sources and transport mechanisms to this unique and remote environment. Methods: They will integrate a set of field measurements focused on the impact of halogen chemistry on the production and fate of free radicals in the Summit, Greenland surface layer. They plan to make the first measurements of BrO in the boundary layer at Summit. In addition to direct measurements of HOx, the radical precursors and sinks thought to play an important role in the OH budget in this environment (O3, NO, NO2, H2O, HONO, RONO2, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3COOH, CO, CH4, and reactive NMHCs) will be measured, as well as a number of halogen species (BrO, IO, OIO, and soluble gas phase bromide). Measurements of various mercury species and NMHC oxidation products will provide additional evidence of reactive halogens. Rates of photochemical reactions will be measured above and within the snow. Measurements over a wide range of environmental (e.g., temperature, light, wind speed) conditions as well as a variety of transport regimes will help to discriminate the relative importance of halogens on HOx photochemical cycling. Field measurements will be interpreted with the aid of state-of-the-art back-trajectory tools (FLEXPART) and by employing a photochemical steady-state box-model to determine the HOx cycling within the Summit boundary layer. An advanced 1D multiphase chemical transport model (MISTRA) allows the assessment of the researchers’ understanding of HOx/halogen interactions, the discrimination of the proposed halogen sources, as well as allowing the extrapolation of their observations to other snow covered regions. Broader impacts: With only a handful of HOx measurements in snow covered regions to date, lack of understanding of HOx photochemical cycling is not surprising. If halogens play a role in the HOx cycling at Summit, atmospheric modelers will need to adjust their chemical mechanisms accordingly. This project provides an unusual opportunity for graduate and undergraduate students to participate in ground-breaking science. The researchers place a high priority on conveying their excitement and the significance of the program to students and the public through web pages tracking field campaigns and via outreach presentations in local schools. Direct teacher participation will ensure the development of materials suitable for dissemination and use in schools nationwide. The team will work with news media - including radio, newspapers, and television - to provide broad public exposure.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration is composed of the following: 0612075 (Dibb, UNH LEAD), 0612387 (Huey, Gatech), 0612136 (Lefer, U of Houston), 0612426 (Blake, UCI), 0612568 (Brooks, NOAA), and 0612279 (Stutz, UCLA). The researchers will study photochemical processes during intensive sampling seasons planned for the summer of 2007, when sunlight is at a maximum, and spring of 2008, during rapid temperature changes. At those times, a field team of 10-12 will participate in a 6-8 week effort to install experiments, and then to collect data from and maintain the same. Logistics details will be carried in this database under 0612075, Dibb.

For field support details, please see the record for grant 0612075.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2007Greenland - Summit0
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2008Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Danish Automatic Weather Station (Award# DKAWS)

PI: Kern-Hansen, Claus (CKH@dmi.dk )
Phone: 45(391) 57580 
Institute/Department: Danish Meteorological Institute,  
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: DK\Federal\MT\DMI
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@associates.nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.dmi.dk/en/vejr/
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/

Science Summary:
The Danish Meteorological Institute operates an Autonomous Weather Station (AWS) at Summit. This AWS is part of a network that provides forecasting and warning services as well as continuous monitoring of weather, sea state, climate, and related environmental conditions in the atmosphere, over land and in the sea.

Logistics Summary:
When required for AWS maintenance, the principal investigator and sometimes another team member will spend two to three days annually tent-camping at Summit Station. At Summit Station, he/they will remove snow from around the AWS as well as inspect and provide maintenance to the station. In 2007, the team dug out and elevated the weather station by 1 meter.

CPS will provide ANG transport between Kangerlussuaq and Summit Station and Summit user days. The PI will arrange and pay for all other logistics, including KISS user days.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
1997Greenland - Summit1
1998Greenland - Summit1
1999Greenland - Summit1
2000Greenland - Summit07 / 17 / 2001 07 / 19 / 20011
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 08 / 2002 06 / 14 / 20022
2002Greenland - Summit06 / 10 / 2002 06 / 13 / 20022
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 28 / 2003 08 / 02 / 20033
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 29 / 2003 08 / 01 / 20032
2004Greenland - Summit0
2005Greenland - Summit1
2006Greenland - Summit08 / 20 / 2006 08 / 21 / 20062
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 19 / 2007 06 / 21 / 20072
2008Greenland - Summit0
2009Greenland - Summit0
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 23 / 2010 06 / 30 / 20102
2010Greenland - Summit06 / 25 / 2010 06 / 28 / 20102
2011Greenland - Summit0
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 05 / 2012 06 / 13 / 20122
2012Greenland - Summit06 / 06 / 2012 06 / 11 / 20122
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 30 / 2013 06 / 05 / 20132
2013Greenland - Summit05 / 31 / 2013 06 / 04 / 20132
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 10 / 2014 07 / 17 / 20142
2014Greenland - Summit07 / 11 / 2014 07 / 16 / 20142
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 30 / 2015 06 / 07 / 20152
2015Greenland - Summit06 / 03 / 2015 06 / 09 / 20152
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Summit Radiation Experiment (Award# IMAURad)

PI: Kuipers Munneke, Peter (p.kuipersmunneke@phys.uu.nl)
Phone: 31( 030) 253.3274 
Institute/Department: Utrecht University, Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: NL\Research\Higher Ed\Utrech University
Program Manager: Ms. Renee Crain (rcrain@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):

Science Summary:
This project involves researchers working at Summit Station to study different components of the radiation and energy budget of snow and to integrate measurements on the same. The researchers will measure incoming and outgoing fluxes of shortwave and longwave radiation using a variety of instruments. Apart from broadband fluxes, the team will carry out spectral measurements and measurements in atmospheric windows and in satellite bands (Landsat, MODIS, MISR, AVHRR). They will also measure cloud cover and atmospheric conditions with an automatic weather station, a total sky imager, and meteorological balloon soundings. Detailed crystallographic studies on the snow cover also will be made.

Logistics Summary:
The PI plans to integrate measurements on different components of the radiation and energy budget of snow using a variety of instruments. A team of up to 3 personnel will travel to Summit, Greenland, in early June of 2007 for a 7-week campaign. Upon arrival, the team will install an automatic weather station and a suite of radiation instruments that will gather data for the duration of their campaign. While on site they will also launch 1-2 radiosonde balloons daily.

VPR will provide cost-reimbursable support to this project in the following areas: ANG travel to/from Summit Station, user days at Summit (~113) and in Kangerlussuaq (~18), and purchase/shipment of the project's gases and some chemicals. Additionally, VPR staff will assist the team with instrument installation, and provide access to vehicles and adequate work space near the team's instrument sites, with camp power, and Internet access. The PI will arrange all travel and cargo transport from their home institute to Kangerlussuaq and provide all instrumentation and radiosondes. All other support will be arrange by the PI.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 01 / 2007 07 / 26 / 20073
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 04 / 2007 07 / 24 / 20073
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Radical Chemistry over Sunlit Snow: Interactions between HOx and Halogen Chemistry at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0612136)

PI: Lefer, Barry L (blefer@uh.edu)
Phone:  (713) 743.3250 
Institute/Department: U of Houston, Department of Geosciences 
IPY Project? YES
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\AGS
Program Manager: Ms. Anne-Marie Schmoltner (aschmolt@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
IPY: http://classic.ipy.org/index.php
Data: http://transport.nilu.no/projects/polarcat-1
IPY: http://www.ipy.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Researchers on this collaborative project will investigate the importance of halogen chemistry in OH and HO2 radical production and loss above sunlit snow, and identify significant halogen sources and transport mechanisms to this unique and remote environment. Methods: They will integrate a set of field measurements focused on the impact of halogen chemistry on the production and fate of free radicals in the Summit, Greenland surface layer. They plan to make the first measurements of BrO in the boundary layer at Summit. In addition to direct measurements of HOx, the radical precursors and sinks thought to play an important role in the OH budget in this environment (O3, NO, NO2, H2O, HONO, RONO2, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3COOH, CO, CH4, and reactive NMHCs) will be measured, as well as a number of halogen species (BrO, IO, OIO, and soluble gas phase bromide). Measurements of various mercury species and NMHC oxidation products will provide additional evidence of reactive halogens. Rates of photochemical reactions will be measured above and within the snow. Measurements over a wide range of environmental (e.g., temperature, light, wind speed) conditions as well as a variety of transport regimes will help to discriminate the relative importance of halogens on HOx photochemical cycling. Field measurements will be interpreted with the aid of state-of-the-art back-trajectory tools (FLEXPART) and by employing a photochemical steady-state box-model to determine the HOx cycling within the Summit boundary layer. An advanced 1D multiphase chemical transport model (MISTRA) allows the assessment of the researchers’ understanding of HOx/halogen interactions, the discrimination of the proposed halogen sources, as well as allowing the extrapolation of their observations to other snow covered regions. Broader impacts: With only a handful of HOx measurements in snow covered regions to date, lack of understanding of HOx photochemical cycling is not surprising. If halogens play a role in the HOx cycling at Summit, atmospheric modelers will need to adjust their chemical mechanisms accordingly. This project provides an unusual opportunity for graduate and undergraduate students to participate in ground-breaking science. The researchers place a high priority on conveying their excitement and the significance of the program to students and the public through web pages tracking field campaigns and via outreach presentations in local schools. Direct teacher participation will ensure the development of materials suitable for dissemination and use in schools nationwide. The team will work with news media - including radio, newspapers, and television - to provide broad public exposure.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration is composed of the following: 0612075 (Dibb, UNH LEAD), 0612387 (Huey, Gatech), 0612136 (Lefer, U of Houston), 0612426 (Blake, UCI), 0612568 (Brooks, NOAA), and 0612279 (Stutz, UCLA). The researchers will study photochemical processes during intensive sampling seasons planned for the summer of 2007, when sunlight is at a maximum, and spring of 2008, during rapid temperature changes. At those times, a field team of 10-12 will participate in a 6-8 week effort to install experiments, and then to collect data from and maintain the same. Logistics details will be carried in this database under 0612075, Dibb.

For field support details, please see the record for grant 0612075.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2007Greenland - Summit0
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2008Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Support of UNAVCO Community and Facility Activities (Award# 0321760)

PI: Meertens, Charles (chuckm@unavco.org)
Phone:  (303) 381-7465 
Institute/Department: UNAVCO,  
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\EAR
Program Manager: Dr. Russell Kelz (rkelz@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Dense GPS observations in space and time are resulting in fundamental new discoveries in the earth sciences, discoveries that have an enormous impact on our understanding of global and regional plate tectonic interactions and have implications for mitigating earthquake and volcanic hazards in densely populated regions of the world. Support through this cooperative agreement will provide for the management and operation of the UNAVCO national Global Positioning System (GPS) support facility over a period of four years. The UNAVCO facility has historically provided centralized support to assist the geosciences community with the acquisition, archival, distribution, and application of high-precision GPS data to study solid-Earth processes and hazards through NSF and NASA support. Management responsibility for facility operations will be under UNAVCO, Inc., a recently incorporated (April 2001) and independent 501(c)(3) non-profit research organization. The UNAVCO, Inc. managed facility will provide assistance to researchers in all phases of GPS-facilitated geosciences research including: planning; equipment selection and equipment loans and/or procurement and budgeting assistance for necessary equipment; logistics and field engineering support for the monumentation and commissioning of GPS receivers in either permanent, continuously operated networks (CGPS) or discrete campaign-style occupations of GPS benchmarks; technology development activities; and data security, quality control, retrieval, archiving and analysis. The facility will also support NASA/Solid Earth and Natural Hazards (SENH) program activities and plays a crucial role in monitoring and maintaining a subset of NASA's GPS Global Network (GGN). In the latter, the UNAVCO facility will provide maintenance and security for the continuous operation of a large number of stations within the International GPS Service (IGS) network. The IGS network provides fiducial stations, orbits, and clock estimates for GPS users worldwide. Facility leadership serves as an advocate and technology advisor for high precision GPS research in the earth sciences. The facility will support community involvement in the governance and operation of the facility through providing support for interactions including: an annual community meeting; meetings of the steering committees and support of focused scientific workshops. Educational and outreach (E&O) activities will include the addition of a full time E&O Coordinator and the development of a student intern program. The UNAVCO, Inc. facility and management structure provide NSF and NASA with a single point of contact that allows for effective and accountable management of facility resources. NASA support of this facility will occur via annual interagency transfers through NSF.

Logistics Summary:
This grant establishes a Cooperative Agreement between NSF and UNAVCO for UNAVCO-provided GPS services from the period of 2003 to 2008 (prior to this, NSF’s collaborative agreements were with UCAR/NCAR). Via this funding mechanism, UNAVCO provides a variety of GPS support to NSF-funded scientists, including the maintenance of three GPS base stations in Alaska--at Toolik Field Station (established in summer, 2001), Barrow and Atqasuk (established in May 2002)—and at Summit Station, Greenland (established in April 2006). While UNAVCO supports a number of individual research projects per year with customized GPS support, that information is not carried in this record (instead it is carried under the grant receiving the UNAVCO support). This record focuses on work related to the installation/maintenance of the four arctic base stations. For each year of the grant, from 2003-2007 a researcher from UNAVCO will establish (under the timeline described above) or thereafter maintain the arctic base stations in Alaska and Greenland. Services and infrastructure at Toolik, Barrow/Atqasuk, and Summit will be provided by IAB, BASC, and CPS respectively. Note: funding for this Cooperative Agreement continues with NSF grant 0735156.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2003Alaska - Atqasuk1
2003Alaska - Barrow1
2003Alaska - Toolik1
2004Alaska - Atqasuk1
2004Alaska - Barrow1
2004Alaska - Toolik1
2005Alaska - Atqasuk1
2005Alaska - Barrow1
2005Alaska - Toolik1
2006Alaska - Atqasuk1
2006Alaska - Barrow1
2006Alaska - Toolik1
2006Greenland - Summit1
2007Alaska - Atqasuk1
2007Alaska - Barrow1
2007Alaska - Toolik1
2007Greenland - Summit1
 


Project Title: On-site isotope diffusion experiments conducted by Netherlands Arctic Research (NAP)/ALW-NAPSP/07-03 (Award# NAP-ISO)

PI: Meijer, H.A.J. (Harro) (H.A.J.Meijer@rug.nl)
Phone: 31((0) 05) 363.4739 
Institute/Department: RuG University of Groningen,  
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: NL\Federal\NWO\NAP
Program Manager: Ms. Renee Crain (rcrain@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Isotope Science |

Project Web Site(s):

Science Summary:
This project is comprised of snow sampling and analysis to contribute to better understanding of ice core isotope records by studying isotope diffusion. The climate history reconstruction, using the "precipitation archives" of the ice caps on Greenland and Antarctica, and smaller ice caps elsewhere, relies to a large extent on the hydrogen and oxygen isotope signals. This is true for all time scales, from the long-term glacial-interglacial sequences down to the seasonal cycle. All three stable isotopes of water (2H, 17O and 18O) show a significant seasonal cycle, most pronounced in polar areas. After deposition, however, the amplitude of these seasonal cycles dampens over the years as the consequence of isotope diffusion in the firn phase. During the firn phase diffusion takes place quite efficiently by water vapor transport through the micro channels in the firn. As soon as the firn turns into ice, however, diffusion only takes place within the ice, and is then orders of magnitude slower. Thus, effectively, the firn diffusion pattern gets "frozen" in the ice. Better knowledge of the isotope diffusion process has become even more important. This project will perform a first "real life" firn diffusion experiment in the field, by layer of isotopically labeled snow at "S10" in Greenland, 150 km east of Kangerlussuaq, at Summit Station, Greenland and at a site in Antarctica. In that way they will be able to compare the isotope diffusion process on three sites, widely different in temperature and precipitation amount. The likely influence of mankind on climate is a subject of top political and societal relevance. The paleo-climate information brought about by ice core isotope analysis is very detailed, and thus provides researchers with stringent validation material for models describing the climate system. The work of this project will contribute to the better understanding of ice core isotope records, which in the end leads to better climate models, and thus to more realistic and reliable future climate predictions.

Logistics Summary:
For this isotope study funded by the Netherlands Arctic Program (NAP) of the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO), researchers will conduct shallow ice-core sampling in Greenland. From 2007-2011, project researchers will work each year at two sites in Greenland: Summit Station and site “S10” about 150 km east of Kangerlussuaq. At the latter, researchers laid down an isotopically enriched snow layer in 2005; with this project, they will continue studying the layer. They will establish an enriched layer at Summit (and at a third site in Antarctica) for comparative analyses. This database record focuses on the work at Summit Station. The development of the isotope-labelled layer will give experimental validation to isotope diffusion models that are in use to correct ice core measurements. This resampling activity will be an annual event. In August of 2007, 2 researchers will spend several days at Summit Station where they will produce a ~6 x 6 meter isotopically enriched labeled layer in undisturbed snow using a snow maker that draws enriched water from a small inflatable swimming pool. The researchers will also travel via helicopter to the S10 site, 150 km east of Kangerlussuaq, to revisit the experiment they set up in 2005. In July of 2008, a team of two will return to the site at Summit Station where they will obtain samples from 3 snow pits inside their field. They will spend about 2 days at Summit. In 2009, researchers will return to the same study area at Summit Station. Rather than using a snow pit, they will obtain samples using a shallow depth hand corer. They will spend about 3 days at Summit for this work. In August of 2010, the researchers will again collect samples at Summit using a shallow depth manual corer. They will spend approximately two days at Summit Station for this work. In August of 2011, the final year of the project at Summit Station, the researches will again collect samples at Summit Station using a shallow depth manual corer.

CPS will support this project with transport to and from Summit Station of personnel and cargo, KISS user days, Summit user days, and access to the Summit infrastructure and science technical services. CPS will recoup costs associated with this support via a direct-bill arrangement. All other expenses will be arranged by the PI and paid with grant funds
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 06 / 2007 08 / 12 / 20072
2007Greenland - Site S-1008 / 08 / 2007 08 / 09 / 20072
2007Greenland - Summit08 / 07 / 2007 08 / 09 / 20072
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 20 / 2008 08 / 02 / 20082
2008Greenland - Site S-1007 / 23 / 2008 07 / 23 / 20082
2008Greenland - Summit07 / 22 / 2008 07 / 24 / 20082
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 07 / 2009 05 / 15 / 20092
2009Greenland - Site S-102
2009Greenland - Summit05 / 12 / 2009 05 / 14 / 20092
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 11 / 2010 08 / 17 / 20102
2010Greenland - Summit08 / 13 / 2010 08 / 15 / 20102
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 11 / 2011 08 / 17 / 20112
2011Greenland - Summit08 / 12 / 2011 08 / 15 / 20112
 


Project Title: BSRN-compatible irradiance measurements and the stable boundary layer (Award# CHAntenna)

PI: Ohmura, Atsumu (ohmura@env.ethz.ch)
Phone: 41(44) 632.8283 
Institute/Department: Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Research 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: CH\Federal\NSF
Program Manager: Mr. Simon Stephenson (sstephen@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
Institute: http://www.iac.ethz.ch/content/main/en.html

Science Summary:
With this project, Swiss investigators plan to gain a better understanding of the earth's surface heat balance and the structure of the boundary layer. Investigators will make year-round observations of the surface energy balance and turbulence in the boundary layer using an instrumented, 50-meter meteorological tower, a wind-profiler, a radiometer system, and possibly an instrumented aircraft. Radiation measurements will be taken in accordance with specifications established by the Baseline Surface Radiation Network project.

Logistics Summary:
This work involves ongoing studies of the Earth's boundary layer at Summit, Greenland. In 2000, a team of six installed a 50-meter tower at Summit Station. In 2001, the team returned early in the field season to install a suite of meteorological instruments on the tower. Measurements began during the summer, and continued throughout the winter by a member of the team. In the summer of 2002, boundary layer measurements continued. After a severe storm knocked over the 50-meter tower during the winter, the team turned its prime research focus in 2003 to the investigation of the heat balance of the snow cover and detailed observations of the radiation and temperature profiles in snow. These measurements continued in 2004. In addition, the team rebuilt the tower to 35 meters for future installation of a suite of meteorological instruments. In 2005, a team of two traveled to Summit in May to dismantle the project’s equipment in the Green House in preparation for the uplift of that building. In mid-June, a team returned to reinstall equipment, conduct extensive studies of the radiation characteristics of the snow cover, collect missing data sets to capture the whole picture of the snow reflectant characteristics, extend the tower to 50 meters for boundary layer studies, and maintain and monitor radiation balance experiments. In 2006, a team of two visited to do maintenance on the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) Radiation station, and to update hard- and software to fulfill BSRN standards. In 2007, a team of two will return for a brief season to replace BRSN hardware and do maintenance on the boundary layer instruments including installing heated wind sensors. New infrastructure developments will impact current BSRN infrastructure. The BSRN is currently powered off of lines routed through the science trench. The science trench and associated power panel are being replaced by the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory (TAWO). VPR will coordinate with ETH to assure that the new power system accommodates the BSRN site (both fixed and tracker locations). At the end of August, Koni Steffen of CU Boulder will become the point of contact for both the ETH 50m tower and the BSRN site. Wintering science technicians will continue to follow the same protocols, but data will be delivered to and warehoused by Koni Steffen. VPR will coordinate the team's travel to Summit, and provide accommodations at Kangerlussuaq and Summit. VPR will also provide a dedicated weatherport for the team. In 2007, VPR will also provide lab space in the Green House. For project plans after 2007, please see grant "CHAntennaKS".

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2000Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 09 / 2000 07 / 14 / 20005
2000Greenland - Summit06 / 21 / 2000 07 / 11 / 20005
2001Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 27 / 2001 05 / 06 / 20028
2001Greenland - Summit05 / 03 / 2001 05 / 03 / 20028
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 22 / 2002 08 / 14 / 20026
2002Greenland - Summit04 / 24 / 2002 08 / 13 / 20026
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 12 / 2003 08 / 13 / 20034
2003Greenland - Summit05 / 13 / 2003 08 / 12 / 20034
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 17 / 2004 07 / 14 / 20044
2004Greenland - Summit05 / 18 / 2004 07 / 13 / 20044
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 29 / 2005 07 / 29 / 20055
2005Greenland - Summit05 / 02 / 2005 07 / 28 / 20055
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 16 / 2006 06 / 08 / 20062
2006Greenland - Summit05 / 24 / 2006 06 / 07 / 20062
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 07 / 2007 05 / 21 / 20072
2007Greenland - Summit05 / 08 / 2007 05 / 17 / 20072
 


Project Title: Greenland, Denmark, United States Joint Science Education Project (JSEP) (Award# JSEP)

PI: Reed, Lynn Foshee ()
Phone:  
Institute/Department: National Science Foundation,  
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARE
Program Manager: Ms. Elizabeth Rom (elrom@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach |

Project Web Site(s):
Blog: http://polarfield.com/blog/laura-lukes-classroom-f...
Project: http://www.arcus.org/jsep
Home: http://www.polartrec.com/expeditions/greenland-edu...
Home: http://www.polartrec.com/expeditions/joint-science...
Home: https://www.polartrec.com/forum/greenland-educatio...
Media: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H5FnvI4py6c&featur...

Science Summary:
The US-Denmark-Greenland Joint Committee was established in 2004 to broaden and deepen cooperation among the United States, the Kingdom of Denmark, and Greenland. Since its launch the Joint Committee has established an impressive track record of accomplishments that span a range of issues of mutual concern, including culture, education, science, environmental research, technical assistance, and commercial affairs. The Joint Committee meets annually to assess its ongoing work and to evaluate new project proposals. One such Joint Committee activity is Science Education Week. This annual event, first offered in 2007, gives a select group of Greenlandic, Danish and U.S. secondary school students and educators an opportunity to visit and study the Greenland ice sheet during the summer research season. Science education week supports participant visits to several research sites in Greenland; expedition members spend about a week in Greenland learning about the research conducted there and the logistics involved in supporting the research. They also get first-hand experience conducting experiments and developing inquiry-based educational activities.

Logistics Summary:
Starting in 2007, a group of students and teachers from the US, Greenland and Denmark annually will spend a week visiting the Greenland ice sheet on a brief tour of active field sites to better understand the research done there and the complex logistics involved in supporting the work. Each year, a group assembles in Kangerlussuaq, the US participants arriving via Air National Guard (ANG) transport from New York. After an orientation lecture, the group will tour the local science facilities such as the Kellyville observatory and will visit science projects local to the area. As able, the team will assist researchers with their experiments. Later in the week, the visitors will fly via ANG to Summit Station to meet scientists, tour the facilities, and assist on routine science conducted at the station. In 2011-2012, participants will also fly on to NEEM to see the ice core drilling taking place there. On return to Kangerlussuaq, the team may take other tours before debriefing and returning to their home institutes. In late June 2007, a group of about 16 (including media and program escorts) will assemble in Kangerlussuaq. After a tour of research done in the area, the team will fly via ANG to Summit for an overnight stay. In early July 2008, approximately 12 participants will join the tour, headed by Kathy Gorski, Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellow for 2008-2009. In 2009, a trip similar to 2008 is planned. Jennifer Thompson, Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellow 2009-2010, will lead this team. Also in 2009, Glen Schuster (0732793, SPRINTT) will accompany the group to Kangerlussuaq and Summit. Afterwards, Mr. Schuster and Jennifer Thompson will visit educators in Nuuk, Aasait, and Illuisat, Greenland. The logisitcs are covered under 0732793 in this database. In 2012 a student in the IGERT program (Ross Virginia, Dartmouth, PI) will join the Science in Education group to mentor the younger scholars. In 2013, the program kicks off with a two-week field school course in July in Kangerlussuaq led by the Greenland component of the program. After, a subset of students continues in the program to visiting Summit Station led by the U.S component of the program. The group will connect with the IGERT program (Ross Virginia, Dartmouth, PI) at Summit Station to mentor younger scholars. In 2014, the program again kicks off with the two-week Field School course in July in Kangerlussuaq led by the Greenland component of the program. A subset of students then continues in the program with a visit to Summit Station led by the U.S component of the program. A teacher sponsored by the Chilean Antarctic Institute will participate in the entire JSEP program. One member of the IGERT program (NSF grant 0801490, Ross Virginia, Dartmouth, PI) will join the Science Education Week group at Summit Station to help mentor younger scholars. This project's work is continued under NSF grant 1506155. The team will be lead by Albert Einstein Distinguished Educator Fellows as follows: Martha Canipe (2010), Laura Lukes (2011), Shelly Hynes (2012) and Lynne Reed (2013 and 2014).

For the American participants, CPS will provide commercial air tickets between home and Albany, New York, lodging and per diem (the latter by reimbursement) for domestic travel, commercial air and an escort in Copenhagen for 3 U.S. students flying home after the Field School portion of the program, (by reimbursement) travel/evacuation insurance for all participants and Field School user fees. For all participants, CPS will provide clearances for ANG transport, user days at Summit, vehicle rental in Kangerlussuaq, cold-weather gear, an escort during the Science Education week, field, safety, and communications equipment and meal tickets in Kangerlussaq during SciEd. The Chilean teacher will pay for travel between Chile and Albany, New York and CPS will pay all of her other expenses; CPS will pay for one night at KISS for a visiting lecturer for Field School. All other expenses for Greenlandic and Danish students will be paid by the other host organizations.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2007Greenland - Summit0
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2008Greenland - Summit0
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 07 / 2009 07 / 14 / 200914
2009Greenland - Summit07 / 09 / 2009 07 / 12 / 200914
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 19 / 2010 07 / 26 / 201015
2010Greenland - NEEM07 / 23 / 2010 07 / 24 / 201013
2010Greenland - Summit07 / 21 / 2010 07 / 23 / 201014
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 27 / 2011 07 / 25 / 201117
2011Greenland - NEEM07 / 16 / 2011 07 / 18 / 20115
2011Greenland - Summit07 / 19 / 2011 07 / 22 / 201114
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 25 / 2012 07 / 22 / 201219
2012Greenland - NEEM07 / 18 / 2012 07 / 22 / 201214
2012Greenland - Summit07 / 13 / 2012 07 / 16 / 201214
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 25 / 2013 07 / 19 / 20139
2013Greenland - Summit07 / 12 / 2013 07 / 16 / 201317
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 24 / 2014 07 / 23 / 201428
2014Greenland - Summit07 / 11 / 2014 07 / 16 / 201414
 


Project Title: Atmospheric Monitoring for Climate Change (Award# NOAA IPY 2)

PI: Schnell, Russell Clifford (russell.c.schnell@noaa.gov)
Phone:  (303) 497.6733 
Institute/Department: National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, Global Monitoring Division 
IPY Project? YES
Funding Agency: US\Federal\DOC\NOAA
Program Manager: Dr. John Calder (john.calder@noaa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate\Atmospheric Science |

Project Web Site(s):
IPY: http://classic.ipy.org/index.php
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) conducts long-term measurements of trace atmospheric constituents that influence climate change. These measurements include carbon dioxide, water vapor, surface and stratospheric ozone, solar and terrestrial radiation, meteorology, ozone depleting compounds, and other trace constituents. These measurements are part of NOAA's effort to determine and assess the long-term buildup of global pollutants in the atmosphere. The measurements will be used for time series analysis of multiyear data records that focus on stratospheric ozone depletion, tran-arctic transport and deposition, interplay of the trace gases and aerosols with solar and terrestrial radiation fluxes on the polar region, the magnitude of seasonal and temporal variations in greenhouse gases and the potential development of polar stratospheric clouds over the Arctic. Other objectives of research are to determine the rate at which concentrations of these atmospheric constituents change and to examine the sources, sinks, distributions, budgets, and trends. Working with climate modelers and diagnosticians, we will use these data to determine how the rate of change of these parameters affect climate, particularly when the data are included in climate model studies in support of these projects.

Logistics Summary:
Weekly and bi-weekly flask samples are collected and shipped back to Boulder for analysis. All other systems are run by the local technicians at each site and the data is returned to Boulder for archival. Please see the below (additional) site list for the individual research projects in operation at each Arctic observatory. Logistical support for this project: NOAA in cooperation with Antarctic Research Institute of Roshydromet (Russia), Environment Canada, Finnish Meteorological Institute, National Science Foundation, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, US Department of Energy, CH2M HILL Polar Services. Additional Information: NOAA/GMD Arctic IPY Site Locations and Research Programs: Alert, Canada (ALT): Aerosol measurements (continuous); Carbon Cycle trace gas sampling flasks; Halocarbon trace gas flask measurements; Baseline Surface Radiation Network Site (BSRN) Barrow, Alaska (BRW) - NOAA/GMD Baseline Observatory: Gas Chromatographs for continuous measurements of trace gases; Aerosol measurements (continuous); Black Carbon measurement (continuous); Carbon Cycle trace gases (continuous); Carbon Cycle gas sampling flasks; Halocarbons and trace species flask sampling; Station meteorology; Surface ozone; Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN); 20 Cooperative programs run for other agencies and universities Pallas, Finland (PAL): Carbon Cycle Gas sampling flasks Ocean Station “M”, Norwegian ship ‘Polar Front’ (STM): Carbon Cycle Gas sampling flasks Summit, Greenland (SUM): Carbon Cycle Gas sampling flasks; Black Carbon measurements (continuous); Halocarbons and trace species flask sampling; Station Meteorology; Stratospheric ozonesondes; Stratospheric water vapor sondes; Surface ozone; 2 Channel Gas Chromatograph for halocarbons (installation June, 2007); Aerosol measurements (proposed June, 2008). More detail is provided under NOAASummit in this database. Tiksi, Russia (TIK): Carbon Cycle gas sampling flasks (Spring 2007); Surface ozone (Spring 2007); Surface Radiation Network (Summer 2008); Aerosol measurements (Summer 2008); Zeppelin, Norway (ZEP): Carbon Cycle Gas sampling flasks

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2007Alaska - Barrow01 / 01 / 2007 12 / 31 / 20071
2007Arctic Ocean and Seas - Ocean Station "M"01 / 01 / 2007 12 / 31 / 20071
2007Canada - Alert, Ellesmere Island01 / 01 / 2007 12 / 31 / 20071
2007Finland - Pallas01 / 01 / 2007 12 / 31 / 20071
2007Greenland - Summit0
2007Norway - Zeppelin01 / 01 / 2007 12 / 31 / 20071
2007Russia - Tiksi01 / 01 / 2007 12 / 31 / 20071
2008Alaska - Barrow01 / 01 / 2008 12 / 31 / 20081
2008Arctic Ocean and Seas - Ocean Station "M"01 / 01 / 2008 12 / 31 / 20081
2008Canada - Alert, Ellesmere Island01 / 01 / 2008 12 / 31 / 20081
2008Finland - Pallas01 / 01 / 2008 12 / 31 / 20081
2008Greenland - Summit0
2008Norway - Zeppelin01 / 01 / 2008 12 / 31 / 20081
2008Russia - Tiksi01 / 01 / 2008 12 / 31 / 20081
2009Alaska - Barrow0
2009Arctic Ocean and Seas - Ocean Station "M"01 / 01 / 2009 12 / 31 / 20091
2009Canada - Alert, Ellesmere Island01 / 01 / 2009 12 / 31 / 20091
2009Finland - Pallas01 / 01 / 2009 12 / 31 / 20091
2009Greenland - Summit0
2009Norway - Zeppelin01 / 01 / 2009 12 / 31 / 20091
2009Russia - Tiksi01 / 01 / 2009 12 / 31 / 20091
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Firn structure, interstitial processes and the composition of firn air at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0520564)

PI: Severinghaus, Jeffrey P (jseveringhaus@ucsd.edu)
Phone:  (858) 822.2483 
Institute/Department: U of California, San Diego, Scripps Institution of Oceanography 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.erdc.usace.army.mil/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
An important issue of our time involves questions of how human activity has been impacted by the atmospheric composition of our planet. A major area as part of the International Polar Year (IPY) involves developing a better understanding of past climates and the impact of anthropogenic activity on the Earth's atmosphere. Because instrumental records of atmospheric chemistry are limited, natural archives of atmospheric composition must be made, such as polar firn. Its porous nature, tens of meters in depth, permits interstitial diffusion of gases over time with the oldest air at the bottom of the firn column which allows the sampling of large quantities of pre-industrial air to explore anthropogenic effects on the atmosphere. This project will investigate the underlying physics controlling firn's ability to store atmospheric samples from the past. The Principal Investigators will make high-resolution measurements of the diffusivity profile, permeability profile, and accompanying microstructure at Summit from the surface to pore close-off, and compare the results to the diffusivity profile inferred from measurements of firn air chemical composition. They will partner with Dr. Atsumu Ohmura, Swiss Federal Institute, and Dr. Christophe Ferrari of LGGE, France. This project has four goals: 1) Quantify the dependence of interstitial transport processes on firn microstructure, and determine the dependence of gas diffusivity on microstructure characteristics from the surface down to the pore close-off depth; 2) Quantify post-depositional changes in the physical properties of snow and firn and use measured properties of firn and meteorological data to evaluate and develop models of the physical transport processes which drive firnification where temperature gradients are large. 3) Conduct firn air chemical measurements as the firn characteristics are determined, and compare the co-registered diffusivity profile inferred from the firn air chemistry measurements to the high-resolution tracer gas measurements made on the firn core itself. 4) Use the measurements of firn air composition and firn structure to better quantify the differences between atmospheric composition (present and past), and the air trapped in both the firn, and in air bubbles within ice. Broader Impacts: This study will establish quantitative relationships that will enable a better understanding of the firn as a repository of past atmospheric composition, but will also enable us to understand mechanisms that may impact firn air composition at other sites. Results of the research will be published in journal articles and made widely available. This project will form one part of the PhD dissertation of a student from Dartmouth. Several undergraduates will be involved. They will interact with students from Switzerland and France to design and construct an IPY museum exhibit, at the Montshire Museum of Science in Norwich, Vermont. The exhibit will be interactive and will illustrate the ability of snow and firn to serve as an archive of important events of the past. It will allow the viewer to act as the "detective" to track down the meaning of different chemical composition profiles in the firn air.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative study of firn air and structure: 0520445 (Albert, CRREL LEAD), 0520564 (Severinghaus, Scripps) and 0520460 (Battle, Bowdoin), will conduct field work at Summit Station, Greenland. Logistics details can be found under 0520445.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2006Greenland - Summit0
2007Greenland - Summit0
2008Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Surface Processes of the Greenland Ice Sheet Under a Warming Climate (Award# NASAAWS)

PI: Steffen, Konrad (konrad.steffen@wsl.ch )
Phone:  (303) 492.4524 
Institute/Department: U of Colorado, Boulder, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Thomas Wagner (thomas.wagner@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://cires.colorado.edu/science/groups/steffen/
Media: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/?eocn=topnav&eoci...

Science Summary:
A part of the NASA-sponsored PARCA (Program in Arctic Regional Climate Assessment) project, researchers on this NSF co-funded project have installed and are currently maintaining 18 Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). Each AWS is equipped with a number of instruments to sample the following: -air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, humidity, pressure -accumulation rate at high temporal resolution to identify and resolve individual storms -surface radiation balance in visible and infrared wavelengths -sensible and latent heat flux fluxes -snowpack conductive heat fluxes Hourly average data are transmitted via a satellite link (GOES or ARGOS) throughout the year. In addition, measurements are stored in solid state memory. The system is powered with two 100 Ah batteries, charged by a 10 or 20 W solar panel. The satellite data-link is powered by two separate 100 Ah batteries connected to a 20 W solar panel. This setup guarantees continuous data recordings and storage, even in the case of satellite transmission failure. The expected lifetime of the instrumentation is 5 years. PARCA GC-Net Automated Weather Stations (AWS) are equipped with communication satellite transmitters that enable near-real time monitoring of weather conditions on the Greenland ice sheet. Transmission latency is as short as 4 minutes, typically 1-2 hours, and occasionally as long as 48 hours.

Logistics Summary:
In 1995, the PI began to develop a network of Automated Weather Sites (AWS) on the Greenland ice cap. Each year since then, a team of four to five travels to the project's sites via Twin Otter for maintenance, repairs, and upgrades. Additionally, the team tent-camps at Swiss Camp for several weeks to conduct more intensive measurements related to the state of the ice sheet. These include monitoring ablation in the Jakobshavn region (in collaboration with Dr. Jay Zwally [NASA-GSFC]); measuring accumulation variability, mass transfer, and surface energy balance. In 2007, one person will visit Summit Station to install a thermistor string to capture hourly temperature profiles in the upper ~100 m of ice. The researcher will use an empty borehole. The data will help the team reconstruct surface temperature history on a multi-decadal to century scale. The researcher will spend about a week at Summit setting up the experiment, which may remain in place for several years. Also in 2007, the PI’s graduate student will base from Ilulissat and fly a NOAA-funded UAV experiment in early May and again in July to collect high-resolution laser data around Swiss Camp during the pre-melt and melt season. These data will help researchers calculate surface water storage on the ice sheet. New at Swiss Camp in 2008, a UAV equipped with laser instruments to collect high-resolution data about surface water storage.This NOAA-funded project uses a UAV based in Ilulissat to collect high-resolution laser data around Swiss Camp during the pre-melt and melt season. These data are used to calculate surface water storage on the ice sheet. The information contributes to the PI’s sub-glacier hydrological modeling study (“GPS Network Maintenance,” above). The PI’s graduate student, John Adler, will fly the UAV in early May and again in July to collect the data in the second and final field season for this project. In 2009, mid-April to mid-May, the researchers will maintain the automatic weather station network. In the south, they will service the Dye-II, Saddle, NASA SE and S-Dome stations, and during the Swiss Camp put in the CP1 and NASA-U stations. While at Swiss Camp, the team will service the profile JAR2, JAR1, and CU/ETH. They will continue the effort to monitor ablation along a transect from Swiss Camp to the ice margin. The Swiss Camp team will service eight receivers in the GPS network in collaboration with Dr. Jay Zwally (NASA-GSFC). They will continue to collect high-resolution surface topography data using Trimble Pathfinder differential GPS measurements along several transects in the lower ablation region. In addition, they will acquire a set of QuickBird satellite imagery during the onset of melt and the melt period to monitor the spatial variation and extent of snow fields, lakes, and surface hydrological channels in the ablation region. This project has collected a number of ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiles along the western slope of the ice sheet (Jakobshavn and Kangerlussuaq region) in previous field seasons (1999, 2000, 2003). Data analysis showed that the accumulation could vary up to 40% between the trough and the ridge of the undulation. (Surface topography with scale length of several kilometers plays an important role for the spatial variability of accumulation, mass transfer, and surface energy balance.) The team repeated some of these GPR measurements during the spring 2007 field season along the same profiles to verify the recent accumulation changes and high percolation events in that region. In addition to science research, the PI will host two media visits in spring 2009: (a) MISCHIEF FILMS, Austrian documentary film about Albert Schweitzer. The crew will participate for one day and one night during the southern AWS maintenance trip. (b) National Geographic, documentary called “The Big Picture.” The crew visits Swiss Camp May 3-5. They will organize their own helicopter flight from Ilulissat to Swiss Camp and back. In 2010, DRI's Joe McConnell and an ICDS driller will join the AWS maintenance visits to Humboldt and TUNU to drill shallow cores for analysis related to the NEEM deep drilling project (0909541). Participant travel for McConnell and the driller to Kangerlussuaq will be carried under his NSF grant record. In 2011, a team of about eight will arrive in Greenland around 1 May. They will first travel via Twin Otter to Swiss Camp to install new extension poles on the GPS network; and to maintain/upgrade (with new satellite transmitters) the AWS network stations JAR2, JAR1, Swiss Camp, and Crawford Point. Around Swiss Camp and in the lower ablation region the team will map sub-glacial melt channels using a new MALA ground penetrating radar with a 20 MHz antenna. They also will install new seismic stations close to Swiss Camp and in the lower ablation region close to a moulin. Researchers for NSF grant 0909454, Ginny Catania, PI, also will visit Swiss Camp at the same time to work on the project’s GPS experiment. Researchers also will visit AWS stations in the north of Greenland (NEEM, GITS, Petermann, Tunu-N, Humbold, NASA-U, and NASA-E) and in the south (Dye-II, Saddle, NASA-SE, and Saddle) for maintenance service. At Summit researchers will maintain the 50m Swiss Tower and the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN); these provide the basing meteorological and radiation data for other Summit researchers. In 2013, a team of four will fly commercially to Kanger for a Twin Otter put-in to Swiss Camp in early May for a three-week effort at the camp. Three more researchers will arrive mid-May on a helicopter flight arranged and paid for by the PI’s institution (CU). The three new arrivals plus one original team member will depart a few days later on another CU-chartered helicopter flight. The Twin Otter will return to Swiss camp in late May to pick up the remaining team members and begin transporting them to the southern set of AWS stations (Dye-II, NASA-SE, and Saddle), with air support based from Kangerlussuaq. A team of four will then depart Kangerlussuaq via Twin Otter to begin visiting the northern AWS sites (NEEM, GITS, Petermann, Tunu-N, Humbold, NASA-U, and NASA-E), working out of Daneborg, Qaanaaq, and NEEM. The team will wrap up Twin Otter work with a visit to Summit Station, overnighting to service the Swiss Tower and the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), which provide the basing meteorological and radiation data for other Summit researchers. In mid-August, a team will return to Swiss Camp and the Moulin Site via helicopter out of Ilulissat to make late-season repairs to the camp, which sustained considerable damage during the 2012 melt season. After about one week at camp, the team will depart via helicopter and commercial air. In 2014, a team of six will fly commercially to Kangerlussuaq for a Twin Otter put-in to Swiss Camp in early May. The team will spend ~two weeks based at the camp. The Twin Otter will return to Swiss camp in mid-May to pick up the team and begin transporting them to the southern set of AWS stations (Dye-II, Saddle, NASA-SE, and Saddle), with air support based from Kangerlussuaq. A team of four will then depart Kangerlussuaq via Twin Otter to begin visiting the northern AWS sites (NEEM, GITS, Petermann, Tunu-N, Humboldt, NASA-U, and NASA-E), working out of Daneborg, Qaanaaq, and NEEM. The team will wrap up Twin Otter work with a visit to Summit Station, overnighting to service the Swiss Tower and the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) which provide the basing meteorological and radiation data for other Summit researchers. In 2015, a team of six will fly commercially to Kangerlussuaq for a Twin Otter put-in to Swiss Camp in early May. The team will spend ~two weeks based at the camp. The Twin Otter will return to Swiss camp in mid-May to pick up the team and begin transporting them to the southern set of AWS stations (Dye-II, NASA-SE, and Saddle), with air support

CPS will provide ANG cargo coordination from the U.S., ANG support for passenger and cargo to/from Summit Station, chartered air support within Greenland, lodging and user days, camping gear, fuel, and safety and communications equipment. Costs will be covered in the following ways: NASA will pay 100% of Swiss Camp support costs. NSF and NASA will each pay for 50% of the remaining activities. NSF will recoup costs from NASA via an interagency funds transfer NASA > NSF. The PI will arrange and pay for other work directly.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
1995Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS1
1995Greenland - GITS AWS1
1995Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
1995Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
1995Greenland - Swiss Camp1
1996Greenland - Constable Point1
1996Greenland - GITS AWS1
1996Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
1996Greenland - JAR1 AWS1
1996Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
1996Greenland - Raven1
1996Greenland - Summit1
1996Greenland - Swiss Camp1
1996Greenland - Tunu N AWS1
1997Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS1
1997Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS1
1997Greenland - GITS AWS1
1997Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
1997Greenland - JAR1 AWS1
1997Greenland - NASA-E AWS1
1997Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
1997Greenland - NGRIP1
1997Greenland - Raven1
1997Greenland - Saddle AWS1
1997Greenland - South Dome AWS1
1997Greenland - Summit1
1997Greenland - Swiss Camp1
1997Greenland - Tunu N AWS1
1998Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS1
1998Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS1
1998Greenland - GITS AWS1
1998Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
1998Greenland - JAR1 AWS1
1998Greenland - NASA-E AWS1
1998Greenland - NASA-SE AWS1
1998Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
1998Greenland - NGRIP1
1998Greenland - Raven1
1998Greenland - Saddle AWS1
1998Greenland - South Dome AWS1
1998Greenland - Summit1
1998Greenland - Swiss Camp1
1998Greenland - Tunu N AWS1
1999Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS1
1999Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS1
1999Greenland - GITS AWS1
1999Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
1999Greenland - JAR1 AWS1
1999Greenland - JAR2 AWS1
1999Greenland - KAR AWS1
1999Greenland - Kulusuk1
1999Greenland - NASA-E AWS1
1999Greenland - NASA-SE AWS1
1999Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
1999Greenland - NGRIP1
1999Greenland - Raven1
1999Greenland - Saddle AWS1
1999Greenland - South Dome AWS1
1999Greenland - Summit1
1999Greenland - Swiss Camp1
1999Greenland - Tunu N AWS1
2000Greenland - Aurora AWS4
2000Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS4
2000Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS4
2000Greenland - GITS AWS4
2000Greenland - Humboldt AWS4
2000Greenland - JAR1 AWS4
2000Greenland - JAR2 AWS4
2000Greenland - JAR3 AWS4
2000Greenland - KAR AWS4
2000Greenland - Kulusuk4
2000Greenland - NASA-E AWS4
2000Greenland - NASA-SE AWS4
2000Greenland - NASA-U AWS4
2000Greenland - Raven4
2000Greenland - Saddle AWS4
2000Greenland - South Dome AWS4
2000Greenland - Summit4
2000Greenland - Swiss Camp4
2000Greenland - Tunu N AWS4
2001Greenland - Aurora AWS1
2001Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS0
2001Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS1
2001Greenland - GITS AWS1
2001Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
2001Greenland - JAR1 AWS1
2001Greenland - JAR2 AWS1
2001Greenland - JAR3 AWS1
2001Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 29 / 2001 06 / 30 / 20018
2001Greenland - KAR AWS1
2001Greenland - Kulusuk06 / 05 / 2001 06 / 26 / 20014
2001Greenland - NASA-E AWS1
2001Greenland - NASA-SE AWS1
2001Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
2001Greenland - Raven1
2001Greenland - Saddle AWS1
2001Greenland - South Dome AWS1
2001Greenland - Summit05 / 22 / 2001 06 / 26 / 20014
2001Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 10 / 2001 06 / 04 / 20017
2001Greenland - Tunu N AWS1
2002Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - JAR1 AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - JAR2 AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - JAR3 AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 29 / 2002 06 / 18 / 20029
2002Greenland - Kulusuk05 / 12 / 2002 05 / 18 / 20024
2002Greenland - NASA-E AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Raven05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - South Dome AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Summit05 / 22 / 2002 06 / 13 / 20022
2002Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 02 / 2002 05 / 17 / 20027
2002Greenland - Thule05 / 16 / 2002 06 / 13 / 20025
2002Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2003Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS04 / 15 / 2003 04 / 17 / 20031
2003Greenland - GITS AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 27 / 2003 05 / 30 / 20033
2003Greenland - JAR1 AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - JAR2 AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - JAR3 AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 14 / 2003 06 / 07 / 20037
2003Greenland - Kulusuk06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - NASA-E AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 10 / 2003 05 / 10 / 20031
2003Greenland - NASA-U AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20033
2003Greenland - NGRIP05 / 13 / 2003 05 / 16 / 20031
2003Greenland - Raven05 / 08 / 2003 05 / 08 / 20031
2003Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 08 / 2003 05 / 12 / 20033
2003Greenland - South Dome AWS05 / 10 / 2003 05 / 12 / 20033
2003Greenland - Summit06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 02 / 20031
2003Greenland - Swiss Camp04 / 21 / 2003 05 / 06 / 20037
2003Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 30 / 2003 06 / 02 / 20033
2004Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS05 / 18 / 2004 05 / 19 / 20042
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 17 / 2004 06 / 19 / 20045
2004Greenland - NASA-SE AWS06 / 14 / 2004 06 / 14 / 20044
2004Greenland - Raven06 / 14 / 2004 06 / 15 / 20044
2004Greenland - Saddle AWS06 / 14 / 2004 06 / 15 / 20044
2004Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 18 / 2004 06 / 10 / 20048
2005Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 20 / 2005 05 / 20 / 20053
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 01 / 2005 05 / 27 / 20055
2005Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 25 / 2005 05 / 25 / 20053
2005Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 23 / 2005 05 / 24 / 20053
2005Greenland - NGRIP05 / 23 / 2005 05 / 23 / 20053
2005Greenland - Petermann Gletscher05 / 21 / 2005 05 / 21 / 20053
2005Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 25 / 2005 05 / 26 / 20053
2005Greenland - South Dome AWS05 / 26 / 2005 05 / 26 / 20053
2005Greenland - Summit05 / 24 / 2005 05 / 24 / 20053
2005Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 02 / 2005 05 / 18 / 20055
2006Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS05 / 03 / 2006 05 / 03 / 20064
2006Greenland - GITS AWS04 / 26 / 2006 04 / 27 / 20063
2006Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 01 / 2006 05 / 01 / 20064
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 25 / 2006 05 / 26 / 200612
2006Greenland - NASA-E AWS05 / 02 / 2006 05 / 02 / 20064
2006Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 06 / 2006 05 / 06 / 20063
2006Greenland - NASA-U AWS04 / 26 / 2006 04 / 26 / 20063
2006Greenland - NEEM04 / 26 / 2006 04 / 27 / 20063
2006Greenland - Petermann Gletscher04 / 28 / 2006 04 / 28 / 20064
2006Greenland - Raven05 / 06 / 2006 05 / 06 / 20063
2006Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 06 / 2006 05 / 06 / 20063
2006Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 08 / 2006 05 / 23 / 200610
2006Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 01 / 2006 05 / 02 / 20064
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 22 / 2007 08 / 25 / 200718
2007Greenland - Summit05 / 08 / 2007 05 / 18 / 20071
2008Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS04 / 28 / 2008 04 / 28 / 20085
2008Greenland - DYE-204 / 30 / 2008 04 / 30 / 20085
2008Greenland - GITS AWS04 / 25 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20085
2008Greenland - Humboldt AWS04 / 24 / 2008 04 / 24 / 20085
2008Greenland - Ilulissat04 / 22 / 2008 04 / 23 / 20085
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 21 / 2008 06 / 07 / 20086
2008Greenland - NASA- N70 AWS05 / 05 / 2008 05 / 05 / 20087
2008Greenland - NASA- Up50 AWS05 / 05 / 2008 05 / 05 / 20087
2008Greenland - NASA-E AWS04 / 27 / 2008 04 / 27 / 20085
2008Greenland - NASA-SE AWS04 / 30 / 2008 04 / 30 / 20085
2008Greenland - NASA-U AWS04 / 28 / 2008 04 / 28 / 20085
2008Greenland - NEEM04 / 25 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20085
2008Greenland - Petermann ELA04 / 24 / 2008 04 / 24 / 20085
2008Greenland - Qaanaaq04 / 23 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20085
2008Greenland - Saddle AWS04 / 30 / 2008 04 / 30 / 20085
2008Greenland - South Dome AWS04 / 30 / 2008 04 / 30 / 20085
2008Greenland - Summit04 / 27 / 2008 04 / 28 / 20085
2008Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 02 / 2008 06 / 04 / 20087
2008Greenland - Thule04 / 24 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20085
2008Greenland - Tunu N AWS04 / 25 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20085
2009Greenland - DYE-204 / 24 / 2009 04 / 24 / 20093
2009Greenland - JAR1 AWS3
2009Greenland - JAR2 AWS3
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 19 / 2009 08 / 24 / 20095
2009Greenland - NASA- Up50 AWS05 / 19 / 2009 05 / 19 / 20093
2009Greenland - NASA-SE AWS04 / 21 / 2009 04 / 21 / 20093
2009Greenland - NASA-U AWS04 / 27 / 2009 04 / 28 / 20093
2009Greenland - Saddle AWS04 / 21 / 2009 04 / 21 / 20093
2009Greenland - South Dome AWS04 / 23 / 2009 04 / 24 / 20093
2009Greenland - Swiss Camp04 / 28 / 2009 05 / 19 / 20094
2010Greenland - Humboldt AWS04 / 27 / 2010 05 / 21 / 20107
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 26 / 2010 05 / 21 / 20105
2010Greenland - Tunu N AWS04 / 27 / 2010 05 / 21 / 20107
2011Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - DYE-205 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - JAR1 AWS05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - JAR2 AWS05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 30 / 2011 06 / 15 / 20118
2011Greenland - NASA-E AWS05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - NEEM05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - Petermann ELA05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - Summit0
2011Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2012Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 23 / 20124
2012Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 23 / 20124
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 30 / 2012 05 / 31 / 20128
2012Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 23 / 20124
2012Greenland - NEEM05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 28 / 20124
2012Greenland - Petermann ELA05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 23 / 20124
2012Greenland - Summit05 / 28 / 2012 05 / 29 / 20124
2012Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 01 / 2012 05 / 22 / 20128
2012Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 23 / 20124
2013Greenland - DYE-205 / 22 / 2013 05 / 25 / 20134
2013Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 28 / 2013 05 / 28 / 20134
2013Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 27 / 2013 05 / 27 / 20134
2013Greenland - Ilulissat08 / 09 / 2013 08 / 17 / 20132
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 30 / 2013 08 / 18 / 20139
2013Greenland - NASA-Moulin08 / 15 / 2013 08 / 16 / 20132
2013Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 22 / 2013 05 / 25 / 20134
2013Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 26 / 2013 05 / 26 / 20134
2013Greenland - NEEM05 / 26 / 2013 05 / 27 / 20134
2013Greenland - Petermann ELA05 / 27 / 2013 05 / 27 / 20134
2013Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 22 / 2013 05 / 25 / 20134
2013Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 01 / 2013 08 / 15 / 20137
2013Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 28 / 2013 05 / 28 / 20134
2014Greenland - Daneborg05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 01 / 2014 05 / 29 / 20146
2014Greenland - NASA-E AWS05 / 26 / 2014 05 / 26 / 20144
2014Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - NEEM05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Petermann ELA05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Qaanaaq05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Summit05 / 26 / 2014 05 / 27 / 20144
2014Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 02 / 2014 05 / 21 / 20146
2014Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 04 / 2015 06 / 06 / 20156
2015Greenland - NASA-E AWS05 / 22 / 2015 05 / 22 / 20155
2015Greenland - NEGIS05 / 28 / 2015 05 / 28 / 20155
2015Greenland - Summit05 / 18 / 2015 06 / 01 / 20155
2015Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 06 / 2015 05 / 18 / 20156
2016Greenland - EGRIP05 / 22 / 2016 05 / 25 / 20168
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 03 / 2016 06 / 10 / 20168
2016Greenland - Summit05 / 21 / 2006 06 / 09 / 20165
2016Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 05 / 2016 05 / 18 / 20167
2017Greenland - EGRIP4
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq4
2017Greenland - Summit4
2017Greenland - Swiss Camp4
 


Project Title: Isotopic composition of HNO3 and NOx at Summit Greenland (Award# 0454803)

PI: Steig, Eric J (steig@uw.edu)
Phone:  (206) 685.3715 
Institute/Department: U of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Space Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Variability in the burden of reactive nitrogen compounds (primarily NOx = NO + NO2) is a first-order research question in atmospheric chemistry. Because of their central role in the tropospheric ozone (O3) cycle, these compounds largely determine the lifetimes of volatile organic compounds, methane and other natural and anthropogenic trace gases. Little is known about the magnitude of natural variability from sources such as biomass burning, soils, and lightning. Records of nitric acid or nitrate (NO3 -) concentrations from polar ice cores offer a means to extend our knowledge of natural NOx variability. However nitrate deposition rates are only indirectly related to atmospheric NOx mixing ratios, and interpretation of concentration data from ice cores is complicated by post-depositional changes. Significantly more could be gained by utilizing the additional information available from nitrate isotope ratios. Recent work by our group and others suggests that the triple-isotopic composition (15N/14N, 18O/16O and 17O/16O) of deposited nitrate can be related directly to NO2/NO ratios and OH and O3 photochemistry, and can possibly be used to infer NOx mixing ratios in the past. Our results also show that there is potential to diagnose changes in NOx source. Our analytical technique, using bacterial denitrification to convert NO3 - to N2O for mass spectrometric measurement, permits the analysis of isotope ratios in solutions with very low (~1 µM) nitrate concentrations, necessary for the low atmospheric and wet-deposition concentrations typical of remote regions. Before we can fully utilize the potential of nitrate-isotope measurements in ice core research, we will need more complete knowledge of the various factors controlling NOx and HNO3 isotope ratios. Both modeling studies and laboratory and field-based measurements will be necessary. This proposal addresses the field-based aspect of the problem, with emphasis on obtaining data from Summit Greenland, where the deep GISP2 and GRIP ice cores were drilled. Our goal is to better characterize the isotopic variability in NOy (= NOx + HNO3, HONO, etc.) in air and snow. We will collect and analyze samples of fresh snowfall, aged snow surfaces, and buried snow in snow pits over the course of several summer and winter field seasons to examine variability in nitrate isotope concentrations due both to diurnal, seasonal, and interannual changes in source, and to depositional and post-depositional processes. We will also task the staff of the Greenland Summit Observatory to collect fresh snowfall and surface snow on a daily basis throughout the year. These snow and firn measurements will be complemented by analysis of isotopes in atmospheric NOy, using a combination of air sampling techniques (mist chambers for HNO3 and HONO, triethanolamine scavengers for NOx and PAN, and aerosol filters for particulate NO3 -). The atmospheric sampling will be conducted in parallel with routine meteorological and atmospheric sampling programs that are ongoing at the Greenland Summit Observatory and funded by NSF, NOAA and ESH, to allow for a comprehensive record of both isotope variability and relevant mixing ratios of important chemical (NOx, O3) and environmental (e.g. temperature, actinic flux) variables. We will also obtain a new 4? diameter ice core to a depth of ~100 m, to obtain a record of the last ~200 ? 300 years at subannual resolution, allowing us to investigate longer term variations in mean nitrate isotope ratios.

Logistics Summary:
Over the course of 3 years, this project plans four trips to Summit, Greenland to characterize variabilty of isotopes in atmospheric NO2, NO, HNO3, and HNO3 in Summit snow. A team of researchers will travel to Summit in July 2005, March through August 2006, and July 2007, where they will conduct continuous atmospheric sampling and will obtain snow and firn samples. During the first summer the team will test their field-sampling equipment and optimize collection protocols. They also plan to document long-term variability in isotope concentrations in 2005 by taking a new 100m core with support from the Ice Coring and Drilling Services Office at University of Wisconsin. In 2006 (and due to a major failure in the freezer where the 2005 ice core was stored), ICDS will drill another 100m core for the project in May or June. One ICDS person will do this work adjacent to the site used to support the Albert/Ferrari firn studies, after that core has been drilled. VPR will coordinate this work and the shipment of the ice core to the home institution. The cost of shipping the core from Scotia, NY, to Washington will be paid by the University of Washington. In 2007, the University of Washington team will be in the field from early June through early August. The project's researchers will also have access to the clean lab area and millipore water at Summit Station. Atmospheric sampling equipment (aerosol filters and mist chambers) will be set up in the old "Freshies Shack" building, near the Bally Building. Additionally, the team will have some radar equipment on site (a a high-frequency system for examining snow properties in the upper 2 m of the snow pack) which they hope to test as opportunity allows. A graduate student (Koenig) will dig one or two snow pits at a field-chosen location along the line out to last year's Steig bore holes. At Summit, this project will also have access to the clean lab area and millipore water. Atmospheric sampling equipment (aerosol filters and mist chambers) will be set up at the Bally Building located near the science trench, and later will be moved to the Satellite Camp. A data logger in the Bally Building will be used to record flow rates and temperatures. VPR will support the team via infrastructure at Summit. In addition, VPR science technicians will collect fresh snow samples when no team members are on-station.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 11 / 2005 07 / 30 / 20054
2005Greenland - Summit07 / 12 / 2005 07 / 28 / 20054
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq03 / 13 / 2006 07 / 14 / 200610
2006Greenland - Summit03 / 15 / 2006 07 / 12 / 200610
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 03 / 2007 08 / 12 / 20075
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 04 / 2007 08 / 07 / 20075
 


Project Title: GEOFON (GEOFOrschungsNetz - Geo Research Network) (Award# DESeismic)

PI: Strollo, Angelo ( strollo@gfz-potsdam.de)
Phone: 49(331) 288.1285 
Institute/Department: GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, GEOFON Program 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: DE\Research/Higher Ed\GFZ Potsdam
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@associates.nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://geofon.gfz-potsdam.de/
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/

Science Summary:
Most knowledge about the deeper interior of the earth is derived from seismological records. Seismic waves generated by earthquakes travel through the globe and sample its major structures on the way. Important information about seismic velocities and densities, structural boundaries, mineral composition, temperature and pressure regimes etc are hidden in each recorded seismogram and can be retrieved by inverse methods. To obtain a complete picture, globally distributed high quality broadband seismological stations are required to record a full seismologically range in terms of frequency content (10**2 – 10**-6 Hz) and dynamic range (10**-9 – 10**-1 m/s). The technical equipment of the GEOFON network fullfills these requirements and is installed in 50 stations worldwide. (Near) real-time data transmission (via the Internet) from most stations makes the GEOFON data immediately available to the scientifc community and provides a perfect tool for rapid determination of earthquake source parameters for scientific purposes but also for earthquake and tsunami early warnings and for use by disaster management. Both near real-time and archive data are openly available to the community from the GEOFON Data Center and are shared with other national and international data centers such as the european ORFEUS Data Center in De Bilt (Netherlands) and the global FDSN/IRIS Data Center (Seattle, USA).

Logistics Summary:
This project makes broadband seismological recordings of global earthquakes at Summit, Greenland. Formerly a part of the temporary GLATIS network, project responsibility has been turned over to GFZ Potsdam. Summit instruments have been included in that institute's GEOFON network. The PI (Hanka, then Strollo starting in 2015) will visit Summit Station annually to service and maintain the project's seismological station. Over the years, in addition to the scheduled maintenance, project personnel have visited Summit for various other project needs: In 2002, they installed an upgraded datalogger for the seismological station and a "Seiscomp" box that connected the station to the Summit LAN for Internet real-time data transmission; in 2004, another major station upgrade overcame technical problems and minimized required local support; finally, in 2007, two technicians raised and relocated the seismometer bunker, routing power and communications connections out of the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory. In 2009, a technician will return to Summit in May to conduct minor maintenance on the seismometer. Station staff will assist the technician as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2010, a team of two researchers will return to Summit in July. The seismometer bunker will be raised and relocated to a new site so that power and communications can continue to be connected out of the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory, which is also being relocated during this time. Station staff will assist the technicians as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2011, one researcher will return to Summit in mid-June to conduct minor maintenance on the seismometer. Summit staff will assist the researcher as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2012, two researchers will return to Summit Station in July to conduct minor maintenance on the seismometer. In 2013, two researchers will return to Summit Station in July with the following objectives: (1) relocate the seismometer to a new trench, and (2) replace the cable between the TAWO and the new seismometer trench. Summit Station staff will assist the researchers as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2014, no researchers will deploy to Summit Station. Instead, station staff will assist with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities as needed. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2015, two researchers will deploy to Summit Station in June to perform maintenance on the seismometer system, including relocating it to a new vault, raising all cables above the snow surface and checking out all hardware. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument, maintain data and power cables above the snow surface and provide as-needed assistance. No researchers will deploy in 2016. Instead, station technical staff replaced a broken seiscompbox. The replacement box is expected in fall 2016; when functioning, it will allow remote mass centering. Two researchers will visit Summit in May-June 2017 to perform maintenance on the seismometer system, including relocating it to a new vault, raising all cables above the snow surface, and checking out all hardware.

CPS will provide travel to/from Summit Station, Summit Station user days, and access to infrastructure (for years with participant travel) and science technician support year-round (re-leveling the instrument, maintain data and power cables above the snow surface and provide as-needed). The PI will pay NSF directly for costs associated with this support. All other logistics will be provided by the PI.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2000Greenland - Summit05 / 15 / 2000 09 / 05 / 20002
2001Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 14 / 2001 1
2001Greenland - Summit07 / 17 / 2001 07 / 19 / 20011
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 07 / 2002 06 / 14 / 20022
2002Greenland - Summit06 / 10 / 2002 06 / 13 / 20022
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 12 / 2003 08 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - Summit05 / 13 / 2003 08 / 01 / 20031
2004Greenland - Summit0
2005Greenland - Summit0
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 08 / 2006 05 / 11 / 20061
2006Greenland - Summit05 / 09 / 2006 05 / 11 / 20061
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 01 / 2007 06 / 08 / 20072
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 04 / 2007 06 / 06 / 20072
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 21 / 2008 04 / 27 / 20081
2008Greenland - Summit04 / 22 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20081
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 11 / 2009 05 / 18 / 20091
2009Greenland - Summit05 / 12 / 2009 05 / 14 / 20091
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 20 / 2010 07 / 30 / 20102
2010Greenland - Summit07 / 21 / 2010 07 / 29 / 20102
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 07 / 2011 06 / 15 / 20111
2011Greenland - Summit06 / 09 / 2011 06 / 13 / 20111
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 14 / 2012 07 / 21 / 20122
2012Greenland - Summit07 / 16 / 2012 07 / 20 / 20122
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 15 / 2013 08 / 01 / 20132
2013Greenland - Summit07 / 16 / 2013 07 / 31 / 20132
2014Greenland - Summit0
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 29 / 2015 06 / 11 / 20152
2015Greenland - Summit06 / 03 / 2015 06 / 09 / 20152
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq2
2017Greenland - Summit2
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Radical Chemistry over Sunlit Snow: Interactions between HOx and Halogen Chemistry at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0612279)

PI: Stutz, Jochen P (jochen@atmos.ucla.edu )
Phone:  (310) 825.5364 
Institute/Department: U of California, Los Angeles, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences 
IPY Project? YES
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\AGS
Program Manager: Ms. Anne-Marie Schmoltner (aschmolt@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
IPY: http://classic.ipy.org/index.php
Data: http://transport.nilu.no/projects/polarcat-1
IPY: http://www.ipy.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
Researchers on this collaborative project will investigate the importance of halogen chemistry in OH and HO2 radical production and loss above sunlit snow, and identify significant halogen sources and transport mechanisms to this unique and remote environment. Methods: They will integrate a set of field measurements focused on the impact of halogen chemistry on the production and fate of free radicals in the Summit, Greenland surface layer. They plan to make the first measurements of BrO in the boundary layer at Summit. In addition to direct measurements of HOx, the radical precursors and sinks thought to play an important role in the OH budget in this environment (O3, NO, NO2, H2O, HONO, RONO2, HCHO, HCOOH, CH3COOH, CO, CH4, and reactive NMHCs) will be measured, as well as a number of halogen species (BrO, IO, OIO, and soluble gas phase bromide). Measurements of various mercury species and NMHC oxidation products will provide additional evidence of reactive halogens. Rates of photochemical reactions will be measured above and within the snow. Measurements over a wide range of environmental (e.g., temperature, light, wind speed) conditions as well as a variety of transport regimes will help to discriminate the relative importance of halogens on HOx photochemical cycling. Field measurements will be interpreted with the aid of state-of-the-art back-trajectory tools (FLEXPART) and by employing a photochemical steady-state box-model to determine the HOx cycling within the Summit boundary layer. An advanced 1D multiphase chemical transport model (MISTRA) allows the assessment of the researchers’ understanding of HOx/halogen interactions, the discrimination of the proposed halogen sources, as well as allowing the extrapolation of their observations to other snow covered regions. Broader impacts: With only a handful of HOx measurements in snow covered regions to date, lack of understanding of HOx photochemical cycling is not surprising. If halogens play a role in the HOx cycling at Summit, atmospheric modelers will need to adjust their chemical mechanisms accordingly. This project provides an unusual opportunity for graduate and undergraduate students to participate in ground-breaking science. The researchers place a high priority on conveying their excitement and the significance of the program to students and the public through web pages tracking field campaigns and via outreach presentations in local schools. Direct teacher participation will ensure the development of materials suitable for dissemination and use in schools nationwide. The team will work with news media - including radio, newspapers, and television - to provide broad public exposure.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration is composed of the following: 0612075 (Dibb, UNH LEAD), 0612387 (Huey, Gatech), 0612136 (Lefer, U of Houston), 0612426 (Blake, UCI), 0612568 (Brooks, NOAA), and 0612279 (Stutz, UCLA). The researchers will study photochemical processes during intensive sampling seasons planned for the summer of 2007, when sunlight is at a maximum, and spring of 2008, during rapid temperature changes. At those times, a field team of 10-12 will participate in a 6-8 week effort to install experiments, and then to collect data from and maintain the same. While at Summit in 2007, PI Stutz will also conduct any work needing to be done on his MAX-DOAS grant (0421016). Logistics details will be carried in this database under 0612075, Dibb.

For field support details, please see the record for grant 0612075.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2007Greenland - Summit0
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2008Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: An Isotope MIF Study of Volcanic Events in Greenland Ice Cores (Award# 0612422)

PI: Thiemens, Mark H (mthiemens@ucsd.edu)
Phone:  (858) 534.6732 
Institute/Department: U of California, San Diego, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Geological Sciences | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This collaborative study between South Dakota State University (SDSU) and University of California, San Diego (UCSD) will investigate mechanisms of atmospheric oxidation chemistry using sulfur dioxide from volcanic eruptions. We propose to (1) obtain several shallow ice cores from central Greenland, (2) extract sulfate from a number of known large volcanic eruptions in the last 600 years, (3) measure the mass independent fractionation (MIF) of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in the volcanic sulfate, (4) test hypotheses of sulfur dioxide oxidation by active oxidation intermediates and by photochemistry, and (5) investigate the quantitative impact of atmospheric variables on ice core volcanic signals. The goals of the proposed research are (1) to better understand the chemical processes of atmospheric oxidation and the effect of atmospheric dynamics on ice core volcanic signals, and (2) to establish a new mechanism to track the sensitivity of the atmosphere to environmental disturbance and hence, is of importance to anthropogenic impact models. Achieving the goals of the proposed research will help advance the frontiers of environmental science, particularly in the areas of climate change and human impact. By providing educational and research opportunities to SDSU and UCSD students, the proposed project will promote the integration of research with education and contribute to human resource development in science and engineering. The project will contribute to a current REU chemistry site program at SDSU. This collaboration will utilize the complementary strengths of both labs and promote exchange between the two institutions. International collaboration will enhance scientific cooperation between France and US. NSF support for SDSU will contribute to the economic development and the strengthening of infrastructure for research and higher education in South Dakota, an EPSCoR state.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this collaborative project between 0612461 (ColeDai, LEAD SDSU) and 0612422 (Thiemens, UCSD) plan to collect several shallow ice cores (about 450m total) at an undisturbed site close to Summit Station. In their institute lab, the scientists will experiment on the core using a recently developed isotopic method which analyzes volcanic sulfate signatures in the ice record. Logistical details located under 0612461.

See field support details located under 0612461.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2007Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: A Unique Opportunity for In-Situ Measurement of Seasonally-Varying Firn Densification at Summit, Greenland (Award# 0352584)

PI: Waddington, Edwin D (edw@uw.edu)
Phone:  (206) 543.4585 
Institute/Department: U of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://coldclimes.blogspot.com/
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
In this project we will make detailed measurements of the temporal and spatial variations of firn compaction. This will advance knowledge and understanding within the field of ice deformation and across different fields, such as remote sensing, snow morphology, and paleoclimatology. We will make these detailed measurements throughout 2 winter and 3 summer seasons using the concept of Borehole Optical Stratigraphy, which uses a borehole camera to record details of a borehole wall. These details can be tracked over time to determine vertical motion and strain, which in the shallow depth of our study is dominated by firn compaction. Quantitative understanding of firn compaction is important for remote-sensing mass-balance studies, which seek to measure and interpret the changing height of the ice sheet; the surface can rise due to snow accumulation, and fall due to ice flow and increased densification rates. Quantitative knowledge of all 3 processes is essential. Evidence suggests that the rate of densification, which is thermally activated, undergoes a seasonal cycle, related to the seasonal cycle of temperature. When interpreting trapped-gas data from an ice core for paleoclimate, it is important to know at what point the gas was actually trapped in the ice. The pores in the ice do not close off until deep in the firn, leading to a difference between the age of the ice and the age of the trapped gas. If summer high temperatures have more impact on compaction than mean annual temperatures, the gas-age/ice-age offset might be incorrectly calculated. Greater understanding of firn densification physics will help the interpretation of these records.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative between 0352584 (Waddington, UW) and 0352511 (McConnell, DRI) will study firn densification at several locations in Greenland using optical logging techniques the investigators developed. In 2004, this project will work closely with that of Lamorey/Waddington 0082469/0083132, combining resources and field team members. A team of two will spend 3 weeks at Summit during the setting up the winter-over experiment, collecting preliminary data, and training science technicians. The team will also conduct comparison studies at Raven for one week. At the end of the summer, a field team member will return to Raven for repeat measurements (1 week). Winter-over measurements will be carried out by science technicians already stationed at Summit as part of the winter-over science program. In 2005 and 2006, Robert Hawley will return to Summit for approximately one week in May to maintain and repair the experimental equipment, collect data, and train any new science technicians. In 2005 two British Antarctic Survey (BAS) participants will join Hawley at Summit to run high frequency Ground Penetrating Radar to obtain a detailed look at the spatial variability in firn layering. Hawley will also conduct comparison studies at Raven for one week in May of each year. At the end of the summer, he will return to Raven for a day visit to repeat the measurements. At the end of the summer 2006, he will return to Raven and Summit for a day to repeat the measurements. Accompanying him in August will be 4 staff from the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) who are working on a documentary on Greenland, climate change, sea level, etc. They plan to feature the borehole optical stratigraphy research in their documentary, which is expected to be a main feature in the Hall of Planet Earth (estimated to be viewed by 10 million visitors per year). In addition to trips to Summit Station and Camp Raven, the field team will also visit Russell Glacier via truck after they return to Kangerlussuaq. In August 2007, Hawley will return to Summit and Raven (under a no-cost extension) to lay the ground work for an additional year of logging. First, he will visit Raven to make borehole measurements there. While at Raven he also will assist Steve Warren (University of Washington, 0612636) in collecting snow samples. At Summit, Hawley will maintain project property, including the weather station, train new wintering staff, and make "logs of opportunity" in recently drilled boreholes near camp. In addition, he will inspect the main GISP 2 borehole casing to establish what (if any) repairs need to be made. In 2008, Hawley will travel to Summit (but not Raven Camp) to retrieve and retrograde project equipment. In addition to closing out his winter-over experiment, he will undertake (as time and resources allow) 3 opportunistic experiments/activities: 1) Extend GRIP casing, if Danish scientist Dorthe Dahl-Jensen determines it is needed, and provides casing to do the job. Time to complete: one day total. 2) Make P-res measurements: this effort is collaborative with the BAS/Hindmarsh (NERCRadar) project, if time permits; the team will collect phase-sensitive radar sounding profiles at the borehole site to attempt to use the radar to measure vertical strain (in comparison to this project’s video measurements). 3) Make density-log of SUFA06: this effort is collaborative with the SPRI/Morris project. This work at the “Sandy/Zoe” site entails 40 hours of logging. Hawley plans an intensive logging effort, and expects to remain overnight at the site and complete the work in 3 to 4 days. CPS will provide infrastructure support in Kangerlussuaq, as well as access to infrastructure and services at Summit, including cold weather clothing, sleep kits and tents, use of snowmachines and communications gear.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 25 / 2004 07 / 31 / 20041
2004Greenland - Raven05 / 16 / 2004 05 / 29 / 20044
2004Greenland - Summit05 / 29 / 2004 06 / 05 / 20042
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 16 / 2005 08 / 12 / 20053
2005Greenland - Raven05 / 18 / 2005 08 / 10 / 20051
2005Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2005 05 / 24 / 20053
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 21 / 2006 08 / 23 / 20065
2006Greenland - Raven05 / 22 / 2006 08 / 16 / 20065
2006Greenland - Summit05 / 24 / 2006 08 / 18 / 20065
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 05 / 2007 08 / 23 / 20071
2007Greenland - Raven08 / 07 / 2007 08 / 08 / 20071
2007Greenland - Summit08 / 09 / 2007 08 / 21 / 20071
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 21 / 2008 08 / 01 / 20081
2008Greenland - Summit07 / 22 / 2008 07 / 31 / 20081
 


Generated from:
 
Parameters used to generate this report:Region = "Greenland", Location = "Summit", Season = "2007", IPY = "ALL" 
     Number of projects returned based on your query parameters = 33
 
ARLSS_ProjectsDetail