Arctic Field Projects



Project Title: REU Site: Understanding Arctic as a System (Award# 1560372)

PI: Alexeev, Vladimir A (valexeev@alaska.edu )
Phone: 0(907) 474.6430 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, International Arctic Research Center 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://data.iarc.uaf.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
This project will contribute toward building research capacity of future arctic science through teaching and training of undergraduate students in collaboration with an interdisciplinary team actively involved in Arctic system research. Students will bring the acquired experience back to their communities and spread the message about the exciting science that is done in the Arctic. Focusing on under-represented minorities will help broaden the base of the future arctic science workforce. Interdisciplinary educational materials that?result from the summer experiences will be made available to a broad scientific community. The Arctic climate is changing and an integrated cross-disciplinary approach?is needed to understand and explain changes in the Arctic and their implications. Researchers at the University of Alaska Fairbanks will establish a new REU site to attract undergraduates, including students from minority groups, to arctic sciences. The overarching goal of the project is to disseminate new knowledge and discoveries at the?frontiers of polar science and ignite the enthusiasm of the undergraduates about the Arctic, thus contributing to the development of a diverse and environmentally educated U.S. science?and engineering workforce. The science focus of this program will be on understanding Arctic as a system with emphasis on its physical components. The goals will be achieved by organizing summer research experience for undergraduates during which students will be involved in research and educational projects with their mentors and take advantage of collaboration with the proposing team. Pre- and post- summer experience surveys will provide metrics of success. The intellectual merit of this effort lies in focusing on the interdisciplinarity and the systems approach?to understanding the Arctic environment. The summer experience program will provide the participating students with the current state of knowledge about the Arctic. The students will benefit from close interaction with their mentors who are actively involved in ongoing?research and fieldwork in their disciplines. While each student (or group of students) will?be involved in a separate project, they will also be provided with a broad context of Arctic?system science. In addition to regular classroom teaching students will be involved in field?trips and hands-on activities linked to research projects of their mentors. Each of the summer?visits to Fairbanks will culminate in a workshop and a discussion between students and instructors, in which the students will present their results and will have an opportunity to synthesize about current problems of Arctic climate.

Logistics Summary:
This grant will establish an REU site at the University of Alaska-Fairbanks that is focused on Arctic System Science. The investigators will host eight undergraduate students for 2.5 months during summers from 2017 to 2019 (a total of 24 students). Eight researchers from the International Arctic Research Center (IARC) will serve as mentors to the students, who will be expected to engage in interdisciplinary research topics in which the IARC scientists are experts. Students will be expected to conduct original research through acquisition of field data or analysis of existing information, engage with other students either in teams or through discussions, and report on their efforts in writing and orally.

All logistics will be organized by the researcher and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Fairbanks06 / 01 / 2017 08 / 15 / 201716
2018Alaska - Fairbanks06 / 01 / 2018 08 / 15 / 201816
2019Alaska - Fairbanks06 / 01 / 2019 08 / 15 / 201916
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Birnirk prehistory and the emergence of Inupiaq Culture in Northwestern Alaska, archaeological and anthropological perspectives. (Award# 1523160)

PI: Alix, Claire (cmalix@alaska.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 474.6387 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska Quaternary Center 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Social and Human Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: http://www.uaf.edu/aqc/

Science Summary:
This multidisciplinary program of research will explore human interaction, settlement history, climate and landscape dynamics in relation to the Birnirk archaeological complex at ca. AD 1000. After a period of hiatus, Birnirk site KTZ-304 at Cape Espenberg (Inuigniq) was occupied at a pivotal cultural and environmental moment in Northwest Alaska and the larger Bering Sea region, just before AD 1000 and prior to the emergence of Inupiaq culture around AD 1300. Cape Espenberg is a key location for this cultural history both because of the presence of Ipiutak, Birnik and Thule archaeological sites and as ancestral land of today’s Kigiqtaamiut of Shishmaref. Interrelated and integrated analytical approaches involving cultural and physical anthropology, archaeology and paleoecology will (a) form the framework for continued excavation at site KTZ-304 (b) contribute to study architectural features, archaeofauna, ceramics, and artifacts in order to elucidate social networks, subsistence systems and technology, and to understand the impact of climate and resource availability on peoples’ activities, decisions and movements; (c) guide the collecting of paleoenvironmental data through targeted sampling of swales and ridges to date dune ridge stabilization, reconstruct terrestrial vegetation and map the location of the ocean relative to the site; (d) integrate ancient DNA (aDNA) studies to establish the broader genetic relationships of Inuit societies in the region and beyond; (e) explore how Kigiqtaamiut interpret material culture to understand the past, narrate history and generate knowledge; (f) foster a dialog on the role of material culture today in the community of Shishmaref and between the Kigiqtaamiut and the scientists to construct more reflexive interpretations of the past, and thus; (g) advance understanding of the origin of Inupiaq culture through the development of a high-resolution chronology of settlement and landscape formation, cultural shift and climate variation. This research will offer the opportunity to relate social processes and population dispersal to environmental change by obtaining data from a diverse group of disciplines. By combining aDNA and cultural anthropology, it will be possible to address the genetic legacy of Inupiat peoples while learning how Kigiqtaamiut construct, understand, and articulate their history. In turn, it will foster a dialogue not only across disciplines but also among researchers and the local community. The archaeological component will provide a detailed and discrete view of technological and subsistence condition at a key moment of AD 1000 to explore Birnirk as a potential newcomer in the cultural chronology, addressing the long-standing hypotheses of colonization on the one hand and continuity and subsequent in situ development on the other. Paleoecological data will provide climatic yardsticks for storminess and seashore history during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the onset of the Little Ice Age, a poorly understood interval in northwest Alaska. New tree-ring data will contribute to the long-term process of building tree ring chronologies for the last 1500 years in Alaska.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers participating in this collaboration between Alix (1523160, UAF, LEAD), O'Rourke (1523059, U of Utah), Anderson (1523079, PSU), and Mason (1523205, INSTAAR, CU) will document the cultural histories, social interactions, population diversity and dispersal, and environmental changes from data collected at Birnirk archaeological complex on Cape Espenberg, Alaska. During two field seasons (2016-17), researchers will work with Shishmaref community members to conduct archaeological excavation, paleoecology and ancient DNA research to better understand who were the people that first settled the area around AD 1000, when and from where they came, and in what environmental conditions these events took place. They also will work with cultural advisers and community members to explore how material culture and landscape is interpreted to talk about the past. During the summers of 2016 and 2017, a team of about 22 researchers will conduct an 8-week archaeological excavation at Cape Espenberg, Alaska. In mid-June 2017, CPS camp staff and researchers will assemble in Fairbanks for pre-season training and preparations. A few days later, a field camp put in team will meet in Kotzebue. The next day, they will fly by small fixed-wing airplane to Cape Espenberg to establish the camp infrastructure. Field camp-based research will continue until early August with personnel change-outs (including a ~2-week visit by high school students), resupply, and an overnight cultural exchange with local community members. At the end of the field season, CPS staff will return to assist with camp take out and ship camp gear back to Fairbanks.

CPS will provide a staffed remote field camp, air support for camp gear, personnel transportation to/from Kotzebue and the field location, and communications and safety gear. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Cape Espenberg06 / 14 / 2016 08 / 19 / 201618
2017Alaska - Cape Espenberg06 / 19 / 2017 08 / 13 / 201729
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Impact of subglacial discharge on turbulent plume dynamics and ocean-glacier heat and mass transfer (Award# 1504288)

PI: Amundson, Jason M ( jason.amundson@uas.alaska.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 796.6247 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Southeast,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Cynthia Suchman ()
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Glaciology | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://cchdo.ucsd.edu/
Data: http://nsidc.org/
Data: http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: http://www.unavco.org/
Data: http://www.wgms.ch/
Data: https://www.passcal.nmt.edu/content/data-archiving

Science Summary:
Recent and on-going retreat of many Northern hemisphere marine-terminating glaciers is contributing significantly to sea level rise. It is driven by poorly understood processes occurring at the ice-ocean interface, such as subglacial discharge into the ocean, turbulent plume dynamics, submarine melting, and iceberg calving. These processes are inherently interdisciplinary, requiring expertise in both glaciology and oceanography, and difficult to observe, requiring innovative field techniques and careful site selection. This project will address the relationship between subglacial discharge, turbulent plume dynamics, and submarine melting through a comprehensive field campaign at LeConte Glacier, Alaska, supplemented by a state-of-the-art modeling effort. The field site is ideal because it spans a wide range of forcings on daily to seasonal time scales and because the near-terminus fjord environment is accessible year round. A successful project will provide a unique data set and improved models for projecting contributions to future sea level rise. This project will develop a parameterization of a plume, driven by subglacial discharge, as it interacts with the face of a marine-terminating glacier. This is a goal that has been endorsed by the international community. It will be accomplished by conducting three intensive field campaigns to: sample the upwelling plume directly with manned and autonomous vessels, measure the downstream impact of the plume on near-terminus fjord circulation, determine subglacial discharge and submarine melt rates, and survey associated changes in glacier terminus dynamics. Subglacial discharge and ambient water properties in the proglacial fjord will be monitored throughout the project in order to provide important context for the intensive field campaigns, and a range of parameter space to be explored by a turbulence-resolving hydrodynamic plume model. Data from the intensive field campaigns will be used to validate the plume model, which will then be used to explore the wider range of parameter space that is provided by long-term measurements. The latter will allow investigation of the impact of submarine melting on glacier dynamics over seasonal timescales.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Amundson (1504288, LEAD, UAS), Nash (1504191, OSU), Sutherland (1504521, U Oregon) and Motyka (1503910, UAF) will address the relationship between subglacial discharge, turbulent plume dynamics, and submarine melting through a comprehensive field campaign a LeConte Glacier, Alaska. Researchers will investigate tidewater glacier retreat by making combined oceanographic and glaciological observations that will quantify the heat and freshwater fluxes associated with sub glacially forced turbulent plumes while simultaneously characterizing the structure of the evolving ice face and near-terminus strain rates. A team of up to 14 researchers will conduct fieldwork at Le Conte Glacier and adjacent fjord during the spring, summer, and fall of 2016 and 2017. The researchers will stage in Petersburg, Alaska, using a helicopter charter to access the glacier and boat charters to access the fjord. Three separate trips are planned for 2016 in March, August, and October for about a week each. In 2017, trips are planned in April, July, and September for about a week each.

CPS will provide helicopter charter, small boat and larger vessel charters, remote camping equipment, lodging in a Petersburg-area cabin, mustang suits, and communications equipment. IRIS/PASSCAL will provide seismic instrumentation and support. UNAVCO will provide technical equipment and services. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - LeConte Glacier03 / 25 / 2016 10 / 11 / 201613
2017Alaska - LeConte Glacier04 / 11 / 2017 09 / 19 / 201715
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Birnirk prehistory and the emergence of Inupiaq Culture in Northwestern Alaska, archaeological and anthropological perspectives. (Award# 1523079)

PI: Anderson, Shelby L (ashelby@pdx.edu)
Phone: 0(503) 725.3318 
Institute/Department: Portland State University, Department of Anthropology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Social and Human Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: http://www.uaf.edu/aqc/
Data: http://www.uaf.edu/geology/

Science Summary:
This multidisciplinary program of research will explore human interaction, settlement history, climate and landscape dynamics in relation to the Birnirk archaeological complex at ca. AD 1000. After a period of hiatus, Birnirk site KTZ-304 at Cape Espenberg (Inuigniq) was occupied at a pivotal cultural and environmental moment in Northwest Alaska and the larger Bering Sea region, just before AD 1000 and prior to the emergence of Inupiaq culture around AD 1300. Cape Espenberg is a key location for this cultural history both because of the presence of Ipiutak, Birnik and Thule archaeological sites and as ancestral land of today’s Kigiqtaamiut of Shishmaref. Interrelated and integrated analytical approaches involving cultural and physical anthropology, archaeology and paleoecology will (a) form the framework for continued excavation at site KTZ-304 (b) contribute to study architectural features, archaeofauna, ceramics, and artifacts in order to elucidate social networks, subsistence systems and technology, and to understand the impact of climate and resource availability on peoples’ activities, decisions and movements; (c) guide the collecting of paleoenvironmental data through targeted sampling of swales and ridges to date dune ridge stabilization, reconstruct terrestrial vegetation and map the location of the ocean relative to the site; (d) integrate ancient DNA (aDNA) studies to establish the broader genetic relationships of Inuit societies in the region and beyond; (e) explore how Kigiqtaamiut interpret material culture to understand the past, narrate history and generate knowledge; (f) foster a dialog on the role of material culture today in the community of Shishmaref and between the Kigiqtaamiut and the scientists to construct more reflexive interpretations of the past, and thus; (g) advance understanding of the origin of Inupiaq culture through the development of a high-resolution chronology of settlement and landscape formation, cultural shift and climate variation. This research will offer the opportunity to relate social processes and population dispersal to environmental change by obtaining data from a diverse group of disciplines. By combining aDNA and cultural anthropology, it will be possible to address the genetic legacy of Inupiat peoples while learning how Kigiqtaamiut construct, understand, and articulate their history. In turn, it will foster a dialogue not only across disciplines but also among researchers and the local community. The archaeological component will provide a detailed and discrete view of technological and subsistence condition at a key moment of AD 1000 to explore Birnirk as a potential newcomer in the cultural chronology, addressing the long-standing hypotheses of colonization on the one hand and continuity and subsequent in situ development on the other. Paleoecological data will provide climatic yardsticks for storminess and seashore history during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the onset of the Little Ice Age, a poorly understood interval in northwest Alaska. New tree-ring data will contribute to the long-term process of building tree ring chronologies for the last 1500 years in Alaska.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers participating in this collaboration between Alix (1523160, UAF, LEAD), O'Rourke (1732344, U of Kansas Center for Research), Anderson (1523079, PSU), and Mason (1523205, INSTAAR, CU) will document the cultural histories, social interactions, population diversity and dispersal, and environmental changes from data collected at Birnirk archaeological complex on Cape Espenberg, Alaska. During two field seasons (2016-17), researchers will work with Shishmaref community members to conduct archaeological excavation, paleoecology and ancient DNA research to better understand who were the people that first settled the area around AD 1000, when and from where they came, and in what environmental conditions these events took place. They also will work with cultural advisers and community members to explore how material culture and landscape is interpreted to talk about the past. Logistic details under 1523160.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Cape Espenberg0
2017Alaska - Cape Espenberg0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: An examination of human social and cultural adaptation through archaeological and paleoclimate data from the Aleutian Islands (Award# 1523034)

PI: Andrus, C. Frederick T. (fandrus@ua.edu)
Phone: 0(205) 348.5177 
Institute/Department: U of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Department of Geology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://data.giss.nasa.gov/o18data/
Data: http://www.aleutians.org/
Data: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/datalist.html
Data: http://www.neotomadb.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
Archaeologists have expended a lot of research effort trying to determine whether or not periods of past climate change had a significant effect on human populations. In the case of coastal Alaska over the past several thousand years, the available data indicate that for the most part, the answer has been "not much" - the marine ecosystem seems to have remained relatively stable, even though periods of climate change such as the Medieval Warm Period and the so-called "Little Ice Age". The one exception to this generalization is found on Unalaska Island, in the eastern Aleutians. At about 4000 years ago, ringed seals, which are an ice-adapted species, made up a significant portion of the subsistence base. This suggests that temperatures were substantially colder than they are today. However, many of the species that are common in the area today (in the absence of significant levels of sea ice) were also an important part of the subsistence economy 4000 years ago. This research aims to try to address this apparent contradiction; was it cold and icy? Or was it generally more temperate, much as it is today? To do so, the scientists will (a) study the growth patterns and shell chemistry of modern and archaeological butter clams, which will give us an indication of what the water conditions were like. They will also (b) conduct a detailed analysis of all of the species present in the archaeological midden sites, including the age composition of what was being harvested, as an indication of what the environmental conditions were like. And, finally, they will (c) conduct a detailed analysis of the artifacts associated with marine mammal hunting to determine the likelihood that hunters 4000 years ago developed a specialized toolkit for hunting in the sea ice. As coastal communities throughout the Arctic face important decisions regarding the possibility of major climate change, the research team believes that it will be important to have some "test cases" that provide information on how various communities have responded to climate change in the past. The archaeological sites on Unalaska Island provide nearly 4000 years worth of data of adaptation to past climate change; data that are directly relevant to understanding the challenges of future climate change. This project will investigate the effects of Late Holocene climate change on animal biodiversity and human foraging activity in Alaska's Aleutian Islands. This three-year, interdisciplinary study will use zooarchaeological, paleoenvironmental, biological, and oceanographic data to test the hypothesis that fluctuations in Late Holocene climate significantly affected local environments, ecosystems, and human hunting strategy in the eastern Aleutian Islands. This interdisciplinary project will apply models of human foraging behavior to research human-animal-environmental interactions in the context of climate change using three major lines of evidence: 1) growth patterns and stable oxygen isotopes in archaeological shellfish will be used to reconstruct the local paleoenvironment; 2) archaeological faunal material from several taxonomic groups will be used to test whether animal distribution and behavior have changed through time in response to changes in climate; 3) artifacts will be analyzed to look for adaptations to the marine mammal hunting toolkit in response to changes in climate and resource availability. More specifically, the research team will utilize a research program that will use multiple datasets from Unalaska Island to address whether sea ice and ice-loving ("pagophilic") fauna were present in this region during the Neoglacial phase, suggesting a dramatic change in prehistoric climate. The interdisciplinary nature of archaeology makes it uniquely positioned to accomplish two things: 1) to offer truly long term data about the ecological, climate, and resource histories for the Gulf of Alaska, data that are vital to understanding both ancient and contemporary human and environmental interaction in this region and 2) to collaborate with local Native Alaskan communities and students, resource managers, and cultural resource managers to collect, interpret, and disseminate the data and findings.

Logistics Summary:
Beginning May 2016, this three-year collaborative project between West (1522972, Lead, Boston U), Etnier (1650291, WWU), and Andrus (1523034, U of Alabama Tuscaloosa) will investigate the effects of Late Holocene Climate change on animal biodiversity and human foraging activity in the eastern Aleutian Islands. Abrupt and significant changes in climate seen in atmospheric or oceanic records can manifest themselves in different ways on local landscapes and in the archeological record. The researchers will test hypotheses concerning climate change and the nature of human response to climate change using optimal foraging theory. In particular, they will focus on pagophilic (ice loving) animals, and their role in prehistoric exploitation patterns. Logistics details under 1522972.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Unalaska0
2018Alaska - Unalaska0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Ice Regime Shifts of Arctic Lakes Drive Interactions and Feedbacks with Permafrost and Climate (Award# 1417300)

PI: Arp, Christopher D (cdarp@alaska.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 474.2783 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Blog: http://arcticlakeice.org/blog/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
Shallow lakes and ponds may cover up to 40 percent of the land surface in Arctic lowland regions. Many of these water bodies traditionally freeze solid during the winter, preserving sub-lake permafrost and keeping soil carbon stocks immobile at depth. Slightly deeper lakes maintain some liquid water beneath floating ice, causing deep thaw zones in otherwise continuous permafrost. Evidence suggests that thinner ice growth in response to warmer, snowier winters is pushing many bedfast ice lakes to floating ice regimes. If such a regime shift becomes pervasive across lake-rich landscapes, resulting permafrost thaw and enhanced moisture and heat flux could generate positive feedbacks, further amplifying this regime change. This project examines the extent and dynamics of bedfast and floating ice lakes in relation to hypothesized interactions and feedback with permafrost and climate. A combination of remote sensing, field monitoring and geophysical measurements, experiments and physical models are used to isolate processes, quantify interactions and project changes. Project findings will be relevant locally for native village subsistence and for water supply to the petroleum industry, and globally for scientists studying permafrost thaw and Arctic climate change.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers in this collaboration between Arp (1417300, UAF, Lead) and Parsekian (1417345, UWYO) examine the extent and dynamics of bedfast and floating ice lakes in relation to hypothesized interactions and feedback with permafrost and climate. Researchers will use a combination of remote sensing; field monitoring and geophysical measurements; experiments; and physical models to isolate processes, quantify interactions, and project changes. Beginning in the spring of 2015, and for two consecutive years thereafter, a team of researchers will sample and instrument lakes along a transect from the Brooks Mountain Range north to the Arctic coastline. During each field season, field teams of up to eight people will carry out three primary campaigns to access lakes along this transect. For the first, in the spring, researchers will travel via snowmachine from Toolik Field Station to Teshekpuk Lake, and via fixed-wing from Prudhoe to Inigok. The second field campaign will occur in the summer; researchers will access lakes via fixed-wing and helicopter charters. For the third campaign, in November, researchers will access Teshekpuk via snowmachine from Barrow. For 2015 only, portions of the Arp field activities are covered by overlap under Team A in the Hinkel 1107607 grant, including some fixed-wing and helicopter support, some Toolik Field Station user days, and some equipment from inventory. Items covered under the Hinkel grant are noted in the 2015 Hinkel season plan. In 2016, three deployments will take place. In April, four people will traverse via snowmachine from Toolik to Barrow taking approximately two weeks. For about one week in July, a team will travel via Toolik helicopter between and around Teshekpuk and Inigok. In November, for about five days, two people will travel via snowmachine for work around Barrow. Field work in 2017 will be the same as 2016, except the spring traverse will start in March going in reverse from Barrow to Toolik and will not include fixed-wing support.

IAB will provide access to infrastructure and services at Toolik Field Station. In 2017, CPS will provide Toolik helicopter support; snowmachine equipment including: machines, freight and fuel sleds, fuel containers, and spare parts; winter camping equipment including camping gear, remote medical kits; freight of CPS-provided gear; Toolik user days; lodging, trucks, assistance with NSB and UIC permits, and gear from the local inventory in Barrow. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Alaska - Fish Creek04 / 08 / 2015 08 / 28 / 20155
2015Alaska - Inigok 04 / 15 / 2015 04 / 22 / 20153
2015Alaska - Teshekpuk08 / 14 / 2015 08 / 28 / 20152
2015Alaska - Toolik03 / 26 / 2015 03 / 27 / 20152
2015Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)11 / 08 / 2015 11 / 15 / 20152
2016Alaska - Inigok 07 / 15 / 2016 07 / 22 / 20164
2016Alaska - Teshekpuk04 / 24 / 2016 07 / 22 / 20166
2016Alaska - Toolik04 / 14 / 2016 04 / 16 / 20164
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)05 / 06 / 2016 11 / 15 / 20164
2017Alaska - Inigok 04 / 09 / 2017 07 / 29 / 20176
2017Alaska - Teshekpuk04 / 04 / 2017 07 / 25 / 20178
2017Alaska - Toolik04 / 13 / 2017 04 / 15 / 20174
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)03 / 26 / 2017 11 / 10 / 20177
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: The Importance of Shelf Break Upwelling to Upper Trophic Level Ecology in the Western Beaufort Sea (Award# 1603941)

PI: Ashjian, Carin (cashjian@whoi.edu)
Phone: 0(508) 289.3457 
Institute/Department: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Department of Biology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The edge of the shallow continental shelf (called the 'shelf break') in the Beaufort Sea is vulnerable both to direct impacts of ongoing climate change and to indirect impacts that may result from increased human activity in response to new opportunities associated with ocean warming and sea ice reduction. Beaufort Sea shelf break upwelling may be increasing in frequency in response to recent large-scale atmospheric changes, potentially increasing the importance of the shelf-break environment for a range of upper trophic level animals. This grant will support research to increase our understanding of the importance of the region to upper trophic levels such as beluga whales, seabirds, and seals, provide a mechanistic understanding of the linked atmosphere-ocean- plankton-predator system, and predict future consequences and impacts of environmental change on this system. A substantial communications program built upon long-standing, well-established relationships between the researchers and Alaska North Slope communities and subsistence organizations is planned both to coordinate the planned sampling and to convey the results of the research back to the communities. Information will be disseminated locally before and during two research cruises using a range of media including daily email reports, Facebook pages, blogs, interviews on local radio stations, and flyers. A comprehensive project report, a summary report written in straightforward English, and a poster describing results will be disseminated to the North Slope communities. Project members will also present results of the research in local lecture series or to interested local organizations. Involvement of a K-12 teacher in at least one of the cruises is planned. Both cruises will have the participation of a local community observer who will communicate directly with local communities during the cruise and share local knowledge with the science party. The Beaufort Sea shelf break experiences frequent upwelling of deep, nutrient rich basin water onto the shelf. Such upwelling is not only a short-term source of heat, salt, and nutrients, and a mechanism promoting elevated primary production (production response), but it also transports populations between ocean regions and depth strata or regimes (physical response), potentially modifying ecosystem structure and availability of zooplankton and fish prey to upper trophic level consumers. The Beaufort Sea shelf break is a domain of enhanced abundance of upper trophic level animals, presumably in response to elevated availability of their prey. Here researchers will explore and identify the mechanisms linking broad-scale atmospheric forcing, ocean physical response, prey-base condition and distribution, upper trophic level animal aggregations, and climate change along the Beaufort Shelf break. The project's overarching hypothesis is that atmospherically-forced (wind-induced) upwelling along this shelf break leads to enhanced feeding opportunities for intermediate links in the pelagic ecosystem (zooplankton, forage fish) that in turn sustain the exploitation of this environment by animals such as beluga whales, seabirds, and seals. This hypothesis will be addressed using a combination of ship-based fieldwork, long-term moorings equipped with physical and biological sensors, and syntheses of retrospective and projected model output and longer-term data. The distributions, abundances, condition, and biology of multiple trophic levels will be described within the context of the dynamics of the physical environment to expand our understanding of trophic linkages and the importance of shelf-break upwelling to that system. Physical and biological model output and retrospective data will be synthesized with the mechanistic understanding gained during the field program to retrospectively characterize wind-driven upper trophic level ecosystem variability and predict how the ecosystem may respond to future projections of these atmospheric drivers and ice-ocean conditions.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Ashjian (1603941, Lead, WHOI), Okkonen (1603120, UAF), Campbell (1603321, URI) and Stafford (1603259, UW) will focus on the Western Beaufort Sea to quantify the importance of shelf-break upwelling to upper trophic level ecology. During August – September of 2017 and 2018, researchers will perform water, plankton, and fish sampling via a 24-day research cruise to the Western Beaufort Sea. In 2017, PolarTREC teacher, Lisa Seff (1630463LS) will join the researchers on the cruise to the Beaufort Sea aboard the R/V Sikuliaq. Researchers will also conduct community outreach at a time and location to be determined.

CPS will provide a community observer for the cruise and travel funds for researchers to conduct community outreach in Alaska. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Nome08 / 24 / 2017 09 / 19 / 201718
2017Arctic Ocean and Seas - Beaufort Sea08 / 25 / 2017 09 / 18 / 201718
2018Alaska - Nome08 / 24 / 2018 09 / 19 / 201818
2018Arctic Ocean and Seas - Beaufort Sea08 / 25 / 2018 09 / 18 / 201818
 


Project Title: RUI: Physiology of Sleep and Assessment of the Costs of Experimental Sleep Loss in Arctic-Breeding Songbirds (Award# 1557882)

PI: Ashley, Noah T (noah.ashley@wku.edu)
Phone: 0(270) 745.4268 
Institute/Department: Western Kentucky University, Department of Biology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\BIO\IOS
Program Manager: Dr. Edda (Floh) Thiels (ethiels@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://digitalcommons.wku.edu/
Data: https://sites.google.com/site/ashleylabwebsite/
Data: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...
Data: https://www.pwrc.usgs.gov/bbl/

Science Summary:
In the Arctic, migratory songbirds are active for 20 hours/day to take advantage of constant summer light, and seemingly do not suffer from the well-known detrimental effects of sleep loss, such as physiological and cognitive dysfunction. This research aims to investigate sleep patterns and assess the costs and benefits of sleep loss in arctic-breeding songbirds in Barrow, Alaska (71°N). Broader impacts of this project include training the next generation of science teachers to provide instruction to K-12 students of rural Alaska, engaging students (high school, undergraduate, and graduate) and postdoctoral trainees from traditionally underrepresented backgrounds in collaborative research, and disseminating research findings to scientists and the general public. Sleep is essential for most organisms, although its precise function is enigmatic. Chronic sleep loss is well known to have detrimental effects on human health and performance. However, other species display a diversity of sleep patterns that challenge the assumption that reduced sleep is costly for all vertebrates. This project takes advantage of state-of-the-art miniaturized transmitters to assess sleep architecture in free-ranging songbirds. Arctic-breeding passerines exhibit extended wakefulness during migration and are active 20 hours/day on their breeding grounds where continuous daylight prevails. The project aims to investigate the sleep/wake cycles of two species of songbirds with different life-history strategies that breed in the high Arctic (Barrow, Alaska, 71° N). It is hypothesized that both natural and sexual selection play a role in determining their sleep patterns. Next, daily sleep will be experimentally increased or decreased to assess life-history tradeoffs with fecundity and/or survivorship. Lastly, the hypothesis will be tested whether arctic-breeding songbirds are more resilient to metabolic, cognitive, hormonal, and immunological costs of sleep loss compared with temperate-breeding birds in captivity. Broader impacts include a Future Teachers of Science program that fosters training of science teachers to develop teaching modules for K-12 students of rural Alaska and a cross-cultural research program for high school students of Alaska and Kentucky to assist with field research. Results from the research will contribute to our understanding of how arctic-dwelling species, including humans, cope with continuous periods of arctic light.

Logistics Summary:
This research aims to investigate sleep patterns and assess the costs and benefits of sleep loss in arctic-breeding songbirds in Utqiagvik (Barrow), Alaska. During June 1 through July 31 from 2016 through 2019, a team of up to six researchers will conduct experiments in Utqiagvik (Barrow) investigating the effects of extended wakefulness on migratory songbirds.

In 2017 only, CPS will provide lodging in Utqiagvik (Barrow) in NSF-leased housing for the month of June. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant, including housing in all other years of the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)05 / 16 / 2016 07 / 22 / 20166
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)06 / 02 / 2017 07 / 31 / 20177
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)05 / 16 / 2018 07 / 22 / 20186
2019Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)05 / 16 / 2019 07 / 22 / 20196
 


Project Title: PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (Award# 1630463JB)

PI: Baldacci, Jennifer ()
Phone: 41(617) 15.33.33 
Institute/Department: International School of Basel,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARE\TREC
Program Manager: Ms. Elizabeth Rom (elrom@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach\Formal Science Education: K-12 |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.polartrec.com/

Science Summary:
The Artic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) will administer and implement, "Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (PolarTREC)", an international program that brings together U.S. teachers to participate in cutting-edge field research with polar scientists in various, and often remote, locations in the Arctic and Antarctica. Through hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctica, participating teachers (pre-service and in-service) will improve teaching strategies, develop resources for their careers, and change how they teach STEM in the classroom. The program goal is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing educators and polar researchers together in professional collaboration. By integrating research and education, PolarTREC will help sustain and grow the considerable scientific and public enthusiasm for polar research and education. ARCUS will support a total of twelve teachers for Arctic field seasons in 2017 and Antarctic field seasons in 2017/2018. ARCUS will recruit, select, and match teachers and researchers, maintain a website for dissemination of information about the expeditions, provide orientation training for the teachers that includes field safety and communication training, provide travel support for the teachers to meet with scientists prior to deployments and for them to join the scientific expeditions in the field, and evaluate results of the program. Dissemination efforts via the website and public presentations are expected to reach many additional teachers, students, scientists and the public.

Logistics Summary:
PolarTREC teacher, Jennifer Baldacci, will join Dr. Cory William's project (NSF grant 1558056) at Toolik Field Station, Alaska investigating the mechanisms that underlie plasticity in the seasonal induction of the neuroendocrine signals that trigger the termination of hibernation and onset of reproduction in ground squirrels. For more information refer to grant 1558056 in this database.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Toolik0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Neuroendocrine Modulation of Circannual Rhythms in Mammals (Award# 1558160)

PI: Barnes, Brian M (bmbarnes@alaska.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 474.7649 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, Institute of Arctic Biology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\BIO\IOS
Program Manager: Dr. Edda (Floh) Thiels (ethiels@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://people.iab.uaf.edu/brian_barnes
Logistics: http://toolik.alaska.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
Predicting how species might alter their annual timing in response to rapid environmental change, including changes in climate, is constrained by insufficient knowledge of the endogenous mechanisms animals use to keep time, the cues used to adjust timing, and the extent to which programmed seasonal cycles are physiologically malleable or plastic. This project investigates the mechanisms that underlie plasticity in the seasonal induction of the neuroendocrine signals that trigger the termination of hibernation and the onset of reproduction in ground squirrels. Unlike most mammals, ground squirrels spontaneously become reproductively competent in constant darkness, without the stimulus of a changing photoperiod. As such, ground squirrels are an ideal organism for studies examining non-photoperiodic control of reproductive timing. Establishing the neuroendocrine mechanisms responsible for transitions between life-history stages will identify target genes for monitoring adaptive genetic responses to environmental change. This investigation integrates research and learning by training graduate students in ecophysiology and neurophysiology, providing opportunities for undergraduates to participate in laboratory experiments. The project also includes outreach to Alaska Native and American Indian high school students and undergraduates for inclusion in research and aims to increase K-12 students' understanding of and engagement in research by participating in Teacher Research Experience programs. In hibernating mammals, a precise integration must occur between the central nervous system signaling cascades controlling thermoregulation through the termination of torpor and the subsequent activation of the reproductive axis; however, the neuroendocrine modulators that regulate these changes and how they are integrated are unknown. In seasonally breeding, photoperiodic vertebrates, the pars tuberalis (PT) of the pituitary plays an essential role in the timing of annual cycles, as it alters hypothalamic thyroid hormone availability by secreting thyroid stimulating hormone in a light- or melatonin-sensitive manner, which acts on neighboring hypothalamic deiodinase expressing cells. The PT thyrotrophs themselves are now considered strong candidates for circannual timer cells, driving a thyroid-dependent seasonal physiology. This research tests the hypothesis that, in the absence of any photic cues, the termination of torpor and onset of reproduction are triggered by spontaneous changes in hypothalamic thyroid status driven by activation of thyrotroph cells in the PT. Additionally, the project tests the hypothesis that plasticity in timing is driven by temperature-induced changes in hypothalamic deiodinase activity and/or through effects on downstream targets of the triiodothyronine signaling pathway that occur independent of the PT.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Williams (1558056, NAU) and Barnes (1558160, UAF) will investigate the pathways through which the circannual clock directs, and nonphotic cues alter, the seasonal termination of hibernation and onset of reproduction in captive Arctic ground squirrels (AGS). See 1558056 for logistic details.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2019Alaska - Toolik0
 


Project Title: Ultraviolet Radiation in the Arctic: 2012-2015 (Award# 1203250)

PI: Bernhard, Germar Hermann (bernhard@biospherical.com)
Phone: 0(619) 686.1888 
Institute/Department: Biospherical Instruments, Inc.,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. William Ambrose (wambrose@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate\Radiation | Meteorology and Climate\Surface UV Radiation |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://uv.biospherical.com
Data: http://www.ndsc.ncep.noaa.gov/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...
Data: http://www.woudc.org
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Biospherical Instruments Inc (BSI) has operated NSF’s Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitoring Network (UVSIMN) between 1988 and 2008. The network included three locations in Antarctica, two in the Arctic (Barrow, Alaska, and Summit, Greenland) and two mid-latitude sites. In 2009, the instruments at Barrow and Summit have been integrated into NSF’s Arctic Observing Network as part of the AON projects “Ultraviolet Radiation in the Arctic” and, since 2012, “Ultraviolet Radiation in the Arctic: 2012-2015.” The award is jointly overseen by Prof. John E. Frederick of the University of Chicago and Dr. Germar Bernhard of BSI and will end on 31-August 2015. To date, the network has produced one of the longest Climate Data Records (CDR) of UV radiation in existence. Measurements at Barrow span the 21-year period of 1991-2012. Measurements at Summit started in 2004 and are ideally suited to probe the free troposphere and study the effects of long-range transport of pollutants and aerosols on UV radiation. Data can also be used for validation of satellite observations, verification of models describing the transfer of radiation through the atmosphere, advancement of climate models, and addressing the SEARCH question such as whether the Arctic is moving to a new state. Data have been used by hundreds of researchers investigating the effects of stratospheric ozone depletion and other climatic factors on UV radiation at the Earth’s surface and subsequent consequences on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, and humans. Several researchers from other AON projects have used data. Recently, data were used to interpret radiosonde and LIDAR observations at Summit as part of the AON project “High Resolution, Active Remote Sensing of Cloud Microphysics at Summit, Greenland with Polarized Raman Lidar” (NSF Award 1303864) and to calibrate down-welling irradiance measurements at Summit in support of the AON project “Direct radiative forcing over central Greenland - assessment of the coupled effect of light absorbing aerosols and snow albedo variability” (NSF Award 1023227) [Wright et al., 2014]. Spectral UV data from Barrow have recently been used to interpret a massive phytoplankton bloom observed in the Chukchi Sea under first-year sea ice in 2011 [Palmer et al., 2014].

Logistics Summary:
This grant supports continued UV-visible solar irradiance observing experiments. BSI will operate several radiometers at Barrow, Alaska, and Summit, Greenland. This project is a continuation of the NSF's Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance monitoring Network (UVSIMN) and NSF grants 0907819 and 0856268. For information regarding the project's prior logistics, see records for 0907819 (2009 only), 0856268, and UVSIMN. At Summit, the instrument is primarily maintained by on-site science technicians, with occasional visits by the research team for maintenance, or tear down/set-up when the structure where the experiment is housed must be relocated. During 2013 the team will make two deployments. In June the team will visit Summit to dismantle the instrument for storage while the Green House structure is relocated. The PI will return to Summit in July to reinstall the instrument in the Green House at the new location. At Barrow, on-site technicians in the employ of Arctic Administrators LLC maintain the instruments.

At Summit Station, CPS will provide access to the Summit infrastructure, accommodations and meals in Kangerlussuaq, user days at Summit, and science technician services. The PI will not send a research team to Barrow using local CPS support in 2013 and 2014, though a visit may be arranged using grant funds. All other logistics will be coordinated by the researchers through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2013Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 25 / 2013 07 / 19 / 20133
2013Greenland - Summit06 / 26 / 2013 07 / 16 / 20133
2014Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2014Greenland - Summit0
2015Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 17 / 2015 07 / 27 / 20151
2015Greenland - Summit07 / 18 / 2015 07 / 25 / 20151
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2017Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Adding animals to the equation: assessing herbivore impacts on carbon cycling in northern Alaska (Award# 1603777)

PI: Boelman, Natalie (nboelman@ldeo.columbia.edu)
Phone: 0(845) 365.8480 
Institute/Department: Columbia University, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://arc-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/
Data: http://arctos.database.museum/
Data: http://herbivory.biology.ualberta.ca/
Logistics: http://toolik.alaska.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Small mammals graze on the vegetation of the Arctic tundra. Although this grazing may influence many aspects of tundra ecosystems, current models do not include grazing by small mammals. In this project, the abundance of voles and lemmings will be varied experimentally using fenced plots. The investigators will observe the responses in the plots, especially focusing on changes in the cycling of carbon and nitrogen. To understand how the current climate controls the importance of grazing by small mammals, the investigators will conduct their studies at three sites in Alaska located in the Seward Peninsula, the foothills of the Brooks Range, and on the Arctic coastal plain. The natural abundance of voles and lemmings will be studied at these sites to provide background for applying the experimental results throughout the Arctic. The results will be used to expand a mathematical model of tundra ecosystems to include grazing by small mammals, which will improve the predictions that can be made about how the Arctic may change in the future. The research will involve a number of undergraduate students and investigators will integrate their research into classes and other educational programs. In addition, they will present a radio program in Barrow, AK. The investigators will investigate the importance of herbivory by small mammals in controlling the cycling of carbon and nutrients in the rapidly changing Arctic tundra. Through studies at three sites along a latitudinal gradient, the investigators will employ both observations and experiments to quantify the role of grazing by rodents (voles and lemmings) in the functioning of tundra ecosystems. The observations of rodent population dynamics along with ecosystem function will provide key new information relevant to understanding the feedbacks of the Arctic tundra to the global climate. The manipulation of rodent density through exclosures and enclosures will show how potential changes in rodent populations may influence the tundra ecosystem response. In corporation of the observational and experimental results into a quantitative ecosystem model will enhance predictions of future changes and feedbacks with climate.

Logistics Summary:
The goal of this collaborative project between Boelman (1603777, Lead, LDEO), Gough (1603760, Towson), Rastetter (1603560, MBL), McLaren (1603677, U of Texas), and Rowe (1603654, UNH) is to quantify and gain understanding of the impact of small mammal herbivores on carbon and nutrient dynamics in the rapidly changing Alaskan arctic tundra and incorporate these impacts into a biogeochemical model to make future predictions of how the animals mediate tundra-atmosphere carbon exchange. To prepare for the upcoming field work in future years, in the fall of 2016 a CPS construction crew will construct a series of vole enclosures at three sites near Toolik Field Station. Construction supplies will be delivered by helicopter and hand-carrying by the CPS crew to the sites. Then, in the summers of 2017 – 2021 a field team of ~11 will conduct experimental manipulations of rodent population densities at sites near Toolik Field Station, Utqiagvik (Barrow), and on the Seward Peninsula. Also, during late summer/fall 2017, CPS will construct enclosures/exclosures of similar design at the Utqiagvik (Barrow) and Seward Peninsula sites.

IAB will provide access to services and infrastructure at Toolik Field Station. In 2016, CPS will build experimental rodent enclosures/exclosures (Toolik Field Station) and in 2017 (Utqiagvik (Barrow) and Seward Peninsula) and demobilize them during the fall of 2021 and spring of 2022. In addition, CPS will provide boardwalk; Toolik Field Station user days; lodging in Utqiagvik (Barrow) and Nome; enclosure maintenance to be addressed on an as-needed basis, truck rentals in Fairbanks, Nome, and Utqiagvik (Barrow); UIC and NSB permits; and Utqiagvik (Barrow) radios. All other logistics, including land use permits, will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Nome07 / 16 / 2017 07 / 19 / 20173
2017Alaska - Toolik06 / 01 / 2017 08 / 19 / 201711
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)07 / 27 / 2017 08 / 02 / 20173
2018Alaska - Seward Peninsula11
2018Alaska - Toolik11
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)11
2019Alaska - Seward Peninsula11
2019Alaska - Toolik11
2019Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)11
2020Alaska - Seward Peninsula11
2020Alaska - Toolik11
2020Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)11
2021Alaska - Seward Peninsula11
2021Alaska - Toolik11
2021Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)11
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Carbon, Water, and Energy Balance of the Arctic Landscape at Flagship Observatories in Alaska and Siberia (Award# 1503912)

PI: Bret-Harte, Syndonia (msbretharte@alaska.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 474.5434 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, Institute of Arctic Biology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Ecology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://arc-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/
Data: http://www.lternet.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/
Data: https://climate.iarc.uaf.edu/geonetwork/srv/en/mai...
Data: https://www.iab.uaf.edu/

Science Summary:
Arctic terrestrial ecosystems exchange greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and methane), water vapor, and energy with the atmosphere. The balance between uptake and release of these quantities influences both the Arctic region and the global climate system. The terrestrial cycling of carbon, water, and energy are strongly linked, and therefore need to be studied at the same time and in the same place. This project continues long-term measurements of carbon, water, and energy balance in terrestrial and freshwater systems in the Alaskan Arctic, extending measurements that began in 2007. Carbon loss over the winter has recently increased dramatically at one of our study sites, as winter air and soil temperatures have warmed. This study will determine whether these losses continue and seek to understand the underlying causes. Broader impacts of this project include contributions to teaching and learning, including underrepresented groups, support of undergraduate summer research, participation in the Marine Biology Laboratory Logan Science Journalism program and the Arctic LTER Schoolyard program, and outreach to K-12 schools in Fairbanks, Alaska, and to Native Alaskan communities. This project will support career development of two female Principal Investigators at UAF. The proposed research will extend continuous measurements of carbon, water, and energy balance in three tundra ecosystems near Imnavait Creek, Alaska. Ecosystem/atmosphere flux measurements have been collected at these sites via eddy covariance since 2007. Long-term monitoring of hydrology and stream chemistry of Imnavait Creek and depth of thaw in its catchment area will be maintained. Additional measurements to help interpret these data will include water table depth, plant community composition, and vegetation greenness via reflectivity, which is related to leaf area and biomass. Long-term measurements of stream chemistry and discharge are also available at Imnavait, enabling a comprehensive assessment of carbon budgets. All data will be made publicly available and archived at the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) web site, the International Arctic Research Center Data Archive, and the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS).

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Bret-Harte (1503912, UAF), Kling (1504006, U Mich), and Rastetter (1503781, MBL) continues work begun under NSF grant 1107707 (lead PI Shaver). The researchers will extend time-series data on carbon, water, and energy balance data that have been collected on tundra ecosystems near Toolik Field Station (TFS) via eddy covariance since 2007. From 2016 to 2018, researchers will collect data at tundra field locations at Toolik Field Station and Imnavait Creek, Alaska, year-round. Field teams will base at Toolik Field Station during the spring/summer season on a staggered schedule from May through August, with occasional visits in fall and winter to check on instruments. CPS technical staff will perform maintenance on the power and communications system.

IAB will provide access to services and infrastructure at Toolik Field Station. CPS will provide user days at TFS, and maintenance of remote power systems. CPS will demobilize the remote power systems in 2019. All other logistics, including land use permits, will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Imnavait Creek04 / 21 / 2016 09 / 08 / 20165
2016Alaska - Toolik05 / 19 / 2016 12 / 07 / 20168
2017Alaska - Imnavait Creek10
2017Alaska - Toolik04 / 30 / 2017 08 / 16 / 20178
2018Alaska - Imnavait Creek1
2018Alaska - Toolik1
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Shrub Impacts on Nitrogen Inputs and Turnover in the Arctic, and the Potential Feedbacks to Vegetation and Climate Change (Award# 1556481)

PI: Bret-Harte, Syndonia (msbretharte@alaska.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 474.5434 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, Institute of Arctic Biology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\BIO\DEB
Program Manager: Dr. Matthew Kane (mkane@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://arc-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
Ecosystems develop and change through interactions between living organisms and their physical environment. A shift in vegetation is one of the most important changes an ecosystem can experience, because it can alter exchanges of energy (originating from sunlight), water, and elements such as carbon and nitrogen, among air, plants, and soil. In the Arctic, a widespread shift from tundra to shrub-dominated vegetation appears to be occurring. This research project will discern whether, through complex interactions, this transition to shrublands in the Arctic is likely to result in the release of more carbon into the air (as either carbon dioxide or methane, which are both greenhouse gases). Vast amounts of carbon are stored in Arctic and northern soils, so reduced carbon storage in the Arctic may affect weather and climate in other parts of the world. This project will assess the contributions of different shrub feedbacks to carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. Snow depth will be manipulated with existing snow fences across a natural gradient of shrub density and height, and a new snowfence experiment will be established in alders. Shrub-induced changes in soil C over the longer term in one ecosystem will be examined in an 18-year-old species removal experiment. Shrub growth, primary production, and biomass will be measured. Long-term effects of added snow on ecosystem N partitioning and shrub N uptake will be measured in a 15N tracer experiment. N fixation will be measured in alder populations and moss communities associated with shrubs. The relative strengths of different shrub feedbacks to N availability and uptake by vegetation will be evaluated. This project will improve prediction of the consequences of shrub expansion in the Arctic, and its potential impacts on regional and global climate. Results will contribute to training of graduate and undergraduate students, to public outreach and training of K-12 teachers and students, and to development of a web-based resource for education.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Bret-Harte (1556481, Lead, UAF) and Mack (1556496, NAU) will evaluate shrub feedbacks to carbon and nitrogen cycling in the Arctic that involve both soil organic matter turnover and new nitrogen inputs. The work will facilitate prediction of the biogeochemical consequences of shrub expansion, particularly alder expansion, in the Arctic. During the summers of 2017 – 2019 a field team of six researchers will collect vegetation samples near Toolik Field Station. During years 1 and 2 an additional 10 volunteers will assist with the harvests.

IAB will provide access to services and infrastructure at Toolik Field Station. CPS will provide user days at Toolik Field Station, and helicopter support during 2017 and 2019 to move materials for the construction and demobilization of snowfences. All other logistics, including land use permits, will be arranged and paid for by the PIs from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Toolik06 / 12 / 2017 08 / 22 / 201721
2018Alaska - Toolik6
2019Alaska - Toolik6
 


Project Title: Toolik Field Station Base Funding (Award# 1623461)

PI: Bret-Harte, Syndonia (msbretharte@alaska.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 474.5434 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, Institute of Arctic Biology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL
Program Manager: Ms. Renee Crain (rcrain@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Logistics: http://toolik.alaska.edu/
Initiative: http://www.eu-interact.org/
Data: https://climate.iarc.uaf.edu/geonetwork/srv/en/mai...
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
The Toolik Field Station (TFS) has been a major site for research in the North American Arctic since 1975. Much of what is known about structure and function of arctic terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, effects of climate change, and feedbacks to global climate has emerged from long term, process-based ecological research at TFS. TFS-based work has resulted in significant discoveries on adaptations of organisms to the Arctic and population-level changes in animal and plant distributions and phenologies. Because climate is changing rapidly in the Arctic, continuing research into mechanisms of ecosystem response and feedbacks is a high priority. TFS supports the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research program (LTER), projects in the Arctic Observatory Network program (AON), NASA's Arctic Boreal Vulnerability Experiment (ABoVE), the Earthscope Transportable Array, and is a core site for the National Ecological Observatory Network program (NEON). TFS is a founding partner in the EU-sponsored International Network for Terrestrial Research and Monitoring in the Arctic (INTERACT), which links field stations around the circumpolar Arctic, and a member of the Organization of Biological Field Stations (OBFS). At least 993 peer-reviewed journal articles, 161 books or book chapters and 144 dissertations and theses have been published on research based at TFS.

Logistics Summary:
The Toolik Cooperative Agreement provides funding to operate Toolik Field Station (TFS), located on the North Slope of Alaska’s Brooks Range from 2017-2020. The Institute of Arctic Biology/ University of Alaska Fairbanks, has operated and managed TFS since 1980. The NSF began supporting station core operations in 2000 and continued through three five-year cooperative agreements with the university, most recently NSF grant #1048361. This grant supports international researchers participating in the International Network for Terrestrial Research and Monitoring in the Arctic (INTERACT) program. In 2017 a field team of up to 7 researchers will visit Toolik Field Station as part of the INTERACT program.

IAB will provide access to infrastructure and services at Toolik Field Station. CPS will provide user days at TFS. All other logistics, including land use permits and researcher travel to/from Toolik Field Station, will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Toolik07 / 01 / 2017 07 / 15 / 20177
2018Alaska - Toolik7
2019Alaska - Toolik7
2020Alaska - Toolik7
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: EAGER: The Language of the Forests: Gwich'in Seasonal Relationships to the Interior Alaska Boreal Forests (Award# 1650692)

PI: Brewer, Joseph P (joseph.brewer@ku.edu)
Phone: 0(785) 864.3441 
Institute/Department: U of Kansas, Environmental Studies 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Social and Human Sciences\Traditional Knowledge Systems |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: https://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
This project investigates what Gwich'in Athabascans can teach the world, through their language, about boreal forest management in interior Alaska. The focus is on the Athabascan villages of Beaver and Arctic where many elders who have lived a subsistence lifestyle reside. Studying Gwich'in forestry management in the Gwich'in language will provide an understanding of the human-environment interaction as a way to create more opportunities for co-management. This project will advance knowledge about forestry management for natural resources managers, and add to the growing body of regional work to promote Indigenous knowledge practice and sustainable management of natural resources. While this project incorporates ideas as well as approaches from current forestry and languages projects, it is also creating new information. This information will provide reliable/tested forestry practices for those interested in the incorporation of Indigenous Knowledge into natural resources management, and will be shared with other villages. The opportunity to establish a Gwich'in forestry practices approach is missing in co-management as well as adaptive management between Indigenous and non-Indigenous agencies. Using management as one of the focal points of this project, the project will document the endangered Gwich'in language in a manner that is not archival, but alive. This project represents the application of a newly developed model for research, the co-production of scientific knowledge, bringing established forestry management science research together with Gwich'in knowledge holders in order to produce a more contextualized and holistic understanding of the boreal forest. The study will be the first to document Gwich'in forestry practices in a collaborative social and linguistic science investigation. Considered an endangered language, Gwich'in elders who are both fluent speakers and have lived a subsistence lifestyle will be interviewed in the Gwich'in language as a means to communicate complex seasonal management practices of the boreal forests. For this study, language is the vehicle to understand the deep place-based relationship Gwich'in people have with the forests. The core research question centers not only on how Gwich'in people practice forestry management but also on how their relationship to the forests change or evolve seasonally. While this project will not exhaust the discussion, the intention is to accomplish three objectives: 1. Demonstrate the usefulness of Gwich'in forestry knowledge and practices, 2. Record Gwich'in in this context and, 3. Provide a way forward in the co-management of the Alaska's interior boreal forests. Given the objectives, the potential contributions and implications of this study span a number of natural resources co-management opportunities: fire suppression and arctic boreal encroachment, as well as environmental change preparation-adaptation-mitigation.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative EAGER project between Brewer (KU, 1650692), and Britton (CATG, 1650668) will investigate the social and cultural practices of Gwich'in Athabascan boreal forest management in interior Alaska. The research will take place primarily in two Athabascan villages, Beaver and Arctic, because many of the elders in these two communities have lived a subsistence lifestyle for their entire lives and are fluent native speakers of the Gwich'in language, a highly endangered language. The goal of the project is to create guides and material that detail best management practices of boreal forests informed by traditional Gwich’in forestry stewardship. In May of 2017, five researchers will spend approximately two weeks in Beaver and Arctic Village interviewing elders. Ethnographic and qualitative interviews will be conducted in the form of open-ended questions or Indigenous methodologies. As part of this grant a subaward was awarded to the University of Alaska Fairbanks' Alaska Native Language Center to conduct all the interviews in the Gwich’in language.

All logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Arctic Village05 / 10 / 2017 05 / 15 / 20175
2017Alaska - Beaver05 / 15 / 2017 05 / 20 / 20175
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: EAGER: The Language of the Forests: Gwich'in Seasonal Relationships to the Interior Alaska Boreal Forests (Award# 1650668)

PI: Britton, Kelda E (kelda.britton@catg.org)
Phone: 0(907) 662.2587 
Institute/Department: Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Social and Human Sciences\Traditional Knowledge Systems |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: https://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
This project investigates what Gwich'in Athabascans can teach the world, through their language, about boreal forest management in interior Alaska. The focus is on the Athabascan villages of Beaver and Arctic where many elders who have lived a subsistence lifestyle reside. Studying Gwich'in forestry management in the Gwich'in language will provide an understanding of the human-environment interaction as a way to create more opportunities for co-management. This project will advance knowledge about forestry management for natural resources managers, and add to the growing body of regional work to promote Indigenous knowledge practice and sustainable management of natural resources. While this project incorporates ideas as well as approaches from current forestry and languages projects, it is also creating new information. This information will provide reliable/tested forestry practices for those interested in the incorporation of Indigenous Knowledge into natural resources management, and will be shared with other villages. The opportunity to establish a Gwich'in forestry practices approach is missing in co-management as well as adaptive management between Indigenous and non-Indigenous agencies. Using management as one of the focal points of this project, the project will document the endangered Gwich'in language in a manner that is not archival, but alive. This project represents the application of a newly developed model for research, the co-production of scientific knowledge, bringing established forestry management science research together with Gwich'in knowledge holders in order to produce a more contextualized and holistic understanding of the boreal forest. The study will be the first to document Gwich'in forestry practices in a collaborative social and linguistic science investigation. Considered an endangered language, Gwich'in elders who are both fluent speakers and have lived a subsistence lifestyle will be interviewed in the Gwich'in language as a means to communicate complex seasonal management practices of the boreal forests. For this study, language is the vehicle to understand the deep place-based relationship Gwich'in people have with the forests. The core research question centers not only on how Gwich'in people practice forestry management but also on how their relationship to the forests change or evolve seasonally. While this project will not exhaust the discussion, the intention is to accomplish three objectives: 1. Demonstrate the usefulness of Gwich'in forestry knowledge and practices, 2. Record Gwich'in in this context and, 3. Provide a way forward in the co-management of the Alaska's interior boreal forests. Given the objectives, the potential contributions and implications of this study span a number of natural resources co-management opportunities: fire suppression and arctic boreal encroachment, as well as environmental change preparation-adaptation-mitigation.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative EAGER project between Brewer (KU, 1650692), and Britton (CATG, 1650668) will investigate the social and cultural practices of Gwich'in Athabascan boreal forest management in interior Alaska. The research will take place primarily in two Athabascan villages, Beaver and Arctic, because many of the elders in these two communities have lived a subsistence lifestyle for their entire lives and are fluent native speakers of the Gwich'in language, a highly endangered language. The goal of the project is to create guides and material that detail best management practices of boreal forests informed by traditional Gwich’in forestry stewardship. For logistic details please see 1650692.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Arctic Village0
2017Alaska - Beaver0
 


Project Title: Resilient Alaska Native Communities: Integrating Traditional Ecological Knowledge with Risk Assessment Through Local Monitoring (Award# 1645868)

PI: Bronen, Robin (robin.bronen@akijp.org)
Phone: 0(907) 258.3280 
Institute/Department: Alaska Institute for Justice,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach | Social and Human Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.ankn.uaf.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://www.snap.uaf.edu/projects/cps

Science Summary:
Natural hazards in the Arctic are dramatically impacting the health and well-being of Alaska Native communities. In 2009, the US Government Accountability Office found that 31 communities were imminently threatened by flooding and erosion (GAO 2009). Erosion and repeated extreme weather events damage infrastructure, including health clinics and water and sewage treatment facilities. Saline intrusion and thawing permafrost impact access to potable water. In the most extreme cases, accelerating rates of erosion are life-threatening and are causing Alaska Native communities to choose to relocate their entire community. Relocation involves the construction of community infrastructure and ensuring that community health and well-being are maintained or improved. This award supports an EAGER research project that has the potential to transform understandings and support the adaptive capacity of Alaska Native communities experiencing the impacts of environmental change on their health and well-being. Through this project the investigator, PI Bronen, will address one of the most urgent challenges facing Alaska Native communities impacted by natural hazards by constructing a methodology to determine whether and when community relocation needs to occur to protect the lives and livelihoods of community residents. The researcher will work with four Alaska Native communities and governmental and non-governmental organizations to design and implement a methodological framework that can assess when protection in place is no longer possible and relocation is required. It is expected that the communities will represent a continuum of adaptation responses including "protection in place," migration of some infrastructure, and relocation. The broader impact of this project is to provide a model for the design and implementation of a relocation institutional framework that protects the health and well-being of community residents and can be applied by other communities facing displacement because of environmental change. Community engagement and empowerment are non-trivial, multi-dimensional challenges; however they are critical to any process aiming to improve the adaptive capacity of Alaska Native communities. By learning from and co-producing knowledge with communities, the research team seeks to enhance Alaska Native communities' capacity to assess needs and develop adaptation strategies that can protect their health and well-being. In addition, the project will facilitate coordination between community members and governmental organizations and university researchers that might be able to provide critical technical or financial assistance.

Logistics Summary:
This EAGER project will work with four rural and at risk Alaskan Native coastal communities and with governmental and non-governmental organizations to design and implement a methodological framework to assess when flooding and erosion caused by increasingly intense coastal storms are so significant that protection in place is no longer possible and relocation is required. Alaska Institute for Justice researchers will work with four Alaska Native communities based on their level of exposure to climate change impacts so they will have a continuum represented from the communities which have chosen to relocate as an adaptation strategy and those which have chosen to protect in place. The four communities have not yet been selected. Researchers will hold two workshops in Anchorage, Alaska, for participating community members, researchers, and representatives from organizations. The dates for the workshops have not yet been determined. They will perform and analyze interviews and surveys of the participants. The workshop will develop an integrated social-ecological assessment and monitoring methodology that can be used to inform community residents as well as governmental and nongovernmental agencies, of the on-going health impacts of climate change and guide adaptation responses. In 2017 two researchers will travel to the four communities to assist with implementation of the determined methodology. The generic assessment methodology will be made openly available on the internet to all 184 Alaskan indigenous communities currently threatened by erosion as well as to erosion-threatened communities globally.

All logistics will be organized by the researcher and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Anchorage8
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: An exploration of the direct and indirect effects of climatic warming on arctic lake ecosystems (Award# 1603088)

PI: Budy, Phaedra (phaedra.budy@usu.edu)
Phone: 0(435) 797.7564 
Institute/Department: Utah State University, Department of Watershed Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Climate Science | Biology\Fish Ecology | Biology\Limnology | Biology\Trophic Dynamics |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://arc-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Project: http://www.usu.edu/fel/

Science Summary:
Arctic ecosystems are warming at some of the fastest rates observed on earth. In particular, Arctic lakes are experiencing more frequent years of warmer and deeper surface water. However, the ability to detect and quantify ecosystem effects and specific biological responses to these climatic changes has been primarily limited to non-mechanistic modeled scenarios and observational studies in uncontrolled environments. These lakes provide subsistence harvest for native communities in the Arctic and it is important to understand how the level of sustainable harvests might change under scenarios of continued warming. Researchers will manipulate the temperature regime of selected Arctic lakes, observe the consequent changes of the lake ecosystem, and model these. This project will contribute to STEM workforce development through provision of support for the training of graduate students at two institutions. It will also entrain undergraduate students into the research. Through a collaboration with the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the principal investigators will provide outreach to Iñupiat high school students via the Kaktovik Science Camp and to Iñupiat K-12 students via the Arctic Village Science Camp Goonzhii. They will contribute to the management of natural resources by presentations through established collaborations with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, as well as through an interactive seminar series with local communities, e.g. the North Slope Borough of Alaska. This project will complete a multi-year, whole-lake warming manipulation, to quantify the effects of future climate change on lake ecosystems in the Arctic. In addition, regional climate and lake models will be coupled with biotic responses to better understand the sensitivity of lakes to changing atmospheric conditions. The project is designed to answer: How will warmer lake temperatures and extended growing season alter (1) lake ice coverage and annual thermal regime; (2) abundance, activity, and diversity of primary and secondary producers; (3) fish vital rates, production, and dynamics; and (4) degree of carry-over across growing seasons and cumulative effects. Experimental results will be combined with long-term, archived data to inform a linked modeling system (coupled lake-climate model and integrated physical, climate, biological, and bioenergetic modeling) to answer: How will warmer lake temperatures and an extended growing season alter: (1) lake thermal regimes at regional scales, and (2) fish populations across lake types of the Arctic. This research will quantify lake thermal processes and lake-atmosphere feedbacks, provide more precise projections of lake horizontal and vertical temperature structures, and document and project lake biota and ecosystem responses to changes in lake thermal condition over large spatial scales and under different climate scenarios.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Budy (1603088, LEAD, Utah State), Crump (1603302, OSU), and Giblin (1603214, MBL) will complete a multi-year, whole-lake warming manipulation, to quantify the effect of future climate change on lake ecosystems in the Arctic. Regional climate and lake models will be coupled with biotic responses to better understand the sensitivity of lakes to changing atmospheric conditions. In 2016, NSF approved a short site visit where the PI will visit Toolik Field Station in order to conduct a pre-experiment measurement of the lakes’ properties in August/September 2016. During May through September 2017 – 2021 a team of two to four researchers will base out of Toolik Field Station, and conduct a whole-lake warming experiment in two small lakes northeast of Toolik. Two other lakes will serve as reference lakes, and will be also measured, though not warmed.

IAB will provide access to services and infrastructure at Toolik Field Station. CPS will provide user days at Toolik Field Station and in 2017-2021 use of the Toolik-based helicopter. CPS will also provide in 2017 the construction and delivery of four platforms. All other logistics, including land use permits, will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Toolik08 / 24 / 2016 09 / 09 / 20164
2017Alaska - Toolik2
2018Alaska - Toolik2
2019Alaska - Toolik2
2020Alaska - Toolik2
2021Alaska - Toolik2
 


Project Title: Ataruq: Connecting Coastal Communities to Polar Research (Award# 1433190)

PI: Busch, Lisa (lbusch@sitkascience.org)
Phone: 0(907) 747.8878 
Institute/Department: Sitka Sound Science Center,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARE
Program Manager: Mr. Peter West (pwest@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
This project has several interconnected elements that revolve around extending to a wider population existing efforts to improve science literacy in Native Alaskan groups, while simultaneously developing a framework for assisting Polar researchers to improve their communications skills. The twin tracks have a common goal of generally improving science literacy. Another goal is to increase interaction between researchers and the general public.

Logistics Summary:
Ataruq: Connecting Coastal Communities to Polar Research, a new program of the nonprofit, the Sitka Sound Science Center (SSSC), will improve polar scientists ability to convey the importance of their research to rural and Alaska Natives living in rural communities. This program will increase Alaska’s scientific literacy by inspiring rural and Alaska Native students in STEM fields. The overall project design is for polar scientists (five each year) to come to Sitka in several different venues and learn to connect to a community and place within an established framework of outreach, education and community engagement.

All logistics will be organized by the researcher and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Alaska - Sitka11 / 05 / 2015 11 / 08 / 20155
2016Alaska - Sitka5
2017Alaska - Sitka5
2018Alaska - Sitka5
2019Alaska - Sitka5
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: The Importance of Shelf Break Upwelling to Upper Trophic Level Ecology in the Western Beaufort Sea (Award# 1603321)

PI: Campbell, Robert G (rgcampbell@uri.edu)
Phone: 0(401) 874.6692 
Institute/Department: U of Rhode Island, Graduate School of Oceanography Bay Campus 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The edge of the shallow continental shelf (called the 'shelf break') in the Beaufort Sea is vulnerable both to direct impacts of ongoing climate change and to indirect impacts that may result from increased human activity in response to new opportunities associated with ocean warming and sea ice reduction. Beaufort Sea shelf break upwelling may be increasing in frequency in response to recent large-scale atmospheric changes, potentially increasing the importance of the shelf-break environment for a range of upper trophic level animals. This grant will support research to increase our understanding of the importance of the region to upper trophic levels such as beluga whales, seabirds, and seals, provide a mechanistic understanding of the linked atmosphere-ocean- plankton-predator system, and predict future consequences and impacts of environmental change on this system. A substantial communications program built upon long-standing, well-established relationships between the researchers and Alaska North Slope communities and subsistence organizations is planned both to coordinate the planned sampling and to convey the results of the research back to the communities. Information will be disseminated locally before and during two research cruises using a range of media including daily email reports, Facebook pages, blogs, interviews on local radio stations, and flyers. A comprehensive project report, a summary report written in straightforward English, and a poster describing results will be disseminated to the North Slope communities. Project members will also present results of the research in local lecture series or to interested local organizations. Involvement of a K-12 teacher in at least one of the cruises is planned. Both cruises will have the participation of a local community observer who will communicate directly with local communities during the cruise and share local knowledge with the science party. The Beaufort Sea shelf break experiences frequent upwelling of deep, nutrient rich basin water onto the shelf. Such upwelling is not only a short-term source of heat, salt, and nutrients, and a mechanism promoting elevated primary production (production response), but it also transports populations between ocean regions and depth strata or regimes (physical response), potentially modifying ecosystem structure and availability of zooplankton and fish prey to upper trophic level consumers. The Beaufort Sea shelf break is a domain of enhanced abundance of upper trophic level animals, presumably in response to elevated availability of their prey. Here we will explore and identify the mechanisms linking broad-scale atmospheric forcing, ocean physical response, prey-base condition and distribution, upper trophic level animal aggregations, and climate change along the Beaufort Shelf break. Our overarching hypothesis is that atmospherically-forced (wind-induced) upwelling along this shelf break leads to enhanced feeding opportunities for intermediate links in the pelagic ecosystem (zooplankton, forage fish) that in turn sustain the exploitation of this environment by animals such as beluga whales, seabirds, and seals. This hypothesis will be addressed using a combination of ship-based fieldwork, long-term moorings equipped with physical and biological sensors, and syntheses of retrospective and projected model output and longer-term data. The distributions, abundances, condition, and biology of multiple trophic levels will be described within the context of the dynamics of the physical environment to expand our understanding of trophic linkages and the importance of shelf-break upwelling to that system. Physical and biological model output and retrospective data will be synthesized with the mechanistic understanding gained during the field program to retrospectively characterize wind-driven upper trophic level ecosystem variability and predict how the ecosystem may respond to future projections of these atmospheric drivers and ice-ocean conditions.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Ashjian (1603941, Lead, WHOI), Okkonen (1603120, UAF), Campbell (1603321, URI) and Stafford (1603259, UW) will focus on the Western Beaufort Sea to quantify the importance of shelf-break upwelling to upper trophic level ecology. Logistic details under 1603941.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Nome0
2017Arctic Ocean and Seas - Beaufort Sea0
2018Alaska - Nome0
2018Arctic Ocean and Seas - Beaufort Sea0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Using field experiments to understand household barriers to energy efficiency in Alaska (Award# 1522876)

PI: Castillo, Marco E (marco.castillo@tamu.edu)
Phone: 0(979) 845.7351 
Institute/Department: Texas A&M University, Department of Economics 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Social and Human Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
Energy efficiency is a policy goal of first magnitude. For individuals, it can imply significant welfare gains. For the country as a whole, it can imply not only improvement in energy independence but also attaining environmental goals. The research team will investigate the reasons why individuals fail to adopt seemingly adaptive conservation technologies and behaviors. This project is based on a series of studies that combine field experiments and data analysis of large policies initiatives in the state of Alaska. Heating costs throughout the polar North stress community resilience. Cold is extreme, hydrocarbon prices volatile, and local opportunity to adjust cash income to price shocks limited. Energy conservation would appear adaptive, and the State of Alaska provides substantial subsidies to facilitate household energy conservation. Despite this, relatively few adopt energy efficient technologies to reduce home heating costs. The research team plans to conduct three related studies to understand why. The project explores individual decision rules, the role of cash payoffs, information, and nuisance and other hidden costs of making investments to reduce energy for space and hot water heat. The project is focused on discovering opportunities to design better policy. Taking seriously the complexity of household decision-making, it will produce new information on engineering models, behavioral models, program effectiveness and policy alternatives. It will generate the first publically available data on household heating oil use -- a critical input to Northern energy policy. The project works collaboratively with local stakeholders, agencies, and academic communities, which will produce lessons for building future effective partnerships. Finally, the project entails substantial outreach and training with local participants through direct participation in the project in combination with educational opportunities. The first part of the research project jointly analyzes participant records in Alaska's Home Energy Rebate Program (HERP), which subsidizes investments to reduce space and hot water heat, and gas utility billing records. Detailed program and energy consumption data permit assessment of both program-predicted and actual household payoffs, point to investments that may occur for reasons other than energy conservation, and indicate cost-effective investments not pursued. This analysis will reveal the way decisions about conservation are made in the face of relevant information and their effectiveness in producing energy savings. The second part of the research measures the comparative importance of hidden, non-pecuniary costs of completing the HERP's initial home energy assessment. We will conduct a field experiment that systematically isolates and removes participant costs and uncertainty from the task. Also, the incentives to gather technology information will give causal evidence of the importance of information on HERP participation and completion. The third part of the research project measures behavioral impacts of providing rural consumers real-time information on their consumption and expenditures for heat. Essentially all rural Alaskan households use heating oil as primary heat source, but consumer ability to map realized costs of behavior is limited: Costs are observed only when the fuel oil tank is refilled, which may occur as little as 2-3 times a year. By deploying new heating oil metering technology developed by the Alaska Center for Energy and Power specifically for remote rural application, we assess behavioral effects of a dramatic increase in information. This study will generate the first Alaska dataset of measured residential heating oil demand. This project aims to improve knowledge of the complex reasons why seemingly adaptive energy efficiency investments are not made. The research team will access information not previously available to researchers, and conduct experiments to create counterfactuals that observational data cannot deliver, to: better understand the motivations of adopters; recalibrate engineering models of building energy use to incorporate human behavior; measure the causal effect of pecuniary incentives in the adoption of energy savings technologies; produce a novel dataset of actual demand for heating oil in rural Alaska; determine the importance of hidden costs as a barrier to energy conservation program participation.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Castillo (1522876, Lead, TAMU) and Scott (1522836, UAF) will be conducted to better understand why, despite substantial state subsidies to Alaska households for energy conservation, few Alaskans adopt energy efficient technologies to reduce home heating costs. The research team will conduct three related studies for their investigation: 1) individual decision rules, 2) the role of cash payoffs, and 3) hidden costs of household investment in energy conservation. Beginning in 2016, a field team of 2-3 will analyze participant records in Alaska’s Home Energy Rebate Program (HERP), which subsidizes investments to reduce space and hot water heat, and gas utility billing records. Researchers will conduct a field experiment that systematically isolates and removes participants’ costs by providing two kinds of assistance: rater schedule and as-is financing. Finally, researchers will measure the behavioral impacts of providing rural consumers real-time information on their consumption and expenditures for heat. To accomplish this last goal, researchers will install 225 heating oil metering technology units developed by The Alaska Center for Energy and Power (ACEP) to measure and record residential diesel fuel oil consumption in “real time” so that consumers are more aware of the their fuel use and associated expenditures. The installation of the meters would be conducted in the cities of Nome, Unalakleet, Elin, and White Mountain in the first year of the project. During the last year of the project a field team of 2 will travel to Nome to conduct a final survey and train local staff on survey administration. Participants in the study (e.g. those who get meters installed on their houses or those surveyed for the project) will be given payment for their participation.

All logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Nome12 / 04 / 2016 12 / 09 / 20162
2016Alaska - Unalakleet12 / 04 / 2016 12 / 09 / 20162
2017Alaska - Elim01 / 08 / 2017 01 / 14 / 20172
2017Alaska - White Mountain01 / 08 / 2017 01 / 14 / 20172
2018Alaska - Nome03 / 26 / 2018 04 / 03 / 20182
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research - Development and innovation of the Barrow Area Information Database (BAID): A cyberinfrastructure that supports arctic science, outreach and education (Award# 1023561)

PI: Collins, Julia A (collinsj@nsidc.org)
Phone: 0(303) 492.6405 
Institute/Department: U of Colorado, Boulder, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Data Management\Cyberinfrastructure |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://barrowmapped.org/front-page/about/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
The Barrow area of northern Alaska is one of the most intensely researched locations in the Arctic. The Barrow Area Information Database (BAID, www.baidims.org) is a cyberinfrastructure (CI) that details much of the historic and extant research history of the Barrow area in a suite of interactive, web-based mapping and information portals (geobrowsers). The BAID user community and target audience for BAID is diverse and includes research scientists, science logisticians, land managers, educators, students, and the general public. BAID contains information on more than 9,600 Barrow area research sites that extend back to the 1940’s and more than 640 remote sensing images and geospatial datasets. In a web-based setting, users can zoom, pan, query, measure distance, and save or print maps and query results. Data are described with metadata that meet Federal Geographic Data Committee standards and are archived at the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Earth Observing Laboratory (EOL) where non-proprietary BAID data can be freely downloaded. Researchers on this project will continue to develop the BAID CI and provide users with novel software tools to interact with a current and diverse selection of information and data about the Barrow area.This grant supports project experts in the following efforts: collect data on research activities, generate geospatial data, and provide mapping support; maintain, update and innovate the existing suite of BAID geobrowsers; maintain and update aging hardware supporting BAID; add interoperability with other CI using workflows, controlled vocabularies and web services; link BAID to data archives at the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC); develop a wireless sensor network that provides near real time meteorological climate data; evaluate user-perceived development priorities on usability, content, and functionality; train next generation environmental and computer scientists and conduct outreach. BAID has been used to: optimize research site choice; reduce duplication of science effort; discover complementary and potentially detrimental research activities in an area of scientific interest; re-establish historical research sites for resampling efforts assessing change in ecosystem structure and function over time; exchange knowledge across disciplines and generations; facilitate communication between western science and traditional ecological knowledge; provide local residents access to science data that facilitates adaptation to arctic change; and educate the next generation of environmental and computer scientists.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this collaboration between Tweedie (1023654, UTEP, LEAD) and Collins (1023561, CU) will continue maintaining, developing, and finding innovative approaches to the Barrow Area Information Database (BAID) which started under NSF grant 0454996. Logistics details under 1023654.

For support details, see 1023654 in this database.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2013Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2014Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2015Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
 


Project Title: CAREER: The Role of Iron and Reactive Oxygen Species in the Oxidation and Fate of DOM in Natural Waters (Award# 1351745)

PI: Cory, Rose M (rmcory@umich.edu)
Phone: 0(734) 615.3199 
Institute/Department: U of Michigan, Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://arc-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/
Project: http://www.earth.lsa.umich.edu/rmcory/research_dom...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=13...

Science Summary:
This study will determine the direct and indirect roles of iron in both light and dark reactions involving DOM degradation, and estimate the importance of iron in determining whether this degradation will shunt C as DOM down rivers to oceans, or fully oxidize C to CO2 released to the atmosphere. The proposed work will advance our understanding of the degradation of soil carbon exposed to oxygen or sunlight at Earth?s surface during land-surface disturbances. This knowledge will allow scientists to better predict the fate of C in arctic permafrost soils, and through an education and outreach plan, will allow society to better prepare for the potential acceleration of global warming through a positive feedback from the thawing Arctic. This research will be done in the Alaskan Arctic because (1) the lakes, streams, and soil waters provide a natural experimental matrix of both high and low light, oxygen, DOM and Fe concentrations, and (2) there are tremendous stores of organic C in frozen soils (at least twice the amount of C now in the atmosphere) which are rapidly thawing from global warming. Using field surveys and experiments on natural waters to test mechanistic hypotheses, the PI will answer two main research questions: (1) Do reactions mediated by iron favor the complete oxidation of DOM to CO2 by sunlight and microbes? (2) Is the iron-mediated oxidation of DOM in the dark an important determinant of DOM fate?

Logistics Summary:
This CAREER project will measure the role of iron in the oxidative breakdown of dissolved organic molecules (DOM) to CO2 in sunlit surface waters and in dark soil waters. Researchers will sample soil waters, lakes, streams, and areas in and around thermokarst failures in the Toolik area, in addition to sampling transects of the Kuparuk and Sagavanirktok rivers from headwaters to the Arctic Ocean, and lakes on the coastal plain. A team of up to 5 people will visit Toolik Field Station each year from May/June to August/September 2015 through 2018. Field sites within 30 miles of TFS will be accessed on foot or via helicopter on a weekly basis. These sites are: Toolik Inlet stream, Toolik Lake, Lake E6, Imnavait Creek, Imnavait soil water, and TW soil water. In addition, researchers will make one day trip per month via helicopter to the Kuparuk and Sagavanirktok rivers and lakes on the coastal plain to complete a sampling transect with multiple stops between the headwaters and the Arctic Ocean.

IAB will provide access to infrastructure and services at Toolik Field Station. CPS will provide user days, helicopter support and a satellite phone. All other logistics, including land use permits, will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Alaska - Kuparuk River05 / 30 / 2015 08 / 06 / 20155
2015Alaska - Sagavanirktok River05 / 27 / 2015 08 / 03 / 20155
2015Alaska - Toolik05 / 19 / 2015 08 / 19 / 20155
2016Alaska - Kuparuk River05 / 25 / 2016 08 / 21 / 20165
2016Alaska - Sagavanirktok River05 / 25 / 2016 08 / 21 / 20162
2016Alaska - Toolik04 / 30 / 2016 09 / 02 / 20165
2017Alaska - Kuparuk River05 / 25 / 2017 08 / 21 / 20172
2017Alaska - Sagavanirktok River05 / 25 / 2017 08 / 21 / 20172
2017Alaska - Toolik06 / 01 / 2017 09 / 08 / 20175
2018Alaska - Kuparuk River05 / 25 / 2018 08 / 21 / 20182
2018Alaska - Sagavanirktok River05 / 25 / 2018 08 / 21 / 20182
2018Alaska - Toolik05 / 25 / 2018 08 / 21 / 20185
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: An exploration of the direct and indirect effects of climatic warming on arctic lake ecosystems (Award# 1603302)

PI: Crump, Byron C (bcrump@coas.oregonstate.edu)
Phone: 0(541) 737.4369 
Institute/Department: Oregon State University, College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Limnology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://arc-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...

Science Summary:
Arctic ecosystems are warming at some of the fastest rates observed on earth. In particular, Arctic lakes are experiencing more frequent years of warmer and deeper surface water. However, the ability to detect and quantify ecosystem effects and specific biological responses to these climatic changes has been primarily limited to non-mechanistic modeled scenarios and observational studies in uncontrolled environments. These lakes provide subsistence harvest for native communities in the Arctic and it is important to understand how the level of sustainable harvests might change under scenarios of continued warming. This project will manipulate the temperature regime of selected Arctic lakes, observe the consequent changes of the lake ecosystem, and model these. Research will contribute to STEM workforce development through provision of support for the training of graduate students at two institutions. It will also entrain undergraduate students into the research. Through a collaboration with the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the principal investigators will provide outreach to Iñupiat high school students via the Kaktovik Science Camp and to Iñupiat K-12 students via the Arctic Village Science Camp Goonzhii. They will contribute to the management of natural resources by presentations through established collaborations with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, as well as through an interactive seminar series with local communities, e.g. the North Slope Borough of Alaska. This project will complete a multi-year, whole-lake warming manipulation, to quantify the effects of future climate change on lake ecosystems in the Arctic. In addition, regional climate and lake models will be coupled with biotic responses to better understand the sensitivity of lakes to changing atmospheric conditions. The project is designed to answer: How will warmer lake temperatures and extended growing season alter (1) lake ice coverage and annual thermal regime; (2) abundance, activity, and diversity of primary and secondary producers; (3) fish vital rates, production, and dynamics; and (4) degree of carry-over across growing seasons and cumulative effects. Experimental results will be combined with long-term, archived data to inform a linked modeling system (coupled lake-climate model and integrated physical, climate, biological, and bioenergetic modeling) to answer: How will warmer lake temperatures and an extended growing season alter: (1) lake thermal regimes at regional scales, and (2) fish populations across lake types of the Arctic. This research will quantify lake thermal processes and lake-atmosphere feedbacks, provide more precise projections of lake horizontal and vertical temperature structures, and document and project lake biota and ecosystem responses to changes in lake thermal condition over large spatial scales and under different climate scenarios.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Budy (1603088, LEAD, Utah State), Crump (1603302, OSU), and Giblin (1603214, MBL) will complete a multi-year, whole-lake warming manipulation, to quantify the effect of future climate change on lake ecosystems in the Arctic. Regional climate and lake models will be coupled with biotic responses to better understand the sensitivity of lakes to changing atmospheric conditions. Logistic details under 1603088.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2019Alaska - Toolik0
2020Alaska - Toolik0
2021Alaska - Toolik0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: EAGER: Quantifying the Sources of Arctic Tundra-Respired CO2 Year-Round via Continuous in situ Sampling of 14CO2 (Award# 1649664)

PI: Czimczik, Claudia (czimczik@uci.edu)
Phone: 0(949) 824.5693 
Institute/Department: U of California, Irvine, Earth System Science 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Logistics: http://toolik.alaska.edu/
Data: https://arcticdata.io/
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
Since the Pleistocene, slow organic matter decomposition has led to the accumulation of vast amounts of organic carbon in permafrost. Climate warming and permafrost thaw will weaken prior constraints on decomposition and increase CO2 emissions, but also likely to increase plant productivity and CO2 uptake. The net effect of these changes on the Arctic’s carbon budget and the global climate system are poorly understood. One reason is that most observations have been made during the short growing season, when root and rhizosphere respiration dominate CO2 emissions. Recent work has shown, however, that microbial-derived CO2 emissions during the shoulder seasons and the winter account for a significant fraction of the annual carbon budget of tundra systems. This project will develop new technology for the continuous collection of tundra-emitted CO2 that will be analyzed for its radiocarbon (14C) content. This 14CO2 data will allow researchers to apportion CO2 emissions into plant and microbial sources, and quantify contributions from thawing permafrost. The sampler will be passive (no power), light-weight and rugged and with a water-proof inlet. It will collect CO2 in air and soil gas on molecular sieve (zeolite) via diffusion. To test the inlet system and to verify the sampler function, researchers will also deploy existing (1) canister-based sampling systems and (2) flow-through CO2 sampling systems using molecular sieve, and monitor air and soil CO2 concentrations. The new sampler has the potential to transform our understanding of carbon cycling in the Arctic, as it allows for the year-round CO2 collection, including during the winter and shoulder seasons when sites are often inaccessible, and over multiple weeks (3 weeks/sample). Outreach activities will strengthen the existing NSF-supported K-12 training programs at UC Irvine that are aimed to increase the participation of underprivileged populations in the STEM fields. The investigators will engage middle school students with lab tours and activities during a “Day at College”-experience and class room visits. The project will also train a graduate student, and contribute to educating researchers (via an international summer course) in the use of 14C analysis in Ecology and Earth System Science.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Czimczik (1649664, Lead, UCI), Welker (1650084, UAA), and Euskirchen (1649792, UAF) will develop and deploy a novel canister-based system to continuously trap the CO2 emitted from arctic tundra soil for radiocarbon (14C) analysis. Field work is expected to start in June of 2017, and run through December of 2018. A field team of 4 will deploy their canister based systems in the moist tundra immediately adjacent to Toolik Field Station (TFS), Alaska. Researchers will stay at the permanent housing of the TFS, and make day trips to the sampling sites. All field sites will be accessed from already existing elevated boardwalk, which is used to decrease impact to the tundra grasses from repeated trampling. Canister switching and equipment maintenance will be supported by Toolik station staff.The canisters will be secured with snow poles and line powered (e.g. extension cord from TFS). The canisters will collect respired CO2 via continuous air sample for three weeks for each time. The canisters will then be sent back to the researcher’s home institution for further analysis. During the summer season, green sedge and moss biomass samples will be taken. In the winter, samples will be taken of the snow pack in order to estimate density. Ambient air and soil CO2 concentrations will be taken continuously with a line-powered Vaisala probe. Finally, researchers will continuously monitor soil temperatures with data loggers, as well as plant phenology, thaw depth, and snow pack during each day they are in the field.

All logistics, including land use permits, will be arranged and paid for by the PIs from the research grants.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Toolik06 / 04 / 2017 12 / 31 / 20174
2018Alaska - Toolik01 / 01 / 2018 12 / 31 / 20184
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Determining the Vulnerability and Resilience of Boreal Forests and Shrubs across Northwestern North America (Award# 1603473)

PI: D'Arrigo, Rosanne D (druidrd@ldeo.columbia.edu)
Phone: 0(845) 365.8517 
Institute/Department: Columbia University, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/arcss/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/catalog/

Science Summary:
The importance of Boreal and Arctic landscapes is recognized by the scientific community as an important area of research. The overarching theory to be tested in this grant is that the current controls over vegetation growth are not operating as they have been in the past. The investigators have at hand a detailed network of ground measurements of tree-ring data collected across a range of Boreal and Arctic forests and shrublands sites in Alaska and adjacent Canada. This data will be compared with satellite based remote sensing proxies of vegetation productivity. The work is by and large an analysis and comparison of two independent methods for assessing vegetation growth variability in Arctic ecosystems. This project will contribute to the education of the general public (e.g. annual open house exhibits, websites, blogs from the field), and will partially fund a post-doctoral researcher who will have the opportunity to expand their scientific experience and knowledge of this topic. This work will focus on Boreal and Arctic forests and shrublands across Alaska and adjacent Canada, regions that are experiencing some of the most rapid warming on the globe today. Satellite observations have revealed significant vegetation productivity trends (both greening and browning) of vegetation at high northern latitudes, with distinct differences between North America and northern Eurasia biomes and between tundra and boreal regions. At the same time, some observations show that the strong correlation between northern tree growth and temperature appears to be weakening in recent decades. The overarching theory to be tested in this project is that the current controls over vegetation growth are not operating as they have been in the past. The investigators have at hand a detailed network of in situ ground measurements of tree-ring data collected from across this region. This data will be compared with remote sensing proxies of vegetation productivity (from satellite NDVI), across a range of Boreal and Arctic forests and shrublands sites in Alaska and adjacent Canada. The work will include one year of field data in regions of high priority where the investigators will extract up to date tree ring cores for comparison with recent air temperature and remote sensing records.

Logistics Summary:
This three year collaboration between D’Arrigo (1603473, LEAD, Columbia University) and Goetz (1661723, NAU) aims to understand the complex link between climate and plant productivity, particularly in light of amplified warming in northern latitudes. Researchers will compile several existing tree-ring datasets which will be complemented by a collection of new data, collected at sites for which remote sensing data show large vegetation changes. The tree growth trends will then be compared with remote-sensing vegetation growth indices and climate data over Alaska and adjacent Canada. This will allow researchers to assess forest growth changes of recent decades to determine if changes in primary productivity are occurring as the climate changes. Field work will primarily consist of two researchers, coring trees for tree ring analysis in sites in Alaska. In 2017, researchers will spend about two weeks sampling sites on the Noatak River and Arrigetch Peaks region.

All logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Arrigetch Peaks07 / 01 / 2017 07 / 06 / 20172
2017Alaska - Noatak River07 / 06 / 2017 07 / 12 / 20172
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Adaptability of a Key Arctic Freshwater Species to Climate Change (Award# 1719267)

PI: Deegan, Linda (ldeegan@whrc.org)
Phone: 0(508) 444.1557  
Institute/Department: Woods Hole Research Center,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://arc-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/
Logistics: http://www.uaf.edu/toolik/
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
Rapidly changing climates uniquely challenge Arctic fish that rely on interconnected, seasonally available habitat. The Arctic grayling migrates annually between breeding sites in streams and unfrozen overwintering habitat. Their movement is restricted to a small number of interconnecting waterways. Warmer climates are creating dry streambeds when fish need to migrate to winter habitat. Warmer streams could challenge fish adapted to cooler water. Substantial movement, plasticity, or adaptive genetic variation might allow for resilience to these stressors. This study proposes to study populations from three representative Arctic streams that differ in temperature, connectivity, and sensitivity to climate change. Pilot data indicate increasing drying events that threaten the grayling?s return to overwintering sites as well as substantial population structure among and within watersheds. Species can respond to climate change through movement, phenotypic plasticity, or local adaptive evolution. Most research fails to address one or more of these fundamental strategies, and these gaps currently limit our ability to predict future responses with accuracy. This study addresses all three strategies to understand the persistence of a key Arctic species. The researchers will address five broader impact areas: 1) expanding opportunities for undergraduate and graduate study, including promoting opportunities for minority involvement of native Alaskans; 2) building upon existing links between Arctic research field crews and K-12 educators in the lower 48 states; 3) broadening scientific understanding in Arctic minority communities, including residents in Barrow, AK and initiating new outreach to Anaktuvuk, AK; 4) enhancing public education via governmental outreach, media relations, and publicly accessible web resources; and 5) expanding cooperation with state and federal agencies in developing management recommendations for Arctic fish. This study will 1) assay movement at four time scales ranging from days to centuries; 2) evaluate plasticity and adaptive differentiation among populations; 3) assess populations for loci under selection; and 4) determine natural selection against grayling subpopulations by integrating data on selected loci with the movement of individually tagged fish. This study will test how watershed characteristics influence movement patterns using individual tagging, otolith micro-chemistry, and genomics. Individual tagging records fine-scale daily movement, otolith micro-chemistry allows the reconstruction of lifetime movement patterns, and genomic data reveals recent and historical movement across the landscape and genes under selection. Lastly, this study will quantify genetic and environmental contributions to performance of fish from divergent environments.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Urban (1417754, UConn) and Deegan (1719267, WHRC) will quantify how movement, plasticity, and adaptation mediate the climate responses of Arctic grayling, a keystone species in Arctic streams. Pilot data indicates increasing drying events that threaten the grayling's return to overwintering sites as well as substantial population structure among and within watersheds. Researchers will study populations from three watersheds (Oksrukuyik Creek system, Kuparuk River system, Itkillik tributary system) that differ in temperature, connectivity, and sensitivity to climate change (drying frequency). Logistic details under 1417754. [NOTE *In 2016 Deegan changed institutions from MLB to Woods Hole Research Center at which time a new grant was given to Deegan (1719267). The 2015-2016 work is carried under grant 1417664 and the work will be concluded in 2017 under 1719267. The lead on the collaboration is still Urban, 1417754 for this collaboration.]

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Toolik0
 


Project Title: Seismological Facilities for the Advancement of Geoscience and EarthScope (Award# 1261681)

PI: Detrick, Robert S (detrick@iris.edu )
Phone: 0(202) 682.2220 
Institute/Department: Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\EAR
Program Manager: Dr. Margaret Benoit (mbenoit@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Data Management | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://ds.iris.edu/ds/nodes/dmc/data/#access
Data: http://earthcube.org/
Data: http://www.coopeus.eu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=12...
Project: http://www.usarray.org/Alaska
Project: https://www.iris.edu/hq/#_
Data: https://www.unavco.org/data/data.html

Science Summary:
The IRIS Consortium (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) provides, via the "Seismological Facilities for the Advancement of Geoscience and EarthScope" (SAGE), a suite of community-governed, multi-user facilities for instrumentation and data management that support research and education in seismology and the Earth sciences. The facilities include a high-performance network of more than 150 permanent stations providing data for global studies of earthquakes and deep Earth structure; a mobile array of more than 400 seismometers and atmospheric sensors completing a traverse of the conterminous United States and deploying to Alaska; and more than 4000 portable instruments (including magnetotelluric systems) are available for short-and long-term loan to university-based researchers for detailed studies as part of NSF-funded field programs. Future observing needs are being addressed via systematic engineering efforts. Data from all of these observational systems, along with extensive collections of seismic data contributed by other organizations, are freely and openly available through the IRIS Data Management Center. Data collected and distributed through IRIS facilities form the observational basis for most of the fundamental studies in seismology carried out by researchers at US universities and in many organizations worldwide. The stability and high quality of the permanent observatories capture both the short-term details of faulting during the seconds to minutes of rupture in major earthquakes as well as decadal-scale changes in global earthquake activity. Data from permanent, mobile, and portable arrays are used to resolve features in Earth structure over scales that range from the whole Earth, to lithosphere, to regional basins, to fault zones. These data provide fundamental information on Earth structure and processes that, in combination with other geoscience disciplines, contribute to enhanced understanding of how the active Earth evolves and deforms. As a part of EarthScope, these observations contribute to multidisciplinary studies that focus on the structure and dynamics of North America and contribute to unraveling the history of deformation of the continent. The IRIS program in Education and Public Outreach directly links the public and schools with the activities of an academic research community by demonstrating how basic seismological observations are made and used in Earth science investigations. Through a variety of activities that extend from the provision of classroom and web resources, to museum displays, public lectures, and internships, IRIS encourages students to engage in scientific inquiry and appreciate the importance of the Earth sciences in their lives. In addition to supporting fundamental research, the seismological resources provided by IRIS serve dual use by contributing directly to societal needs through reporting of global earthquake activity and applications in monitoring nuclear test ban treaties. Scientific and technical outreach by IRIS and its members as part of their international activities also provides assistance and guidance in the development and implementation of earthquake monitoring networks and hazard assessment, especially in developing countries.

Logistics Summary:
This grant establishes a Cooperative Agreement between NSF and the IRIS Consortium (Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology) provides a suite of community-governed, multi-user facilities for instrumentation and data management to support research and education in seismology and the Earth sciences. A high-performance network of more than 150 permanent stations provides data for global studies of earthquakes and deep Earth structure. A mobile array of more than 400 seismometers and atmospheric sensors is completing a traverse of the conterminous United States and preparing for deployment in Alaska. This grant will continue to support, maintain and improve operation of the Global Seismographic Network, in collaboration with the US Geological Survey, UNAVCO and many international partners, as a foundation network for global earthquake monitoring and research. This grant also provides support to operate the merged pools of PASSCAL and USArray Flexible Array portable seismic equipment and magnetotelluric systems primarily in support of NSF-funded research. Currently, these programs support about 70 seismic field projects per year, most of them funded by NSF. This grant focuses on the installation of the Transportable Array stations in Alaska, completing the 15-year seismic component of the original EarthScope plan. Beginning in 2014, and accelerating during 2015 and 2016, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) will deploy around 261 seismometers in Alaska as part of EarthScope’s USArray observatory. Under this grant the current TA footprint will be demobilized between now and the fall of 2015 and will begin to redeploy as a single, static footprint in Alaska and northwestern Canada through 2018. The Transportable Array Advisory Committee (TAAC) advises on the operation and technical performance of the TA, in the context of EarthScope's science goals and changes in annual budgets. Many TA stations are remaining in the contiguous U.S. as the separately funded project, CEUSN. The TA stations in Alaska will be arranged in a grid-like pattern spaced at ~85 km, covering all of interior Alaska and parts of the Yukon, Northwest Territories, and British Columbia. Several successful pilot stations have already been installed. During this process, IRIS is working with the Alaska Earthquake Center, Alaska Volcano Observatory, and the Alaska Tsunami Warning Center to upgrade and leverage existing seismic infrastructure and permitting wherever possible. Most new TA stations are targeted for deployment lasting for at least 2 years, and there is currently no plan to remove the stations once they are installed. During the award, field teams will operate throughout Alaska and parts of Canada providing support, construction, installation, and servicing of the Transportable Array (TA). From 2013-2018, two field teams of two will spend approximately 8 months throughout Alaska and parts of Canada providing support, construction, installation, servicing and removal of the Transportable Array (TA). Field team members are provided by Honeywell Technology Solutions Inc. (HTSI) .

All logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2013Alaska - IRIS HDA10 / 18 / 2013 10 / 18 / 20132
2013Alaska - IRIS TOLK12 / 11 / 2013 12 / 14 / 20131
2014Alaska - IRIS A21K04 / 25 / 2014 05 / 28 / 20145
2014Alaska - IRIS CAPN05 / 16 / 2014 05 / 21 / 20144
2014Alaska - IRIS COLD06 / 13 / 2014 06 / 24 / 20146
2014Alaska - IRIS CUT05 / 14 / 2014 07 / 02 / 20147
2014Alaska - IRIS HOM08 / 07 / 2014 09 / 23 / 20146
2014Alaska - IRIS I23K09 / 12 / 2014 11 / 05 / 201418
2014Alaska - IRIS K27K06 / 14 / 2014 06 / 20 / 20145
2014Alaska - IRIS L26K07 / 22 / 2014 10 / 23 / 201410
2014Alaska - IRIS L27K07 / 24 / 2014 07 / 25 / 201413
2014Alaska - IRIS M24K07 / 25 / 2014 09 / 10 / 20148
2014Alaska - IRIS MCK09 / 16 / 2014 09 / 20 / 20144
2014Alaska - IRIS MLY09 / 12 / 2014 12 / 15 / 201413
2014Alaska - IRIS N25K09 / 30 / 2014 12 / 17 / 20149
2014Alaska - IRIS NEA206 / 10 / 2014 06 / 11 / 20146
2014Alaska - IRIS O22K05 / 20 / 2014 11 / 19 / 20144
2014Alaska - IRIS Q23K08 / 15 / 2014 08 / 16 / 20147
2014Alaska - IRIS RC0108 / 28 / 2014 08 / 28 / 20143
2014Alaska - IRIS SCRK07 / 22 / 2014 08 / 21 / 20146
2014Alaska - IRIS TNA10 / 06 / 2014 10 / 06 / 20142
2014Alaska - IRIS TOLK06 / 25 / 2014 06 / 26 / 20142
2014Canada - IRIS C36M07 / 08 / 2014 07 / 09 / 20143
2014Canada - IRIS EPYK12 / 02 / 2014 12 / 18 / 20142
2015Alaska - IRIS A21K04 / 29 / 2015 04 / 29 / 20152
2015Alaska - IRIS CHUM07 / 02 / 2015 07 / 03 / 20157
2015Alaska - IRIS H21K05 / 28 / 2015 09 / 13 / 20158
2015Alaska - IRIS H23K05 / 20 / 2015 10 / 02 / 20159
2015Alaska - IRIS H24K05 / 26 / 2015 05 / 27 / 20154
2015Alaska - IRIS HARP04 / 21 / 2015 08 / 26 / 20159
2015Alaska - IRIS HOM01 / 22 / 2015 06 / 23 / 20153
2015Alaska - IRIS I21K05 / 28 / 2015 05 / 31 / 20154
2015Alaska - IRIS I23K06 / 17 / 2015 10 / 02 / 20153
2015Alaska - IRIS I26K09 / 12 / 2015 09 / 12 / 20151
2015Alaska - IRIS J20K06 / 30 / 2015 07 / 01 / 20158
2015Alaska - IRIS J25K08 / 24 / 2015 09 / 11 / 20159
2015Alaska - IRIS J26K08 / 25 / 2015 09 / 10 / 20159
2015Alaska - IRIS J26L09 / 10 / 2015 09 / 11 / 20158
2015Alaska - IRIS K20K06 / 30 / 2015 06 / 30 / 20156
2015Alaska - IRIS K27K09 / 20 / 2015 09 / 20 / 20152
2015Alaska - IRIS KNK05 / 12 / 2015 05 / 12 / 20153
2015Alaska - IRIS L19K06 / 19 / 2015 06 / 19 / 20157
2015Alaska - IRIS L20K08 / 16 / 2015 08 / 17 / 20155
2015Alaska - IRIS L26K07 / 10 / 2015 07 / 10 / 20151
2015Alaska - IRIS L27K03 / 17 / 2015 04 / 18 / 20156
2015Alaska - IRIS M19K06 / 18 / 2015 08 / 17 / 201511
2015Alaska - IRIS M20K06 / 20 / 2015 08 / 25 / 201514
2015Alaska - IRIS M22K05 / 04 / 2015 10 / 01 / 201519
2015Alaska - IRIS M26K07 / 12 / 2015 10 / 05 / 20153
2015Alaska - IRIS M27K07 / 10 / 2015 10 / 05 / 20155
2015Alaska - IRIS MCAR07 / 28 / 2015 07 / 28 / 20153
2015Alaska - IRIS MLY09 / 01 / 2015 09 / 02 / 20152
2015Alaska - IRIS N18K06 / 13 / 2015 06 / 13 / 20154
2015Alaska - IRIS N19K06 / 12 / 2015 06 / 13 / 20156
2015Alaska - IRIS N20K08 / 13 / 2015 08 / 13 / 20151
2015Alaska - IRIS O18K06 / 14 / 2015 06 / 14 / 20151
2015Alaska - IRIS O19K06 / 09 / 2015 06 / 09 / 20156
2015Alaska - IRIS O20K05 / 23 / 2015 05 / 24 / 20152
2015Alaska - IRIS O22K01 / 22 / 2015 01 / 22 / 20151
2015Alaska - IRIS P18K06 / 15 / 2015 06 / 16 / 20151
2015Alaska - IRIS P19K06 / 24 / 2015 06 / 25 / 20152
2015Alaska - IRIS Q19K08 / 14 / 2015 08 / 15 / 20157
2015Alaska - IRIS Q23K07 / 24 / 2015 07 / 24 / 20151
2015Alaska - IRIS RIDG07 / 08 / 2015 07 / 08 / 20154
2015Alaska - IRIS SAW05 / 07 / 2015 08 / 29 / 20155
2015Alaska - IRIS SKN08 / 06 / 2015 08 / 07 / 20157
2015Alaska - IRIS SSN08 / 05 / 2015 08 / 06 / 20156
2015Canada - IRIS A36M08 / 19 / 2015 08 / 19 / 20151
2015Canada - IRIS EPYK01 / 05 / 2015 01 / 05 / 20151
2016Alaska - IRIS A21K2
2016Alaska - IRIS COLD2
2016Alaska - IRIS HOM2
2016Alaska - IRIS N19K2
2016Alaska - IRIS O22K2
2016Alaska - IRIS POKR2
2016Alaska - IRIS TCOL2
2016Alaska - IRIS TOLK2
2017Alaska - IRIS A21K2
2017Alaska - IRIS COLD2
2017Alaska - IRIS HOM2
2017Alaska - IRIS N19K2
2017Alaska - IRIS O22K2
2017Alaska - IRIS POKR2
2017Alaska - IRIS TCOL2
2017Alaska - IRIS TOLK2
2018Alaska - IRIS A21K2
2018Alaska - IRIS COLD2
2018Alaska - IRIS HOM2
2018Alaska - IRIS N19K2
2018Alaska - IRIS O22K2
2018Alaska - IRIS POKR2
2018Alaska - IRIS TCOL2
2018Alaska - IRIS TOLK2
 


Project Title: LTER: Beaufort Sea Lagoons: An Arctic Coastal Ecosystem in Transition (Award# 1656026)

PI: Dunton, Kenneth H (ken.dunton@utexas.edu)
Phone: 0(361) 749.6744 
Institute/Department: U of Texas, Austin, Marine Science Institute 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://environmentaldatainitiative.org/
Data: https://portal.lternet.edu/nis/home.jsp
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
This project will establish a new Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site along the Alaskan Arctic coastline. Research based out of Utqiagvik (formerly Barrow), Deadhorse, and Kaktovik will address how changes in shoreline erosion and freshwater inflows to the coastal ocean over seasonal, annual, and longer timeframes influence near-shore food webs. Research will be conducted in collaboration with local stakeholder groups and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This research will advance our fundamental understanding of how input of materials from land and oceanographic conditions interact to influence coastal food webs. It will also allow us to track and understand: 1) how natural climate cycles influence coastal ecosystems in the Arctic, and 2) how climate change effects such as permafrost thaw, shifting precipitation regimes, and losses of sea ice alter coastal ecosystems. Near-shore food webs along the Alaskan Arctic coastline support large populations of migratory fish and waterfowl that are essential to the culture of Iñupiat communities of northern Alaska. The research at this LTER site will create a framework for anticipating the impacts of future changes on the coastal ecosystem that are of great concern to these communities. Results from this LTER program will also be of interest to a broader science community that is working to understand potential connections between Arctic change and global carbon cycling. Finally, this LTER project includes a strong commitment to education through graduate and undergraduate student involvement, post-doctoral mentoring, continuation of a very successful Summer Science K-12 Program in Kaktovik, and establishment of a parallel K-12 program in Utqiagvik. In addition, this project will employ native high school seniors or recently graduated students living in Utqiagvik and Kaktovik as field research assistants. Recent studies suggest that the ecological framework for understanding what controls food web structure needs to be expanded to include temporal forcing. More specifically, there is mounting evidence that differential availability of seasonally-distinct resources is critical for defining trophic linkages and maintaining stability and resilience of food webs. This new LTER program will use lagoons along the Alaskan Beaufort Sea coast as experimental units to test this concept, and broaden it to include temporal variations over longer timeframes. The Beaufort lagoons are ideal for testing this concept because they experience extreme variability in seasonal cycles, which are now subject to rapid directional shifts driven by climate change. The overarching question is: How do variations in terrestrial inputs, local production, and exchange between lagoon and ocean waters over seasonal, inter-annual, inter-decadal, and longer timeframes interact to control food web structure through effects on carbon and nitrogen cycling, microbial and metazoan community composition, and trophic linkages? Arctic lagoons provide a unique opportunity to study these interactions in the absence of fringing wetlands that often modulate land-ocean interactions in other lagoon systems. In addition, barrier island geomorphology, which exerts a strong control on water exchange between lagoons and the open ocean, is highly dynamic in the Arctic because sea-ice effects on coastal geomorphology are superimposed on the effects of currents, sea level, and waves. Thus, connections between inputs from land and lagoon ecosystems are more direct, and water exchanges between lagoons and the open ocean are more variable than is typical of lower latitude systems. Specific study sites will be located in Elson Lagoon (western Beaufort), Simpson Lagoon and Stefansson Sound (central Beaufort), and Kaktovik and Jago lagoons (eastern Beaufort). The LTER will include seasonal field work during ice covered, ice break-up, and open water periods and also include sensor deployments for continuous measurements of key biogeochemical and hydrographic parameters.

Logistics Summary:
This project will establish a new Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site focusing on Arctic lagoon ecosystems to test the concept that differential availability of seasonally-distinct resources is critical for defining trophic linkages and maintaining stability and resilience of food webs. During the winters, springs, and summers of 2018 – 2022 a field team of 7-10 will sample coastal lagoon located near the research hubs of Barrow, Prudhoe Bay, and Kaktovik. Note, in August of 2017 two researchers from this grant, who will be in Kaktovik on other business, will conduct a reconnaissance trip to the area.

CPS will provide lodging in Barrow; user days in Prudhoe Bay and Kaktovik; trucks, snowmachines, sleds, ATVs, inflatable boats and motors and laboratory and storage space in Barrow, Prudhoe Bay, and Kaktovik; bear guards in Barrow and Kaktovik; freight of CPS provided field gear and equipment; Ultrapure water; survival gear; assistance with North Slope Borough and Ukpeagvik Iñupiat Corporation permits; satellite phones and remote medical kits. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Kaktovik08 / 14 / 2017 08 / 28 / 20172
2018Alaska - Kaktovik7
2018Alaska - Prudhoe Bay7
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)7
2019Alaska - Kaktovik7
2019Alaska - Prudhoe Bay7
2019Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)7
2020Alaska - Kaktovik7
2020Alaska - Prudhoe Bay7
2020Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)7
2021Alaska - Kaktovik7
2021Alaska - Prudhoe Bay7
2021Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)7
2022Alaska - Kaktovik7
2022Alaska - Prudhoe Bay7
2022Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)7
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: An examination of human social and cultural adaptation through archaeological and paleoclimate data from the Aleutian Islands (Award# 1650291)

PI: Etnier, Michael A (michael.etnier@wwu.edu)
Phone:  
Institute/Department: Western Washington University, Department of Anthropology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://data.giss.nasa.gov/o18data/
Data: http://www.aleutians.org/
Data: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/datalist.html
Data: http://www.neotomadb.org/
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
Archaeologists have expended a lot of research effort trying to determine whether or not periods of past climate change had a significant effect on human populations. In the case of coastal Alaska over the past several thousand years, the available data indicate that for the most part, the answer has been "not much" - the marine ecosystem seems to have remained relatively stable, even though periods of climate change such as the Medieval Warm Period and the so-called "Little Ice Age". The one exception to this generalization is found on Unalaska Island, in the eastern Aleutians. At about 4000 years ago, ringed seals, which are an ice-adapted species, made up a significant portion of the subsistence base. This suggests that temperatures were substantially colder than they are today. However, many of the species that are common in the area today (in the absence of significant levels of sea ice) were also an important part of the subsistence economy 4000 years ago. This research aims to try to address this apparent contradiction; was it cold and icy? Or was it generally more temperate, much as it is today? To do so, the scientists will (a) study the growth patterns and shell chemistry of modern and archaeological butter clams, which will give us an indication of what the water conditions were like. They will also (b) conduct a detailed analysis of all of the species present in the archaeological midden sites, including the age composition of what was being harvested, as an indication of what the environmental conditions were like. And, finally, they will (c) conduct a detailed analysis of the artifacts associated with marine mammal hunting to determine the likelihood that hunters 4000 years ago developed a specialized toolkit for hunting in the sea ice. As coastal communities throughout the Arctic face important decisions regarding the possibility of major climate change, the research team believes that it will be important to have some "test cases" that provide information on how various communities have responded to climate change in the past. The archaeological sites on Unalaska Island provide nearly 4000 years worth of data of adaptation to past climate change; data that are directly relevant to understanding the challenges of future climate change. This project will investigate the effects of Late Holocene climate change on animal biodiversity and human foraging activity in Alaska's Aleutian Islands. This three-year, interdisciplinary study will use zooarchaeological, paleoenvironmental, biological, and oceanographic data to test the hypothesis that fluctuations in Late Holocene climate significantly affected local environments, ecosystems, and human hunting strategy in the eastern Aleutian Islands. This interdisciplinary project will apply models of human foraging behavior to research human-animal-environmental interactions in the context of climate change using three major lines of evidence: 1) growth patterns and stable oxygen isotopes in archaeological shellfish will be used to reconstruct the local paleoenvironment; 2) archaeological faunal material from several taxonomic groups will be used to test whether animal distribution and behavior have changed through time in response to changes in climate; 3) artifacts will be analyzed to look for adaptations to the marine mammal hunting toolkit in response to changes in climate and resource availability. More specifically, the research team will utilize a research program that will use multiple datasets from Unalaska Island to address whether sea ice and ice-loving ("pagophilic") fauna were present in this region during the Neoglacial phase, suggesting a dramatic change in prehistoric climate. The interdisciplinary nature of archaeology makes it uniquely positioned to accomplish two things: 1) to offer truly long term data about the ecological, climate, and resource histories for the Gulf of Alaska, data that are vital to understanding both ancient and contemporary human and environmental interaction in this region and 2) to collaborate with local Native Alaskan communities and students, resource managers, and cultural resource managers to collect, interpret, and disseminate the data and findings.

Logistics Summary:
Beginning May 2016, this three-year collaborative project between West (1522972, Lead, Boston U), Etnier (1650291, WWU), and Andrus (1523034, U of Alabama Tuscaloosa) will investigate the effects of Late Holocene Climate change on animal biodiversity and human foraging activity in the eastern Aleutian Islands. Abrupt and significant changes in climate seen in atmospheric or oceanic records can manifest themselves in different ways on local landscapes and in the archeological record. The researchers will test hypotheses concerning climate change and the nature of human response to climate change using optimal foraging theory. In particular, they will focus on pagophilic (ice loving) animals, and their role in prehistoric exploitation patterns. Logistics details under 1522972. [NOTE *In 2016 Etnier changed institutions from PSU under NSF grant 1523207 to WWU at which time this new grant was given to Etnier 1650291. The lead on the collaboration is still West, 1522972 for this collaboration.]

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Unalaska0
2018Alaska - Unalaska0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: EAGER: Quantifying the Sources of Arctic Tundra-Respired CO2 Year-Round via Continuous in Situ Sampling of 14CO2 (Award# 1649792)

PI: Euskirchen, Susanne Eugenie (seeuskirchen@alaska.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 474.7314 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, Institute of Arctic Biology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Logistics: http://toolik.alaska.edu/
Data: https://arcticdata.io/
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
Since the Pleistocene, slow organic matter decomposition has led to the accumulation of vast amounts of organic carbon in permafrost. Climate warming and permafrost thaw will weaken prior constraints on decomposition and increase CO2 emissions, but also likely to increase plant productivity and CO2 uptake. The net effect of these changes on the Arctic’s carbon budget and the global climate system are poorly understood. One reason is that most observations have been made during the short growing season, when root and rhizosphere respiration dominate CO2 emissions. Recent work has shown, however, that microbial-derived CO2 emissions during the shoulder seasons and the winter account for a significant fraction of the annual carbon budget of tundra systems. This project will develop new technology for the continuous collection of tundra-emitted CO2 that will be analyzed for its radiocarbon (14C) content. This 14CO2 data will allow researchers to apportion CO2 emissions into plant and microbial sources, and quantify contributions from thawing permafrost. The sampler will be passive (no power), light-weight and rugged and with a water-proof inlet. It will collect CO2 in air and soil gas on molecular sieve (zeolite) via diffusion. To test the inlet system and to verify the sampler function, researchers will also deploy existing (1) canister-based sampling systems and (2) flow-through CO2 sampling systems using molecular sieve, and monitor air and soil CO2 concentrations. The new sampler has the potential to transform our understanding of carbon cycling in the Arctic, as it allows for the year-round CO2 collection, including during the winter and shoulder seasons when sites are often inaccessible, and over multiple weeks (3 weeks/sample). Outreach activities will strengthen the existing NSF-supported K-12 training programs at UC Irvine that are aimed to increase the participation of underprivileged populations in the STEM fields. The investigators will engage middle school students with lab tours and activities during a “Day at College”-experience and class room visits. The project will also train a graduate student, and contribute to educating researchers (via an international summer course) in the use of 14C analysis in Ecology and Earth System Science.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Czimczik (1649664, Lead, UCI), Welker (1650084, UAA), and Euskirchen (1649792, UAF) will develop and deploy a novel canister-based system to continuously trap the CO2 emitted from arctic tundra soil for radiocarbon (14C) analysis. Field work is expected to start in June of 2017, and run through December of 2018. Logistic details under 1649664.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Local Adaptation in a Dominant Arctic Tundra Sedge (Eriophorum Vaginatum) and its Effects on Ecosystem Response in a Changing Climate (Award# 1418010)

PI: Fetcher, Ned (ned.fetcher@wilkes.edu)
Phone: 0(570) 408.4802 
Institute/Department: Wilkes University,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://dryas.mbl.edu/
Logistics: http://toolik.alaska.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
Eriophorum vaginatum is presently a dominant component of moist tussock tundra, but is susceptible to competition from more rapidly growing deciduous shrubs under warming conditions. The project has three objectives: 1) to investigate the genetic factors that lead to local adaptation in E. vaginatum; 2) to examine natural disturbance as a mechanism for genotypes from warmer climates to establish in tussock tundra of northern regions; and 3) to test the hypothesis that local adaptation and adaptational lag will have important consequences for plant phenology, photosynthesis, primary productivity, plant growth, and nutrient cycling. The findings of this project may serve as an indicator of the potential effects of adaptational lag on plant responses to climate change. Research results will be integrated into the manual for the International Tundra Experiment, which has been a developing resource for long term Arctic research. The project directly involves undergraduate research experience for students at Wilkes, a largely undergraduate university, and University of Texas at El Paso, a minority serving institution. Marine Biological Laboratory also will involve students in the research directly through their Semester in Environmental Sciences program, which will involve students in analyzing data taken directly from the Arctic project. K-12 students in Wilkes-Barre will be involved in Arctic research by studying plants shipped from Alaska. K-12 students in El Paso will be exposed to Arctic research through already established programs that engage graduate students with high school students through presentations of research results. This research will use approaches from molecular ecology and population biology to investigate the causes of local adaptation in Eriophorum vaginatum. It will use methods of ecosystem ecology to investigate the consequences of local adaptation for the response of E. vaginatum to a rapidly warming climate. Genetic markers will be used to determine patterns of genetic diversity and gene flow for populations of E. vaginatum in northern Alaska. Uncovering the underlying genetic structure and population genetic dynamics will provide important insight into the ability for E. vaginatum to adapt to a changing climate. A recent burn site will be seeded with E. vaginatum from different populations with measures of seedling establishment and health followed by identifying genotype success utilizing molecular markers. The processes will be measured in gardens that include both transplants and plants exposed to warming with open-top chambers to simulate the combined effects of northward migration of southern ecotypes and climate warming.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Fetcher (1418010, Wilkes), Moody (1417645, UTEP) and Tang (1417763, MBL) will use approaches from molecular ecology and population biology to investigate the causes of local adaptation in Eriophorum vaginatum, a dominant species of Arctic moist tundra. The PI will travel to Alaska in August 2014 with 5 team members to begin transplanting tussock for the research. Then, during the summer of 2015, and for two consecutive years thereafter, a team of 11 researchers will base out of Toolik Field Station and sample research plots along the Dalton Highway and at the Anaktuvuk River Burn Site. Research sites at Toolik, Coldfoot and Sagwon will require boardwalk installation. In the spring of 2015, CPS crews will deliver boardwalk planks to the Coldfoot site where the researchers will be responsible for assembly. At the Toolik and Sagwon sites, CPS will deliver the boardwalk via snowmachine in May and assemble after snowmelt in June, except for the garden section, where the researchers will assemble it themselves. All boardwalks will be removed at the conclusion of the project by CPS staff. Researchers will return for a similar season in 2016 and 2017. Researchers may return in 2018, details are TBD.

IAB will provide access to services and infrastructure at Toolik Field Station. In 2014 CPS will provide a cook kit. In all other years, CPS will provide helicopter support, truck rental, Toolik and Prudhoe user days, limited camping gear from CPS inventory, a remote medical kit, a satellite phone, oilfield training, and boardwalks. All other logistics, including land use permits, will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Alaska - Coldfoot5
2014Alaska - Sagwon5
2014Alaska - Toolik08 / 16 / 2014 08 / 19 / 20145
2015Alaska - Coldfoot06 / 25 / 2015 08 / 30 / 20159
2015Alaska - Prudhoe Bay06 / 29 / 2015 06 / 29 / 20156
2015Alaska - Sagwon06 / 15 / 2015 08 / 29 / 201513
2015Alaska - Toolik06 / 15 / 2015 08 / 29 / 201513
2016Alaska - Coldfoot06 / 01 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20162
2016Alaska - Prudhoe Bay07 / 10 / 2016 07 / 12 / 20164
2016Alaska - Sagwon06 / 01 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20162
2016Alaska - Toolik05 / 04 / 2016 09 / 21 / 201614
2017Alaska - Toolik05 / 22 / 2017 08 / 31 / 201711
2018Alaska - Toolik05 / 22 / 2018 08 / 31 / 201811
 


Project Title: Human and Animal Relations in Southwest Alaska: Continuity and Change (Award# 1500492)

PI: Fienup-Riordan, Ann (riordan@alaska.net)
Phone: 0(907) 346.2952 
Institute/Department: Calista Education and Culture, Inc. (CEC), fka: Calista Elders Councel,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach | Social and Human Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://eloka-arctic.org
Project: http://eloka-arctic.org/communities/yupik/
Project: http://eloka-arctic.org/projects/yupikknowledge.ht...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
This award supports a Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) collaboration between Yup’ik communities and investigators with the goal of scientifically documenting Yup’ik knowledge and creating accessible repositories of this knowledge for future generations. The PI/collaborative team will work with elder experts from six regional groups in southwest Alaska, to understand human-animal relations generally, as well as shifting attitudes toward keystone species, including; seals, moose, salmon, and whitefish.This study is highly significant, addressing directly the research needs identified by Alaska Native, Yup’ik communities. The previous NSF funded projects led by the same core team have been very successful with more than 10 major, well reviewed and well received, volumes published, including the critically acclaimed books: "Stories for Future Generations / Qulirat Qanemcit-llu Kinguvarcimalriit;” “Yuungnaqpiallerput / The Way We Genuinely Live Masterworks of Yup’ik Science and Survival;” and “Ellavut / Our Yup’ik World and Weather: Continuity and Change on the Bering Sea Coast.” In addition, this methodology has created strong community/science collaborations and the co-production of valuable knowledge to both scientists and community member. The research teams have been very interdisciplinary, including anthropologists and Yup’ik scholars, as well as other scientists e.g., geologists, archaeologists, biologist, and physicists. The collaboration on this project builds on past partnerships between the scientific community and the Yup’ik community. The project will engage institutional partners and Yup’ik collaborators from 23 communities in southwest Alaska. The primary information-gathering tool will be a series of gatherings held both in local communities and the regional center of Bethel. The research team and CEC staff pioneered this format working with elders a decade ago and have found that meetings with small groups of elder experts, younger community members and non-Native scientists for two-three-day gatherings devoted to a specific topic is a very effective means of both documenting traditional knowledge and addressing scientific questions. Unlike interviews, during which elders answer questions posed by those who often do not hold the knowledge they seek, gatherings encourage elders to speak among their peers at the highest, most complex level. The CEC method of elder gatherings in which scientists participate has been a very successful way of supporting the co-production of knowledge important not only for deeper understanding of key social and environmental issues of great interest in the region, and also for informing the public, resource managers, policy makers, and other stakeholders of the importance of these issues the region and beyond.

Logistics Summary:
Beginning in 2016, this three year project funds an effort in indigenous observation and knowledge documentation in southwest Alaska. It will focus on the relationship between humans and animals in the context of changing geographies, climates, and social systems. It is a partnership between Alaskan Yup’ik from the Yukon River communities of St. Mary’s, Pilot Station, Marshall and Russian Mission; Calista Education and Culture, Inc. (CSES); and scientists. For the three years of this project, researchers will travel to Bethel Alaska annually for regional planning meetings. Multiple topic-specific gatherings will be held in each of these four Yukon River communities. In addition, in the summers of 2017 and 2018, two teams of 9 - 12 people will work in Alaska, each team working in a different area along the Middle Yukon River for a period of one week. One group will be participants from St. Mary’s and Pilot Station, and the other participants will be from Marshall and Russian Mission. The fieldwork will be non-invasive, and consist of a geological and archeology survey using GPS to document features, ownership jurisdiction, and other features. A biological survey will include an inventory of birds and nesting sites, small mammal surveys at overnight campsites, and sampling of fish and stream invertebrates along the middle Yukon and its tributaries.

All logistics will be organized by the researcher and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Marshall07 / 22 / 2017 07 / 26 / 201710
2017Alaska - Pilot Station07 / 19 / 2017 07 / 22 / 201711
2017Alaska - Russian Mission07 / 26 / 2017 07 / 29 / 201710
2017Alaska - Saint Marys07 / 15 / 2017 07 / 18 / 201710
2018Alaska - Marshall11 / 06 / 2018 11 / 16 / 201811
2018Alaska - Pilot Station11 / 06 / 2018 11 / 16 / 201811
2018Alaska - Russian Mission11 / 06 / 2018 11 / 16 / 201811
2018Alaska - Saint Marys11 / 06 / 2018 11 / 16 / 201811
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: The Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO)-A Change Detection Array in the Pacific Arctic Region (Award# 1204044)

PI: Frey, Karen E (kfrey@clarku.edu)
Phone: 0(508) 793.7209 
Institute/Department: Clark University, Graduate School of Geography 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Oceanography\Biological, Physical and Chemical Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://pag.arcticportal.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=12...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Several regionally critical marine sites in the Pacific Arctic sector that have very high biological biomass and are focused foraging points for apex predators, have been reoccupied during multiple international cruises. The data documenting the importance of these ecosystem "hotspots" provide a growing marine time-series from the northern Bering Sea to Barrow Canyon at the boundary of the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Results from these studies show spatial changes in carbon production and export to the sediments as indicated by infaunal community composition and biomass, shifts in sediment grain size on a S-to-N latitudinal gradient, and range extensions for lower trophic levels and further northward migration of higher trophic organisms, such as gray whales. There is also direct evidence of negative impacts on ice dependent species, such as walruses and polar bears. To more systematically track the broad biological response to sea ice retreat and associated environmental change, an international consortium of scientists are developing a coordinated Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) that includes selected biological measurements at multiple trophic levels. These measurements are being made simultaneously with hydrographic surveys and satellite observations. The DBO currently focuses on five regional biological "hotspot" locations along a latitudinal gradient and includes multiple national and international occupation of these sites over the year. The spatially explicit DBO network is organized through the Pacific Arctic Group (PAG), a consensus-driven, international collaboration sanctioned by the International Arctic Science Committee. This NSF-support project is a U.S. contribution to the DBO effort in the Pacific Sector, and the scientific needs to be met are consistent with research needs identified in the 2013 US National Ocean Policy planning effort and National Strategy for the Arctic Region, and within the 2014 US Arctic Implementation Plan. This project serves as a contribution to the US-led Arctic Observing Network and is improving international cooperative efforts for evaluating ecosystem impacts from high latitude climate change. Identifying and collecting key prey-predator biological data in the context of high priority physical and chemical measurements will allow for integration of these data into scientific community analyses and ecosystem modeling efforts. Outreach to local communities and media as well as national and international groups will ensure that both local Alaskan communities and the broader public will be made aware of changes in this sensitive part of the Arctic.

Logistics Summary:
This project is a collaborative study between 1204082 (Grebmeier, UMCES, LEAD), 1204044 (Frey, Clark University), and 1203906 (Pickart, WHOI). To more systematically track the broad biological response to sea ice retreat and associated environmental change, an international consortium of scientists are implementing a coordinated Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) that includes selected biological measurements at multiple trophic levels coincident with physical and chemical measurements. Scientists will participate in scientific cruises (and/or samples will be collected by scientists aboard ships transiting the study sites) from 2013 to 2017. Logistics details will be carried under Grebmeier, 1204082.

Support details will be carried under grant 1204082 (Grebmeier).
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2013Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2013Arctic Ocean and Seas - Arctic Ocean0
2014Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2014Arctic Ocean and Seas - Arctic Ocean0
2015Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2015Arctic Ocean and Seas - Arctic Ocean0
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2016Arctic Ocean and Seas - Arctic Ocean0
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2017Arctic Ocean and Seas - Arctic Ocean0
2017Arctic Ocean and Seas - Chukchi Sea0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: The roles of plant roots, mycorrhizal fungi and uptake of deep nitrogen in the permafrost carbon feedback to warming climate (Award# 1504091)

PI: Genet, Helene (hgenet@alaska.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 474.1851 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, Institute of Arctic Biology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Logistics: http://toolik.alaska.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Release of carbon frozen in permafrost (frozen ground) has been identified as one of the strongest and most likely positive feedbacks between the biosphere and the warming climate. Permafrost nitrogen release has the potential to stabilize the response of the carbon cycle to climate warming because it is a negative, within-system feedback. It could confer resilience to ecosystem-atmosphere interactions in a warming Arctic. The research under this award will advance understanding of the arctic system by incorporating this feedback into a terrestrial biosphere model used extensively by the community for forecasting arctic environmental change and its links to the Earth system. The collaborative nature of the project will build partnerships between ecosystem ecologists and molecular biologists, creating new knowledge about the role of plant-fungal mutualisms in Earth system feedback cycles. The project will support career development of two female arctic scientists at the postdoctoral or new faculty level. It will contribute to the training of two graduate students in biogeosciences, ecology, and molecular biology, and provide an authentic field or laboratory research experience for about twenty undergraduate students. The project will contribute to broadening participation of under-represented groups in ecological and environmental sciences. About 1,700 Pg of organic carbon (C) reside in the permafrost soils and sediments of Arctic and Boreal regions. Because this stock is more than twice the size of the atmospheric C pool, there is considerable interest in understanding how the C balance of permafrost ecosystems will respond to observed and predicted climate warming. As permafrost soils thaw, organic matter that has been cryogenically protected for hundreds to thousands of years is exposed to microbial decomposition and released to the atmosphere as greenhouse gases. One key factor that may strongly influence C balance in these ecosystems is the concurrent release of nitrogen (N), the element most likely to limit plant productivity. Release of N at or after thaw could increase plant N availability, stimulate plant C uptake and offset or balance permafrost C emissions. Although scientists acknowledge the key role N is likely to play in the permafrost C feedback to climate, there have been few empirical studies of the factors that control its fate in warming permafrost ecosystems. The objective of this project is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the role of permafrost N in the C balance of Alaskan tundra landscapes underlain by permafrost soils. The project will focus on plant acquisition of permafrost N because in most N-limited terrestrial ecosystems, plant uptake is the dominant fate of N released by microbial processes. Plants depend on fungal partners to access N beyond the reach of roots, so this research will also focus on plant mycorrhizal status and fungal community composition to elucidate the role fungal symbionts play in plant N acquisition. Finally, other fates of permafrost N will be explored, including stasis and loss. Proposed research will explore three general questions: What is the potential for release of plant-available nitrogen from thawing permafrost soil organic matter; what proportion of N released deep in the soil profile, at the base of the active layer, is acquired by mycorrhizae and plants and what are the key biotic and abiotic factors that control acquisition; and how will permafrost thaw and N release affect net ecosystem carbon balance and net biogeochemical radiative forcing from permafrost thaw at local and regional scales? The research approach includes three elements: observations of plants, fungi and soils across a regional survey of upland tundra ecological landscape units on the North Slope of the Brooks Range, Alaska; occupying intensive research sites in cold and warm moist acidic tundra, where measurements of mycorrhizal fungi and plant N acquisition and N loss will be made within long-term warming experiments and well-characterized natural thaw gradients; and modeling and regional integration with a terrestrial biosphere model specifically developed to simulate C and N dynamics in high latitude systems.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Mack (1504312, NAU), Taylor (1504496, UNM) and Genet (1504091, UAF) will focus on plant acquisition of permafrost nitrogen and will explore the potential and proportion of release of plant-available nitrogen from thawing permafrost soil organic matter. Logistic details under 1504312.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Alaska - Eightmile Lake0
2016Alaska - Eightmile Lake0
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Influence of natural ice microstructure on rheology in general shear: in-situ studies in the Alaska Range (Award# 1503924)

PI: Gerbi, Christopher C (christopher.gerbi@maine.edu)
Phone: 0(207) 581.2153 
Institute/Department: U of Maine, School of Earth and Climate Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Rheology |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
Understanding the loss of ice from glaciers and ice sheets, and the resulting sea-level rise, is of critical importance. Both the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets, as well as mountain glaciers, discharge primarily though rivers of ice; understanding what controls the type of flow that occurs in these rivers of ice is therefore central to understanding and predicting sea-level rise. Among the least-understood factors that are thought to be important in affecting ice flow is internal strength of the ice near the sides of a flowing glacier. This viscous strength, in turn, may be affected by the micro-scale structure of the ice crystals in the glacier. This project will examine these relationships in detail on Jarvis Glacier, in the eastern Alaska Range, with the ultimate goal of being able to represent the effects of microstructure in numerical models of glacial flow. To do this, the investigators will first use surface velocity measurements, knowledge of the glacier geometry derived from ground penetrating radar, and numerical modeling to identify a site for drilling. They will then collect surface-to-bed cores across lateral and vertical flow gradients. Velocity and temperature measurements derived from the boreholes will complement the surface measurements and allow the investigators to produce a more sophisticated three-dimensional numerical model to test the sensitivity of flow patterns to the mechanical structure within the study area. They will compare the microstructure (e.g., grain size distribution, crystallographic fabric) in the ice cores to the in-situ and modeled velocities and temperatures. Although experiments suggest that variations in the intensity and orientation of the crystallographic fabric can result in up to a ten-fold difference in flow strength, there are very few in-situ observational studies of the microstructural architecture of streaming ice; most studies of ice microstructure come from ice divides, where flow rates are slowest. At the end of this project, the investigators aim to have determined (1) the degree to which fabrics formed in the study area are predictable based on ice kinematics, and (2) the relationship among measured crystallographic orientation fabric intensity, grain size, temperature, and ice viscosity as calculated through numerical models. A correlation between fabric and viscous strength may suggest that remote sensing techniques such as radar and seismic anisotropy could become an even more powerful method for identifying the rheological structure of ice. Alternatively, the lack of a strong link between viscous strength and fabric indicates that other factors exert significant control on the rheological properties. Therefore, the results of the project, whatever the correlation between microstructure and viscous strength, should improve quantitative understanding of the physical laws governing streaming ice and improve future predictions of ice mass balance. The project supports and involves both graduate and undergraduate students. The project's numerical models will be developed into a publicly available web-based graphical user interface for use by other researchers and in the classroom.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers working on this collaboration between Gerbi (1503924, U of Maine) and Hawley (1503653, Dartmouth) will measure three-dimensional velocity, temperature, and microstructural parameters on Jarvis Glacier, in the eastern Alaska Range, in order to determine the relationship among microstructure, strain rate, and the constitutive laws necessary to numerically reproduce the observed kinematics. During each year of field work (2016 – 2018), a research team of 3 to 5 will work on Jarvis Glacier up to two times per year. They will base out of Delta Junction, Alaska and fly to the field site to work in a limited area on the glacier itself. In 2016, a team of four will conduct field work on Jarvis Glacier in late March/early April and then again in September. In 2017, a team of five will conduct drilling operations with IDDO assistance on Jarvis Glacier for several weeks in late March through early May. A smaller team of 2-3 will return for additional measurements in September. Via a sub-award, co-PI Seth Campbell (U of Maine) will provide scientific expertise in the targeted field area, where he also has ongoing projects. Campbell will oversee collection and processing of data and lead logistics planning for the field seasons.

CPS will provide fixed-wing support, helicopter support, a snowmachine, camping supplies, truck rental, medical kits and communications equipment. UNAVCO will provide GPS systems. For the 2017 field work, in addition to the above, CPS will also provide freight for ice cores between Fairbanks and Maine, and IDDO will provide a drill and driller for the project. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Jarvis Glacier03 / 25 / 2016 09 / 26 / 20164
2017Alaska - Jarvis Glacier03 / 24 / 2017 05 / 05 / 20177
2018Alaska - Jarvis Glacier5
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: An exploration of the direct and indirect effects of climatic warming on arctic lake ecosystems (Award# 1603214)

PI: Giblin, Anne E (agiblin@mbl.edu)
Phone: 0(508) 289.7488 
Institute/Department: Marine Biological Laboratory, The Ecosystems Center 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Limnology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://arc-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...

Science Summary:
Arctic ecosystems are warming at some of the fastest rates observed on earth. In particular, Arctic lakes are experiencing more frequent years of warmer and deeper surface water. However, the ability to detect and quantify ecosystem effects and specific biological responses to these climatic changes has been primarily limited to non-mechanistic modeled scenarios and observational studies in uncontrolled environments. These lakes provide subsistence harvest for native communities in the Arctic and it is important to understand how the level of sustainable harvests might change under scenarios of continued warming. This project will manipulate the temperature regime of selected Arctic lakes, observe the consequent changes of the lake ecosystem, and model these. Research will contribute to STEM workforce development through provision of support for the training of graduate students at two institutions. It will also entrain undergraduate students into the research. Through a collaboration with the US Fish and Wildlife Service, the principal investigators will provide outreach to Iñupiat high school students via the Kaktovik Science Camp and to Iñupiat K-12 students via the Arctic Village Science Camp Goonzhii. They will contribute to the management of natural resources by presentations through established collaborations with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, as well as through an interactive seminar series with local communities, e.g. the North Slope Borough of Alaska. This project will complete a multi-year, whole-lake warming manipulation, to quantify the effects of future climate change on lake ecosystems in the Arctic. In addition, regional climate and lake models will be coupled with biotic responses to better understand the sensitivity of lakes to changing atmospheric conditions. The project is designed to answer: How will warmer lake temperatures and extended growing season alter (1) lake ice coverage and annual thermal regime; (2) abundance, activity, and diversity of primary and secondary producers; (3) fish vital rates, production, and dynamics; and (4) degree of carry-over across growing seasons and cumulative effects. Experimental results will be combined with long-term, archived data to inform a linked modeling system (coupled lake-climate model and integrated physical, climate, biological, and bioenergetic modeling) to answer: How will warmer lake temperatures and an extended growing season alter: (1) lake thermal regimes at regional scales, and (2) fish populations across lake types of the Arctic. This research will quantify lake thermal processes and lake-atmosphere feedbacks, provide more precise projections of lake horizontal and vertical temperature structures, and document and project lake biota and ecosystem responses to changes in lake thermal condition over large spatial scales and under different climate scenarios.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Budy (1603088, LEAD, Utah State), Crump (1603302, OSU), and Giblin (1603214, MBL) will complete a multi-year, whole-lake warming manipulation, to quantify the effect of future climate change on lake ecosystems in the Arctic. Regional climate and lake models will be coupled with biotic responses to better understand the sensitivity of lakes to changing atmospheric conditions. Logistic details under 1603088.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2019Alaska - Toolik0
2020Alaska - Toolik0
2021Alaska - Toolik0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Determining the Vulnerability and Resilience of Boreal Forests and Shrubs across Northwestern North America (Award# 1661723)

PI: Goetz, Scott J (Scott.Goetz@nau.edu)
Phone: 0(928) 523.8903 
Institute/Department: Northern Arizona University, School of Informatics, Computing, and Cyber Systems 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/arcss/
Data: https://arcticdata.io/catalog/
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
The importance of Boreal and Arctic landscapes is recognized by the scientific community as an important area of research. The overarching theory to be tested in this grant is that the current controls over vegetation growth are not operating as they have been in the past. The investigators have at hand a detailed network of ground measurements of tree-ring data collected across a range of Boreal and Arctic forests and shrublands sites in Alaska and adjacent Canada. This data will be compared with satellite based remote sensing proxies of vegetation productivity. The work is by and large an analysis and comparison of two independent methods for assessing vegetation growth variability in Arctic ecosystems. This project will contribute to the education of the general public (e.g. annual open house exhibits, websites, blogs from the field), and will partially fund a post-doctoral researcher who will have the opportunity to expand their scientific experience and knowledge of this topic. This work will focus on Boreal and Arctic forests and shrublands across Alaska and adjacent Canada, regions that are experiencing some of the most rapid warming on the globe today. Satellite observations have revealed significant vegetation productivity trends (both greening and browning) of vegetation at high northern latitudes, with distinct differences between North America and northern Eurasia biomes and between tundra and boreal regions. At the same time, some observations show that the strong correlation between northern tree growth and temperature appears to be weakening in recent decades. The overarching theory to be tested in this project is that the current controls over vegetation growth are not operating as they have been in the past. The investigators have at hand a detailed network of in situ ground measurements of tree-ring data collected from across this region. This data will be compared with remote sensing proxies of vegetation productivity (from satellite NDVI), across a range of Boreal and Arctic forests and shrublands sites in Alaska and adjacent Canada. The work will include one year of field data in regions of high priority where the investigators will extract up to date tree ring cores for comparison with recent air temperature and remote sensing records.

Logistics Summary:
This three year collaboration between D’Arrigo (1603473, LEAD, Columbia University) and Goetz (1661723, NAU) aims to understand the complex link between climate and plant productivity, particularly in light of amplified warming in northern latitudes. Researchers will compile several existing tree-ring datasets which will be complemented by a collection of new data, collected at sites for which remote sensing data show large vegetation changes. The tree growth trends will then be compared with remote-sensing vegetation growth indices and climate data over Alaska and adjacent Canada. This will allow researchers to assess forest growth changes of recent decades to determine if changes in primary productivity are occurring as the climate changes. See 1603473 for logistics details NOTE* In 2016 Goetz changed institutions from Woods Hole Research Center to Northern Arizona University at which time the original grant 1603253 was transferred to1661723. The lead on the collaboration is still D’Arrigo,1603473 for this collaboration.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Arrigetch Peaks0
2017Alaska - Noatak River0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Arctic Oases - How does the delayed release of winter discharge from aufeis affect the ecosystem structure and function of rivers (Award# 1504453)

PI: Gooseff, Michael (michael.gooseff@colorado.edu)
Phone: 0(970) 491.6057 
Institute/Department: Colorado State University, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Ecology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://arc-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
This is a preliminary study to assess the potential effects of aufeis on the structure and function of arctic river-floodplain ecosystems. Aufeis are massive accumulations of ice common to many arctic rivers, particularly in northeastern Siberia and the North Slope of Alaska. River aufeis form during freeze-up when thickening surface ice and permafrost restrict river discharge, causing water to overflow existing ice. Successive cycles of overflowing and freezing of water from upstream groundwater sources accumulate enormous quantities of ice, with late-winter aufeis on some rivers attaining thicknesses of 3 to 5 meters, covering up to 20 square kilometers in some Alaskan fields (even larger in Siberia), and storing as much as a third of the annual discharge of the river in the form of ice. In addition, aufeis maintain an unfrozen base throughout winter due to the release of latent heat as water is converted to ice, which warms the underlying sediments, and a thick insulating layer of ice above. Although aufeis have been studied by hydrologists and are known to be required for winter and spawning habitat for important local fish species, understanding of their ecology is poor. In recognition of this, these investigators will conduct a targeted assessment of the ecological importance of a single aufeis field on the Kuparuk River, Alaska as a first step toward developing a hypothesis-driven research program. The investigators propose that aufeis be viewed as winter oases due to their wet bases that supply water and heat to otherwise frozen habitats. Aufeis also function as summer oases by providing a stable supply of water to riverbed and downstream habitats. This preliminary study will focus on assessing 1) river flow and nutrient chemistry above, within, and below the aufeis field, and 2) the potential for year-round, unfrozen habitat beneath the aufeis field. The investigators will collect water samples for nutrient analysis in transects extending 2.5 km upstream and downstream from the aufeis field. They will collect hourly data on river stage, temperature, and electrical conductivity along each transect. They will also install pairs of piezometers to depths of 1 meter and 2 meters to measure the vertical hydraulic gradient between the underlying aquifer and the surface channel, and dissolved oxygen, temperature, and electrical conductivity of hyporheic waters at these points. Measurements of vertical hydraulic gradient will determine whether river reaches are generally upwelling or downwelling. To estimate volume and the potential seasonal contributions of the aufeis to river discharge they will use precise digital elevation models created from low-altitude vertical photogrammetry. Year-round temperature and electrical conductivity records will provide data for simple end-member mixing analyses to determine the proportion of aufeis meltwater to the river during the thaw season. During freeze-up and into the winter, these records will provide estimates of potential downstream influences of the spring-water downstream of the aufeis if subsurface flow is maintained. In order to assess the vertical influence of aufeis, the investigators will instrument nine transects with digital temperature loggers. They anticipate that loggers directly under the aufeis will never record temperatures below freezing but that those outside the aufeis footprint will. The investigators also propose August and April ground-penetrating radar surveys to determine thaw depths. Finally, PVC wells penetrating about one meter below the surface will be used to sample small invertebrate animals living in river sediments and below aufeis. The project will support two masters-level graduate students and will involve two undergraduate field assistants in the summer fieldwork.

Logistics Summary:
The goal of this collaborative study between Huryn (1503868, U of AL) and Gooseff (1504453, CU) is to asses the potential effects of aufeis on the structure and function of arctic river-floodplain ecosystems in a warming climate. Aufeis are massive accumulations of ice that are features of many arctic rivers. . Logistics details under 1503868.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Adding animals to the equation: assessing herbivore impacts on carbon cycling in northern Alaska (Award# 1603760)

PI: Gough, Laura (lgough@towson.edu)
Phone: 0(410) 704.5033 
Institute/Department: Towson University, Biological Sciences  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://arc-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/
Data: http://arctos.database.museum/
Data: http://herbivory.biology.ualberta.ca/
Logistics: http://toolik.alaska.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Small mammals graze on the vegetation of the Arctic tundra. Although this grazing may influence many aspects of tundra ecosystems, current models do not include grazing by small mammals. In this project, the abundance of voles and lemmings will be varied experimentally using fenced plots. The investigators will observe the responses in the plots, especially focusing on changes in the cycling of carbon and nitrogen. To understand how the current climate controls the importance of grazing by small mammals, the investigators will conduct their studies at three sites in Alaska located in the Seward Peninsula, the foothills of the Brooks Range, and on the Arctic coastal plain. The natural abundance of voles and lemmings will be studied at these sites to provide background for applying the experimental results throughout the Arctic. The results will be used to expand a mathematical model of tundra ecosystems to include grazing by small mammals, which will improve the predictions that can be made about how the Arctic may change in the future. The research will involve a number of undergraduate students and investigators will integrate their research into classes and other educational programs. In addition, they will present a radio program in Barrow, AK. The investigators will investigate the importance of herbivory by small mammals in controlling the cycling of carbon and nutrients in the rapidly changing Arctic tundra. Through studies at three sites along a latitudinal gradient, the investigators will employ both observations and experiments to quantify the role of grazing by rodents (voles and lemmings) in the functioning of tundra ecosystems. The observations of rodent population dynamics along with ecosystem function will provide key new information relevant to understanding the feedbacks of the Arctic tundra to the global climate. The manipulation of rodent density through exclosures and enclosures will show how potential changes in rodent populations may influence the tundra ecosystem response. In corporation of the observational and experimental results into a quantitative ecosystem model will enhance predictions of future changes and feedbacks with climate.

Logistics Summary:
The goal of this collaborative project between Boelman (1603777, Lead, LDEO), Gough (1603760, Towson), Rastetter (1603560, MBL), McLaren (1603677, U of Texas), and Rowe (1603654, UNH) is to quantify and gain mechanistic understanding of the impact of small mammal herbivores on carbon and nutrient dynamics in the rapidly changing Alaskan arctic tundra and incorporate these impacts into a biogeochemical model to make future predictions of how the animals mediate tundra-atmosphere carbon exchange. Logistic details under 1603777.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Seward Peninsula0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2018Alaska - Seward Peninsula0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2019Alaska - Seward Peninsula0
2019Alaska - Toolik0
2019Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2020Alaska - Seward Peninsula0
2020Alaska - Toolik0
2020Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2021Alaska - Seward Peninsula0
2021Alaska - Toolik0
2021Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
 


Project Title: Arctic-alpine vegetation succession following very rapid glacial retreat in the Central Brooks Range, Alaska (Award# GowanUAF)

PI: Gowan, Shawnee (sagowan@alaska.edu)
Phone:  
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, Department of Biology and Wildlife 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Research/Higher Ed\UAF
Program Manager: Dr. Frank Rack (frack@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):

Science Summary:
The majority of Alaska’s glaciers have been retreating since 1600-1700 A.D., but many major changes in climate have only began or accelerated since the 1970s. Numerous studies have examined plant community succession on glacial forelands. However, there is little information on how pioneer stages of succession involving mainly cryptogamic species (bryophytes and lichens) set the stage for colonization by higher plants, especially at high elevations and latitudes. Additionally, little is known about recent responses to accelerating climate change. The PI will examine primary succession following recent rapid retreat of small cirque glaciers of the central Brooks Range, where detailed lichenometric dating studies were conducted in the 1970s by answering two questions: (1) is there a strong patterned relationship between Pioneer communities and later stages of succession on varying substrates? (2) Can we detect a change in lichen growth and glacial retreat over a short-term of climate variation?

Logistics Summary:
The PI will establish relevés primarily on rocky moraines formed following the Little Ice Age glacial advance. They will measure maximum lichen thallus diameters of six species, on different aged surfaces, and update the lichenometric curve to determine if recent localized climate change has affected lichen growth and glacial retreat. The PI will also conduct the first detailed community analysis for the area of vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens. The research will focus on Grizzly Glacier, a well-studied, relatively accessible glacier near Atigun Pass. These data will be assessed using numerical classification approaches and ordination methods to examine trends in community composition with respect to environmental variables. During August of 2017 a field team of two will make three daily trips to the Grizzly Glacier via helicopter from Toolik Field Station

CPS will provide Toolik helicopter support and a satellite phone for use on flight days. All other logistics will be arranged/paid by the researchers from the grant, including acquiring all permits necessary to conduct research
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Toolik08 / 01 / 2017 08 / 03 / 20172
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: The Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO)-A Change Detection Array in the Pacific Arctic Region (Award# 1204082)

PI: Grebmeier, Jacqueline M (jgrebmei@cbl.umces.edu)
Phone: 0(410) 326.7334 
Institute/Department: U of Maryland, Center for Environmental Science  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Oceanography\Biological, Physical and Chemical Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/dbo/
Project: http://pag.arcticportal.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=12...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Several regionally critical marine sites in the Pacific Arctic sector that have very high biological biomass and are focused foraging points for apex predators, have been reoccupied during multiple international cruises. The data documenting the importance of these ecosystem "hotspots" provide a growing marine time-series from the northern Bering Sea to Barrow Canyon at the boundary of the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Results from these studies show spatial changes in carbon production and export to the sediments as indicated by infaunal community composition and biomass, shifts in sediment grain size on a S-to-N latitudinal gradient, and range extensions for lower trophic levels and further northward migration of higher trophic organisms, such as gray whales. There is also direct evidence of negative impacts on ice dependent species, such as walruses and polar bears. To more systematically track the broad biological response to sea ice retreat and associated environmental change, an international consortium of scientists are developing a coordinated Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) that includes selected biological measurements at multiple trophic levels. These measurements are being made simultaneously with hydrographic surveys and satellite observations. The DBO currently focuses on five regional biological "hotspot" locations along a latitudinal gradient and includes multiple national and international occupation of these sites over the year. The spatially explicit DBO network is organized through the Pacific Arctic Group (PAG), a consensus-driven, international collaboration sanctioned by the International Arctic Science Committee. This NSF-support project is a U.S. contribution to the DBO effort in the Pacific Sector, and the scientific needs to be met are consistent with research needs identified in the 2013 US National Ocean Policy planning effort and National Strategy for the Arctic Region, and within the 2014 US Arctic Implementation Plan. This project serves as a contribution to the US-led Arctic Observing Network and is improving international cooperative efforts for evaluating ecosystem impacts from high latitude climate change. Identifying and collecting key prey-predator biological data in the context of high priority physical and chemical measurements will allow for integration of these data into scientific community analyses and ecosystem modeling efforts. Outreach to local communities and media as well as national and international groups will ensure that both local Alaskan communities and the broader public will be made aware of changes in this sensitive part of the Arctic.

Logistics Summary:
This project is a collaborative study between 1204082 (Grebmeier, UMCES, LEAD), 1204044 (Frey, Clark University), and 1203906 (Pickart, WHOI). To more systematically track the broad biological response to sea ice retreat and associated environmental change, an international consortium of scientists are implementing a coordinated Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) that includes selected biological measurements at multiple trophic levels coincident with physical and chemical measurements. Scientists will participate in scientific cruises (and/or samples will be collected by scientists aboard ships transiting the study sites) from 2013 to 2017. The team is collaborating on the annual July cruise of the CCG (CCG) ship Sir Wilfred Laurier, which facilitates occupying the 5 DBO lines at the same time each year for the full suite of DBO standard measurements. The DBO includes additional cross-platform and EOL DBO data archives through the DBO network, and results from those studies will also be included in the ACADIS AON data archive as well as a collaborative workspace DBO site sponsored by the Alaska Ocean Observing System (AOOS) as a contribution to the IARPC (Interagency Arctic Research and Policy Committee) Collaborative Team efforts. For the annual cruise aboard the CCG Laurier, the Canadian Coast Guard will facilitate science on-load in Dutch Harbor, Alaska in early July of each year. Both the CCG and CPS will assist with the offload of US team members in Barrow, Alaska. In 2015, offload is scheduled for July 23. Then, a party of 15 will be transported via helicopter to Utqiagvik (Barrow), where they will be housed overnight before they travel homeward. In 2016, Utqiagvik offload is scheduled for July 21-22. Then, an international party of 16 (some of whom are funded via agencies other than NSF) will be transported off the ship via boat to the shore. CPS staff will pick up the passengers and cargo, and transport them to housing, freezer, and cargo storage spaces. After securing samples and cargo, and overnighting in Utqiagvik, the researchers will travel onward the following day. For 2017, offload in Utqiagvik (Barrow) is scheduled for 15 people on July 24 In 2017, PI Grebmeier was awarded supplement NSF #1723374 that provides direct-to-grant funds to support 15 ship days during August 2017 aboard the Norseman II as part of the 4-week Arctic Marine Biodiversity Observing Network (AMBON) research cruise. The AMBON cruise is a multi-agency supported project receiving funds from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), and with this supplement the NSF.

In 2015 and 2016, CPS will provide freezer and refrigerator storage, vehicle rental, and staffing for on the ground coordination during the CCG port call in Barrow, for 15-16 people. In 2016 and 2017, CPS will also provide lodging in NSF huts for cruise participants. All other logistics will be paid by researchers from their grant funds.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2013Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)07 / 24 / 2013 07 / 25 / 201310
2013Arctic Ocean and Seas - Arctic Ocean07 / 01 / 2013 08 / 01 / 20137
2014Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)07 / 23 / 2014 09 / 09 / 201416
2014Arctic Ocean and Seas - Arctic Ocean07 / 11 / 2014 07 / 23 / 201410
2015Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)07 / 23 / 2015 07 / 24 / 201511
2015Arctic Ocean and Seas - Arctic Ocean07 / 04 / 2015 07 / 22 / 201511
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)07 / 21 / 2016 07 / 22 / 201616
2016Arctic Ocean and Seas - Arctic Ocean07 / 01 / 2016 07 / 21 / 201616
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)07 / 24 / 2017 07 / 25 / 201715
2017Arctic Ocean and Seas - Arctic Ocean07 / 03 / 2017 07 / 24 / 201715
 


Project Title: PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (Award# 1630463RH)

PI: Harris, Rebecca (Rebecca.Harris@garfk12.org)
Phone: 0(435) 826.4205 
Institute/Department: Escalante High School,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARE\TREC
Program Manager: Ms. Elizabeth Rom (elrom@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach\Formal Science Education: K-12 |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.polartrec.com/

Science Summary:
The Artic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) will administer and implement, "Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (PolarTREC)", an international program that brings together U.S. teachers to participate in cutting-edge field research with polar scientists in various, and often remote, locations in the Arctic and Antarctica. Through hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctica, participating teachers (pre-service and in-service) will improve teaching strategies, develop resources for their careers, and change how they teach STEM in the classroom. The program goal is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing educators and polar researchers together in professional collaboration. By integrating research and education, PolarTREC will help sustain and grow the considerable scientific and public enthusiasm for polar research and education. ARCUS will support a total of twelve teachers for Arctic field seasons in 2017 and Antarctic field seasons in 2017/2018. ARCUS will recruit, select, and match teachers and researchers, maintain a website for dissemination of information about the expeditions, provide orientation training for the teachers that includes field safety and communication training, provide travel support for the teachers to meet with scientists prior to deployments and for them to join the scientific expeditions in the field, and evaluate results of the program. Dissemination efforts via the website and public presentations are expected to reach many additional teachers, students, scientists and the public.

Logistics Summary:
PolarTREC teacher, Rebecca Harris, will join Ellie Broadman's project (Lead PI is McKay, NSF grant 1418000) in Lake Peters, Alaska to increase our understanding of the natural variability of hydrology and sediment transport in Arctic glacial lake systems, and to investigate how this variability might be impacted by climate change in the future. In order to improve our paleoclimate reconstructions of these processes, a crucial step is the development of a system model that describes the hydrology, sediment-flux, and sedimentation in glacial lake systems. A main goal of this project is to establish such a model, and to apply it to three glaciated watersheds that span a gradient from the sub-Arctic to high Arctic. For more information refer to grant 1418000 in this database.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Lake Peters0
 


Project Title: Unraveling the controls of inorganic carbon dynamics in the Gulf of Alaska with a regional three-dimensional biogeochemical model (Award# 1459834)

PI: Hauri, Claudine (chauri@alaska.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 474.7059 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, International Arctic Research Center 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OCE
Program Manager: Dr. Henrietta Edmonds (hedmonds@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.aoos.org/
Project: http://www.explore-ice.gi.alaska.edu/girls-on-icy-...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
The Gulf of Alaska ecosystem provides significant socio-economic benefits through tourism and through subsistence and commercial fisheries. However, the combined effects of climate change and ocean acidification, which is caused by the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide, are altering the habitat of commercially important species. Climate induced enhancement of glacial melting may accelerate the progression of ocean acidification in the Gulf of Alaska even further. Due to a limited number of measurements in the Gulf of Alaska, little is known about the current state and rate of change of the chemical habitat of key species. Researchers from the University of Alaska Fairbanks will develop a model of the ocean circulation, chemistry and biology for this region that will enable better understanding of environmental controls on ocean acidification in the Gulf of Alaska. This model will be tailored to the Gulf of Alaska with a high (1.5 km) horizontal resolution, explicit forcing of coastal freshwater discharges, and modeled iron limitation. Such improvements will make this setup an attractive choice as a foundation for many other high-latitude biogeochemical modeling applications. The experiments and analytical methods will take advantage of the three-dimensional model output and will provide insights into seasonal and inter-annual variability of enhancing and inhibiting controls of ocean acidification. In addition to communicating the science through a collaboration with the Alaska Ocean Observing System, the project will support a field course called "Girls in Icy Fjords", which is designed to inspire young women who have had limited opportunities due to life circumstances to pursue college educations and, possibly, careers in science.

Logistics Summary:
As part of this project’s Broader Impacts, the PI and collaborators will develop a new curriculum for a sister program of the long-running Girls on Ice Program, called Girls in Icy Fjords. The Girls in Icy Fjords field course will focus on ice-ocean interactions, with activities taking place in Tiger Fjord (or a location TBD), Prince William Sound. During the summer of 2017, eight students and up to four instructors will conduct a 12-day Girls in Icy Fjords field course in Tiger Fjord, Prince William Sound.

CPS will provide a boat charter, kayak rentals, and general camping gear. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Prince William Sound05 / 01 / 2017 05 / 15 / 201711
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Influence of natural ice microstructure on rheology in general shear: in-situ studies in the Alaska Range (Award# 1503653)

PI: Hawley, Robert Lyman (robert.l.hawley@dartmouth.edu)
Phone: 0(603) 646.1425  
Institute/Department: Dartmouth College, Department of Earth Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Rheology |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
Understanding the loss of ice from glaciers and ice sheets, and the resulting sea-level rise, is of critical importance. Both the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets, as well as mountain glaciers, discharge primarily though rivers of ice; understanding what controls the type of flow that occurs in these rivers of ice is therefore central to understanding and predicting sea-level rise. Among the least-understood factors that are thought to be important in affecting ice flow is internal strength of the ice near the sides of a flowing glacier. This viscous strength, in turn, may be affected by the micro-scale structure of the ice crystals in the glacier. This project will examine these relationships in detail on Jarvis Glacier, in the eastern Alaska Range, with the ultimate goal of being able to represent the effects of microstructure in numerical models of glacial flow. To do this, the investigators will first use surface velocity measurements, knowledge of the glacier geometry derived from ground penetrating radar, and numerical modeling to identify a site for drilling. They will then collect surface-to-bed cores across lateral and vertical flow gradients. Velocity and temperature measurements derived from the boreholes will complement the surface measurements and allow the investigators to produce a more sophisticated three-dimensional numerical model to test the sensitivity of flow patterns to the mechanical structure within the study area. They will compare the microstructure (e.g., grain size distribution, crystallographic fabric) in the ice cores to the in-situ and modeled velocities and temperatures. Although experiments suggest that variations in the intensity and orientation of the crystallographic fabric can result in up to a ten-fold difference in flow strength, there are very few in-situ observational studies of the microstructural architecture of streaming ice; most studies of ice microstructure come from ice divides, where flow rates are slowest. At the end of this project, the investigators aim to have determined (1) the degree to which fabrics formed in the study area are predictable based on ice kinematics, and (2) the relationship among measured crystallographic orientation fabric intensity, grain size, temperature, and ice viscosity as calculated through numerical models. A correlation between fabric and viscous strength may suggest that remote sensing techniques such as radar and seismic anisotropy could become an even more powerful method for identifying the rheological structure of ice. Alternatively, the lack of a strong link between viscous strength and fabric indicates that other factors exert significant control on the rheological properties. Therefore, the results of the project, whatever the correlation between microstructure and viscous strength, should improve quantitative understanding of the physical laws governing streaming ice and improve future predictions of ice mass balance. The project supports and involves both graduate and undergraduate students. The project's numerical models will be developed into a publicly available web-based graphical user interface for use by other researchers and in the classroom.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Gerbi (1503924, U of Maine) and Hawley (1503653, Dartmouth) will measure three-dimensional velocity, temperature, and microstructural parameters on the Jarvis Glacier, in the eastern Alaska Range, in order to determine the relationship among microstructure, strain rate, and the constitutive laws necessary to numerically reproduce the observed kinematics. Logistic details under 1503924.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Jarvis Glacier0
2017Alaska - Jarvis Glacier0
2018Alaska - Jarvis Glacier0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: A Bering Strait Ocean Observing System for the Pacific Inflow to the Arctic- a fundamental part of the Arctic (Award# 1640357)

PI: Heimbach, Patrick (heimbach@ices.utexas.edu)
Phone: 0(512) 232.7694 
Institute/Department: U of Texas, Austin, Institute for Computational Engineering and Science (ICES) 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. William Ambrose (wambrose@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://psc.apl.washington.edu/HLD/Bstrait/bstrait....
Data: http://www.aoos.org/aoos-data-resources/
Data: http://www.nodc.noaa.gov
Logistics: http://www.norsemanmaritime.com
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
This AON project will support a comprehensive observationally-based measurement scheme for the Bering Strait, which will combine in situ observations with traditional knowledge from the Bering Strait communities and results from a 4km resolution ice-ocean model, ECCO2 (Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean phase II). Temperature, salinity and velocity data from the Bering Strait and data products of oceanic fluxes will be measured to meet the needs of numerous scientific, climate and industrial (e.g., oil/gas exploration, shipping) studies in the region. Via a "one-stop" website (with permanent archiving at national archives), the project will provide these data and data products to all interested parties. It will develop a two-way exchange of information with native communities, drawing on results from a separately funded project (led by the native corporation Kawerak, Inc) documenting traditional knowledge of ocean currents and change in the Bering Strait region. Furthermore, bridging the traditional gap between observationalists and modelers, it will undertake a pilot study for future AON observational strategies which must surely combine observations and high quality modeling. The effort continues and expands upon decades of measurements in the Bering Strait region and constitutes an NSF contribution to the interagency Russian-American Long-term Census of the Arctic (RUSALCA) partnership.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Woodgate (1304052, UW) and Heimbach (1640357, U of TX Austin) is funded by the NSF; it contributes to the various partnerships, including ONR partnerships and the U.S. – Russia Long-term Census of the Arctic (RUSALCA) NOAA partnership. Researchers will continue studying to improve quantification of ocean fluxes in the Bering Strait, the gateway between the Pacific and the Arctic oceans. They will use a combination of approaches, including in-situ and remote observations (with new observations and existing data reaching back to 1990), modeling results and indigenous knowledge. Logistic details under 1304052. In 2016 the PI transferred from Massachusetts Institute of Technology to University of Texas at Austin, previous funding was under 1304050.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Nome0
2016Arctic Ocean and Seas - Bering Strait0
2017Alaska - Nome0
2017Arctic Ocean and Seas - Bering Strait0
2018Alaska - Nome0
2018Arctic Ocean and Seas - Bering Strait0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Soil-Snow-Atmosphere Exchange of Mercury in the Interior Arctic Tundra (Award# 1304202)

PI: Helmig, Detlev (detlev.helmig@colorado.edu)
Phone: 0(303) 492.2509 
Institute/Department: U of Colorado, Boulder, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Geological Sciences | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=13...

Science Summary:
The goal of this project is to characterize soil-snow-atmosphere dynamics of mercury (Hg) in the snow-dominated Arctic tundra. Chemical conversion of Hg in snowpack from non-volatile forms to gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) can lead to substantial degassing of Hg from snow, thereby reducing the impact of atmospheric deposition. Contrary to the GEM chemistry seen in the midlatitude snowpack, preliminary observations from Toolik Lake, on the north slope of the Brooks Range, Alaska, provide evidence that photochemical GEM formation and degassing are suppressed in tundra snow and that for much of the winter, interstitial GEM is actually converted into non-volatile Hg. These patterns result in extended periods when interstitial snowpack air is depleted in GEM. If confirmed, this chemistry would likely signify a net transfer of atmospheric GEM to snow or underlying soils, thereby increasing Hg deposition to tundra ecosystems. Project objectives are to investigate (1) the frequency and underlying processes that determine GEM depletion and formation in arctic snowpack and tundra soils; (2) the degree to which GEM dynamics cause vertical Hg exchange between soils, snow, and the atmosphere; and (3) how these processes provide additional sources - or sinks - of Hg via atmosphere-surface transfer and snowmelt input. GEM concentrations in soils, snow, and air, as well as vertical exchanges, will be characterized at Toolik Field Station. Measurements will be made by means of a snow-sampling manifold system allowing for fully automated and continuous all-winter measurements of trace gases at multiple depths in the undisturbed snowpack and the atmosphere. These experiments will be supplemented by flux chamber measurements to assess the contribution of the underlying tundra soils. Other trace gas observations, and chemical characterization of soil, snow, melt water, and soil water will be incorporated to assess the environmental and biogeochemical controls on GEM dynamics and the Hg budget. This research will leverage ongoing LTER and NEON projects at the Toolik Field station, providing linkages between in-snow processes, tundra soil and freshwater biogeochemical cycling, pollution import into the Arctic, and ecosystem processes. The project will directly involve high school, undergraduate, graduate students, and a postdoctoral scientist. It will expand an existing partnership with local high school chemistry classes through research presentations in classrooms, laboratory tours, and data analyses using study results. Dissemination to the scientific community will be accomplished through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations, and by communication with U.S. and international regulatory agencies. The general public will be reached through news releases, institutional publications, open house events, and a web site. Data will be archived at the National Snow and Ice Data Center at the University of Colorado for distribution to the national and international polar research community.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this collaborative project between Obrist (1739567, U Mass) and Helmig (1304202, CU) will conduct measurements of soils-snow-atmosphere dynamics of mercury and other trace gases at Toolik Field Station in Alaska. The goal of this project is to quantify atmospheric deposition, re-emission, and mobilization of mercury in snowpack and soils of this Arctic tundra for the duration of one full year. Logistic details under 1304305 and 1739567.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Alaska - Toolik0
2015Alaska - Toolik0
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: The WArming and irRadiance Measurement (WARM) buoy: Assessing the role of solar energy in heating, photosynthesis, and photo-oxidation in the upper Arctic (Award# 1603548)

PI: Hill, Victoria J (vhill@odu.edu)
Phone: 0(757) 389.2369 
Institute/Department: Old Dominion University, Ocean, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://psc.apl.washington.edu/UpTempO/Data.php
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The WARM (The WArming and irRadiance Measurement ) buoy collects measurements of light, temperature, salinity and phytoplankton abundance under the Arctic sea ice. The Arctic ice pack has suffered continued thinning and reduction in seasonal extent, resulting in changes to the amount of sunlight penetrating through the ice and into the ocean beneath, having consequences for the physical and biological environment. Sunlight absorbed by the ocean under the ice causes warming, which can lead to accelerated ice melt resulting in even more sunlight reaching the ocean. In addition, warmer water also affects living organisms, influencing the ability of Arctic adapted species to survive, and possibly promoting the northward advancement of sub-Arctic species. Thinner ice also increases light available for photosynthesis, affecting the timing of phytoplankton blooms. If phytoplankton growth occurs early in the season then zooplankton, the organisms that feed on them can miss the bloom with consequences for the entire food web of the Arctic. This project aims to provide observations to help determine how the under-ice environment is changing by using autonomous buoys which overcome the limitations of ship-based observations. The buoys have proven to be very robust and can survive for approximately one year, providing hourly observations which will be available in near-real time to the research community and interested public parties. The buoys will be deployed in early spring in the western Beaufort Sea, with anticipated drift west over the Chukchi Shelf. This project will continue the WARM buoy initiative by improving the existing design to include increased vertical resolution of temperature and light measurements, the addition of salinity measurement to enable water mass identification, and a second fluorometer to identify sinking phytoplankton biomass. The data collected will provide a time series of important physical and biogeochemical properties over a complete seasonal cycle. It will enable us to address questions related to the effects of a thinner and more open ice pack on the absorption of solar radiation, ocean heating, the phenology of pelagic primary production, and carbon cycling. The buoys have proven to be very robust and can survive for approximately one year, providing hourly observations which will be available in near real time to the research community and interested public parties. The buoys will be deployed in early spring in the western Beaufort Sea, with anticipated drift west over the Chukchi Shelf. The Arctic ice pack acts as a barrier controlling the availability of UV and visible light to the water column. Continued thinning and reduction of seasonal Arctic ice has resulted in alterations in the timing and magnitude of solar radiation penetrating the upper Arctic Ocean. Amplification of solar radiation absorption into the ocean acts to warm and stratify the surface layer, which can induce further ice retreat and delay fall freeze-up. Resulting thermal stratification affects the ecosystem by limiting vertical replenishment of nutrients with a direct consequence on the magnitude of primary production. A warmer water column can also play a fundamental role in setting thresholds for the abundance and distribution of plankton communities, affecting trophic efficiency and promoting the northward advancement of sub-Arctic species. Thinner ice increases the light available for photosynthesis and net primary production, affecting the timing of primary production. Small timing mis-match between phytoplankton blooms and zooplankton reproductive cycles can have consequences for the entire lipid-driven Arctic marine ecosystem. Changes in the duration of UV exposure through longer open water periods has the potential to increase photochemical remineralization of terrestrial and marine organic matter and production of labile organic material that can be used by microbes. Determining the impact of solar radiation changes on warming, primary production, and photochemistry are all critical in assessing and predicting the effects of climate change on the marine carbon cycle. The measurement of these variables within and beneath the seasonal ice pack is challenging due to the limitations of ship based observations, but this can be resolved by using the autonomous WARM buoys deployed within the ice and designed to survive ice melt.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Hill (1603548, ODU) and Light (1602521, UW) will assess the role of solar energy in heating, photosynthesis, and photo-oxidation in the upper Arctic. This project is a continuation of an Arctic Overserving Network (AON) project to measure the penetration of solar radiation, temperature, and biological characteristics beneath first-year pack ice during ice covered, melting and open water phases (The WArming and irRadiance Measurement project (WARM). During March 2017 and 2018, a team of four researchers and one bear guard will deploy buoys via fixed wing aircraft between 200 and 300 miles north of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska.

CPS will provide air charters, emergency camp gear, a generator, a bear guard, Prudhoe Bay user days, Prudhoe Bay truck rental, storage and work space in Prudhoe, freight of CPS-provided field gear, and satellite phones. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Prudhoe Bay03 / 05 / 2017 03 / 11 / 20175
2018Alaska - Prudhoe Bay03 / 04 / 2018 03 / 10 / 20185
 


Project Title: Arctic Observing Networks: Collaborative Research: ITEX AON - understanding the relationships between vegetation change, plant phenology, and ecosystem function in a warming Arctic (Award# 1504224)

PI: Hollister, Robert D (hollistr@gvsu.edu)
Phone: 0(616) 331.8582 
Institute/Department: Grand Valley State University, Biology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Ecology |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://faculty.fiu.edu/~oberbaue/AON-ITEX.html
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The goal of this program is to document and understand arctic terrestrial change by maintaining and extracting value from the temporally-critical datasets of the International Tundra Experiment Arctic Observatory Network (ITEX-AON), which has been active in Alaska and Greenland since 2007. ITEX was chartered in 1990 to quantify the effects of inter-annual environmental variability and increased temperature on tundra plant phenology, growth, species composition and ecosystem function using sustained experimental techniques and background monitoring. The ITEX network has provided exceptional value by detecting changes in tundra plant and ecosystem responses to experimental warming and to background change across sites that span the major ecosystems of the Arctic. Unlike most monitoring programs that focus primarily on documenting change and rely on correlation to determine causal factors, ITEX can attribute cause for observed change because of the imbedded experimental approach, which is especially critical as the Arctic System is changing rapidly and in complex ways. This project will provide urgently needed data critical to understanding the impact of multi-scale vegetation change on ecosystem function, namely land-atmosphere carbon and water fluxes and energy balance. Observed changes in the Arctic over the past half century include substantial vegetation change and greening, permafrost warming, and surface hydrological change. Building on the US ITEX program started in 1994, the ITEX-AON (since 2007) has continued and expanded on a wide latitudinal transect consisting of five sites in Alaska and Greenland, collecting core ITEX data with methods designed to address specific needs outlined in the 2003 Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) Implementation Report. Core datasets include manual observations of phenology, vegetation structure and composition, and ecosystem function (carbon flux & nutrient cycling) on long-term ITEX control and experimental warming plots, repeat measurement of vegetation plots on the 1 km2 ARCSS grids, and a multifactor warming/moisture experiment in Greenland. In 2009, the ITEX-AON sampling scheme was expanded to include a larger spatial component to amplify the utility of the measurements collected. This included the addition of phenocams, automated mobile sensor platforms and medium-scale aerial imagery. The automated platforms measure a suite of vegetation surface properties with minimal effort across focal transects spanning strong moisture and microtopographic gradients at a near-daily frequency. These measurements capture the fine-scale changes in vegetation over the growing season that are missed by lower frequency manual measurements and provide a bridge between manual measurements and aerial imagery. Medium-scale aerial imagery, using Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), is acquired throughout the growing season for scaling of manual and automated measurements; satellite imagery is referenced to medium-scale aerial imagery to aid scaling of responses to the regional level. In this phase, collection of core data sets will continue with some streamlining to allow for collection of new data sets aimed at reinforcing the proven value of the program and its utility to adapt to and support future research needs.

Logistics Summary:
The goal of this collaboration between Oberbauer (1504381, FIU, LEAD), Hollister (1504224, GVSU), Welker (1504141, UAA) and Tweedie (1504345, UTEP) is to document and understand arctic terrestrial change by maintaining and extracting value from the temporally-critical data sets of the International Tundra eXperiment Arctic Observatory Network (ITEX-AON), which has been active in Alaska and Greenland since 2007. This project is a continuation of the expired Oberbauer 1432982 ITEX project, and with this new phase of the project collection of core dat sets will continue with some streamlining to allow for collection of new data sets aimed and reinforcing the proven value of the program and its utility to adapt to and support future research needs. Logistic details under 1504381.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Atqasuk0
2016Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2016Greenland - Thule0
2017Alaska - Atqasuk0
2017Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2017Greenland - Thule0
2018Alaska - Atqasuk0
2018Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2018Greenland - Thule0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Sustainability of critical areas for eiders and subsistence hunters in an industrializing nearshore zone (Award# 1262825)

PI: Hollmen, Tuula (tuulah@alaskasealife.org)
Phone: 0(907) 224.6323 
Institute/Department: Alaska SeaLife Center,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://eloka-arctic.org
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=12...

Science Summary:
For this project researchers will model habitat requirements and map viable prey densities for a formerly hunted but now threatened species (Spectacled Eider, SPEI) and a commonly hunted species (King Eider, KIEI) in the Chukchi nearshore zone, and determine long-term variability in the eiders' access to those areas through the ice. Researchers will refine these maps with traditional ecological knowledge on conditions and areas where hunting for KIEI typically occurs. They will estimate probabilities that different eider feeding areas that are accessible through the ice and conducive to hunting would be eliminated during migration by oil spills from pipelines built along four alternative routes. Researchers will use this information to inform structured decision-making workshops we will hold in the Native community. These workshops will help create a local vision for sustainability, in terms of potential risks of different pipeline routes to subsistence and cultural values of eiders, relative to cash benefits of local construction projects. Local villagers will be involved in creating and shaping the data set, and will be the main participants in structured decision-making workshops. The team will integrate the work with outreach and education programs conducted in these villages by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This project will yield important information for future evaluations and decision-making by Endangered Species and Migratory Bird Management Offices. The modern scientific and traditional ecological data, and facilitation of community consensus-building, will expedite later impact assessments by BOEM and other agencies as oilfield development proceeds. On a hemispheric scale, the approach developed will serve as a prototype applicable to the many such situations developing across the Arctic.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Lovvorn (1263051, SIU), Huntington (1262803, Huntington Consulting), and Hollmen (1262825, AK SeaLife) focuses on eiders, eider habitats, and developing a decision making process by which scientific data, traditional ecological knowledge, and cultural values can be considered by local villagers as they formulate a vision for sustainability. Logistic details under 1263051.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2014Alaska - Wainwright0
2015Alaska - Point Hope0
2015Alaska - Point Lay0
2015Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2015Alaska - Wainwright0
2016Alaska - Point Hope0
2016Alaska - Point Lay0
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2016Alaska - Wainwright0
2017Alaska - Point Hope0
2017Alaska - Point Lay0
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2017Alaska - Wainwright0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: AON: The Arctic Great Rivers Observatory (Arctic-GRO) (Award# 1602615)

PI: Holmes, Robert Max (rmholmes@whrc.org)
Phone: 0(508) 444.1548 
Institute/Department: Woods Hole Research Center,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences\Biogeochemistry | Geological Sciences\Climate Change | Geological Sciences\Hydrology | Geological Sciences\Rivers |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://www.arcticgreatrivers.org
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Just like changes in blood chemistry can be used to diagnose an individual's health, so too can changes in river water chemistry be used to evaluate the condition of a river's watershed. In the Arctic, six massive rivers capture freshwater runoff from two-thirds of the land area that drains to the Arctic Ocean. The chemistry of this runoff reflects watershed characteristics (e.g. soil composition), and carries essential nutrients to the marine environment. The overarching scientific objective of the Arctic Great Rivers Observatory (Arctic-GRO) is to make sustained observations of the chemistry of these six large rivers, which is vital for assessing changes on land that subsequently impact physical, chemical, and biological properties of the Arctic Ocean. The project involves partnerships with the Yukon River Intertribal Watershed Council, The Pilot Station Traditional Council, the Gwichya Gwich'in Renewable Resource Council, and with the University of Alaska at Kuskowkwin community college that serves the largely Yup’ik residents of the Yukon-Kuskowkwim Delta. . The six rivers included in the Arctic Great Rivers Observatory are the Yukon and Mackenzie in North American and the Ob, Yenisey, Lena, and Kolyma in Eurasia. The rivers will be sampled near their mouths, every two months for three years, using identical sample collection and preservation protocols. Approximately 40 parameters will be measured on all samples including dissolved and particulate organic carbon concentrations and isotopic compositions, concentrations of dissolved nutrients, major ions, and trace elements, and optical properties of dissolved organic matter, including UV absorbance and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices. For QA/QC purposes, every analysis will be conducted at a single laboratory. The resulting data, along with complementary data on river discharge, will be made available without restriction at the Arctic-GRO website (arcticgreatrivers.org) and through the NSF Arctic Data Center. Arctic-GRO data, which build on observatory records that extend back to 2003, provide valuable end-members for the oceanographic research community as well as for analyses of terrestrial landscape change.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Holmes (1602615, LEAD, WHRC), Spencer, (1603149, FSU), McClelland (1602680, UTexas), and Shiklomanov (1602879, UNH) will continue the Arctic-GRO river sampling project (previously under NSF grant #1107774) for 2017 through 2019. The project will continue sampling the Ob’, Yenisey, Lena, and Kolyma rivers in Siberia, and the Yukon and Mackenzie rivers in North America. The sampling will occur six times a year on a bi-monthly basis with approximately 40 parameters being measured on each set of samples.

CPS will provide subcontracting support required to complete all of the sampling in Russia, Canada, & Alaska, user days at NorthEast Science Station (NESS), and assistance with the annual US import of water samples from the four Russian rivers. All other logistics will be organized and paid for through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Pilot Station0
2017Canada - Mackenzie Delta0
2017Russia - Kolyma River0
2017Russia - Lena River0
2017Russia - Ob River0
2017Russia - Yenisey River0
2018Alaska - Pilot Station0
2018Canada - Mackenzie Delta0
2018Russia - Kolyma River0
2018Russia - Lena River0
2018Russia - Ob River0
2018Russia - Yenisey River0
2019Alaska - Pilot Station0
2019Canada - Mackenzie Delta0
2019Russia - Kolyma River0
2019Russia - Lena River0
2019Russia - Ob River0
2019Russia - Yenisey River0
 


Project Title: Polaris: Catalyzing Demographic Change in the Arctic Research Community through an Immersive and Sustained Undergraduate Research Experience (Award# 1624927)

PI: Holmes, Robert Max (rmholmes@whrc.org)
Phone: 0(508) 444.1548 
Institute/Department: Woods Hole Research Center,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\EHR\DUE\IUSE
Program Manager: Dr. Keith Sverdrup ( ksverdru@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology | Cryosphere\Arctic System Science | Cryosphere\Permafrost | Education and Outreach | Geological Sciences\Climate Change |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Project: http://www.thepolarisproject.org/
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
This project is integrating scientific research in the Arctic with education and outreach, with a strong central focus on engaging undergraduate students and visiting faculty from groups that have had little involvement in Arctic science to date. Science and society in the United States will be stronger in the long-term if the scientific workforce more closely reflects the racial, ethnic, and cultural diversity of its residents. The Arctic research community currently does not. Of the Principal Investigators funded by NSF's Arctic programs in the past five years, only 1% were African American, Hispanic, Native American, or Alaska Native. Researchers will be catalyzing change in these demographics by engaging faculty from Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) and a diverse group of undergraduate students in cutting-edge Arctic research and providing them encouragement, mentoring, and opportunities to continue pursuing Arctic studies in subsequent years. The central element of the project is a month-long research expedition to the Yukon River Delta in Alaska. The expedition provides a deep intellectual and cultural immersion in the context of an authentic research experience that is paramount for "hooking" students and keeping them moving along the pipeline to careers as Arctic scientists. The overarching scientific issue that drives the research is the vulnerability and fate of ancient carbon stored in Arctic permafrost (permanently frozen ground). Widespread permafrost thaw is expected to occur this century, but large uncertainties remain in estimating the timing, magnitude, and form of carbon that will be released when thawed. Project participants are working in collaborative research groups to make fundamental scientific discoveries related to the vulnerability of permafrost carbon in the Yukon River Delta and the potential implications of permafrost thaw in this region for the global climate system.

Logistics Summary:
The objective of this project is to catalyze a change in racial and ethnic diversity in the geoscientific workforce by engaging faculty from Minority Serving Institutions (MSIs) and a diverse group of undergraduate students in cutting-edge arctic research, and then providing them encouragement, mentoring, and opportunities to continue pursuing arctic studies. The central element of the Polaris-Yukon Project is a month-long expedition to the Yukon River Delta. During the month of July in 2017 – 2019, up to 18 total participants (instructors and students) will conduct a remote camp-based field course in the Kuka Creek area approximately 40 miles northeast of Bethel.

CPS will provide fixed wing and helicopter charters; camping equipment including a full remote camp with tents, generator/RE power system, and water filtration systems; safety equipment including communications gear and medical kits; one full-time camp staff of a CPS camp manager/cook; additional CPS staff assistance for camp mobilization and demobilization; camp food; cooking fuels; freight of all CPS provided items and arctic field safety training. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - PYP Camp07 / 01 / 2017 07 / 16 / 201718
2018Alaska - PYP Camp07 / 01 / 2018 07 / 16 / 201818
2019Alaska - PYP Camp07 / 01 / 2019 07 / 16 / 201918
 


Project Title: DDRIG: Illiamna Yup'ik Geographic Knowledge and Sense of Place in Southwest Alaska (Award# 1640812)

PI: Holton, Gary (holton@hawaii.edu)
Phone: 0(808) 956.3227 
Institute/Department: U of Hawai‘i at Manoa, Department of Linguistics 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Social and Human Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: https://eloka-arctic.org/
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...
Data: https://www.uaf.edu/anla/

Science Summary:
This project will document traditional knowledge of Yup'ik place names in the Iliamna region of Southwest Alaska. Recent attention to indigenous place names in Alaska has profound implications for our understanding of the relationships between humans and their environment. Just as the Athabaskan place name Denali reflects an Alaska Native perspective on the land, the thousands of Iliamna Yup'ik place names provide insight into land use, migration, and conservation in a critical geographic area. The Iliamna region lies at a crossroads between the core Yup'ik speaking area in the Kuskokwim River drainage and the more peripheral Bristol Bay and Alaska Peninsula regions. It is here that Yup'ik speakers are in contact with speakers of the very different Dena'ina Athabaskan language. The Iliamna region is also rich in natural resources, including fisheries and minerals. Documentation of traditional knowledge of the environment will thus not only help to understand the history of Yup'ik peoples in this region, it will also inform future resource policy in Alaska. There is urgency in the research, as the Iliamna dialect of Yup'ik is critically endangered. The oral narratives and place name maps recorded by this project will serve as an enduring record for future generations of local residents of the Iliamna Lake area and other scholars. The co-PI has a well-developed working relationship with the Iliamna Lake communities, and the collaborative approach ensures the success of the planned research. The goal is to explore Yup'ik peoples' ways of using landscape and interactions with the land by analyzing Iliamna Yup'ik place names within oral narratives as they relate to sense of place. Place names reflect human interaction with the landscape, both mythically through creation stories and prosaically through individual and collective experiences of and observations on the land. People share place names and useful information about the environment with others when traveling, harvesting resources, and trading goods with neighboring groups. Using a community-based participatory research method, this project will develop a typology categorizing Yup'ik place names and oral narratives in cultural and physical meanings. Methodology will include participant observation, key respondent interviews, and mapping exercises in the Iliamna communities Newhalen, Iliamna, Kokhanok, and Igiugig. Fieldwork will be conducted during all seasons in order to better capture the seasonal nature of Yup'ik land use. During the fieldwork local Tribal/Village Council members and Yup'ik speaking Elders will participate in the research and formulate additional research questions from a local perspective. The results of the research will serve as the basis for the co-PI's University of Alaska Fairbanks Ph.D. dissertation. More broadly, this project will serve as a model both for documentation of Iliamna Yup'ik place names and oral narratives, and documentation of Iliamna Yup'ik geographic knowledge and environmental changes. The documentation of local geographic knowledge will be useful to linguists, anthropologists, Yup'ik educators, geographers, other scholars in a variety of disciplines and state and federal land use managers.

Logistics Summary:
This project supports a PhD dissertation of how Iliama Yup’ik place names encode geographic knowledge in the area of Iliama Lake, Alaska, specifically Newhalen, Iliamna, Kokhanok and Igiugig communities. The research will explore Yup’ik peoples’ ways of using landscape and interaction with the land by analyzing place names within oral narratives as they related to a second of place. The results of the community based participatory research will be incorporated into the large “Alaska Native Place Names Project” centered at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks in collaboration with COGNA and ELOKA. In 2017, one researcher will visit the communities of Newhalen, Iliamna, and Kokhaok, and Igiugig to interview village elders and engage in participant observation when appropriate. In Iguigig, the researcher will also participate in sockeye salmon fishing and berry picking. During the summer, the researcher will return to Newhalen, Illiama, and Kokhanok to record site locations using GPS and a digital camera recorder of those places identified during the previous visit. When necessary, local interpreters will be used to translate Yup’ik dialects into English. In 2018, the researcher will return to the villages to present the results of the project to the village councils, as well as participate in ice fishing.

All logistics will be organized by the researcher and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Igiugig1
2017Alaska - Iliamna1
2017Alaska - Kokhanok1
2017Alaska - Newhalen1
2018Alaska - Igiugig1
2018Alaska - Iliamna1
2018Alaska - Kokhanok1
2018Alaska - Newhalen1
 


Project Title: Advancing Arctic Paleoecology: An Integrative Approach to Understanding Species Refugia and Population Dynamics in Response to Late-Quaternary Climate Change (Award# 1418339)

PI: Hu, Feng Sheng (fshu@life.uiuc.edu)
Phone: 0(217) 244.2982 
Institute/Department: U of Illinois, Urbana, Department of Plant Biology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://datadryad.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
This project will use an innovative approach to investigate glacial refugia and population dynamics associated with vegetation responses to late-Quaternary climate change in Alaska and adjacent Canada. The research will test the following hypotheses based on data from two target species (Picea glauca and Alnus viridis): (1) Multiple glacial refugia existed for each species in isolated areas nested in a complex topography, and the locations of these refugia differed between species; (2) Some of the refugial populations expanded to form modern species ranges whereas others remained largely restricted to their Last Glacial Maximum locations; (3) Within and between species, refugial populations spread at different rates and in different directions during the early postglacial period; and (4) Glacial refugia existed in areas with low climate velocity, and the directions and rates of postglacial colonization were determined by the spatial patterns of climate velocity. Graduate and undergraduate students will receive transdisciplinary training and gain a broad perspective to global change study. This project will provide intellectual focus, financial resources, and mentorship for the career development of three young investigators. Research results will be disseminated broadly to the scientific community, the public, and land managers. The centerpiece of the outreach activities is a workshop to educate high school teachers on Arctic climate and ecological changes. Through these teachers, a large group of midwestern students will be exposed to the excitement of Arctic research. Materials from the workshop will be disseminated online to a broad audience.

Logistics Summary:
This project aims to provide spatially explicit, population-level details of species range shifts in relation to climate change that cannot be reliably acquired using conventional paleoecological analyses. This approach will integrate genomic analysis, species distribution modeling that involves remote-sensing techniques, climate-velocity mapping, and existing fossil data in a hierarchical Bayesian modeling framework. Beginning in the summer of 2015, and for two consecutive years thereafter, a research team of two to three will collect plant material from various sites throughout Alaska and Canada for study. In 2015 focus will be on southwest Alaska and adjacent Canada. Researchers will use a truck for travel to road-accessible field sites during the first part of June, and fixed-wing aircraft for travel to field sites not on the road system for about 10 days at the end of June. Researchers and aircraft pilot will camp at sites along the way. Researchers will access lake shores via the PI's boat. In 2016 focus will be on north-central Alaska and adjacent Canada in June. Researchers will use a Cessna 185 amphibious float plane for about 17 days to travel to field sites in north-central AK, and a truck for one week of travel to road-accessible field sites near Fairbanks. The field team and aircraft pilot will camp at sites along the way. Researchers will access lake shores via the PI's boat.

CPS will provide truck rental, fixed-wing air charter, a satellite phone, medical kit and camping gear. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Alaska - Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta06 / 20 / 2015 06 / 30 / 20153
2015Canada - Inuvik06 / 08 / 2015 06 / 18 / 20153
2016Alaska - Fairbanks06 / 10 / 2016 06 / 17 / 20162
2016Alaska - Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta06 / 11 / 2016 06 / 28 / 20162
2016Canada - Inuvik07 / 30 / 2016 08 / 30 / 20162
2017Alaska - Kenai Peninsula06 / 25 / 2017 07 / 15 / 20172
2017Alaska - Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta06 / 15 / 2017 06 / 25 / 20172
2017Canada - Inuvik06 / 15 / 2017 06 / 25 / 20172
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Sustainability of critical areas for eiders and subsistence hunters in an industrializing nearshore zone (Award# 1262803)

PI: Huntington, Henry P (hph@alaska.net)
Phone: 0(907) 696.3564 
Institute/Department: Huntington Consulting,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://eloka-arctic.org
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=12...

Science Summary:
For this project researchers will model habitat requirements and map viable prey densities for a formerly hunted but now threatened species (Spectacled Eider, SPEI) and a commonly hunted species (King Eider, KIEI) in the Chukchi nearshore zone, and determine long-term variability in the eiders' access to those areas through the ice. Researchers will refine these maps with traditional ecological knowledge on conditions and areas where hunting for KIEI typically occurs. They will estimate probabilities that different eider feeding areas that are accessible through the ice and conducive to hunting would be eliminated during migration by oil spills from pipelines built along four alternative routes. Researchers will use this information to inform structured decision-making workshops we will hold in the Native community. These workshops will help create a local vision for sustainability, in terms of potential risks of different pipeline routes to subsistence and cultural values of eiders, relative to cash benefits of local construction projects. Local villagers will be involved in creating and shaping the data set, and will be the main participants in structured decision-making workshops. The team will integrate the work with outreach and education programs conducted in these villages by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This project will yield important information for future evaluations and decision-making by Endangered Species and Migratory Bird Management Offices. The modern scientific and traditional ecological data, and facilitation of community consensus-building, will expedite later impact assessments by BOEM and other agencies as oilfield development proceeds. On a hemispheric scale, the approach developed will serve as a prototype applicable to the many such situations developing across the Arctic.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Lovvorn (1263051, SIU), Huntington (1262803, Huntington Consulting), and Hollmen (1262825, AK SeaLife) focuses on eiders, eider habitats, and developing a decision making process by which scientific data, traditional ecological knowledge, and cultural values can be considered by local villagers as they formulate a vision for sustainability. Logistic details under 1263051.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2014Alaska - Wainwright0
2015Alaska - Point Hope0
2015Alaska - Point Lay0
2015Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2015Alaska - Wainwright0
2016Alaska - Point Hope0
2016Alaska - Point Lay0
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2016Alaska - Wainwright0
2017Alaska - Point Hope0
2017Alaska - Point Lay0
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2017Alaska - Wainwright0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Arctic Oases - How does the delayed release of winter discharge from aufeis affect the ecosystem structure and function of rivers (Award# 1503868)

PI: Huryn, Alex (huryn@ua.edu)
Phone: 0(205) 348.4136 
Institute/Department: U of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Department of Biological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Ecology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://arc-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
This is a preliminary study to assess the potential effects of aufeis on the structure and function of arctic river-floodplain ecosystems. Aufeis are massive accumulations of ice common to many arctic rivers, particularly in northeastern Siberia and the North Slope of Alaska. River aufeis form during freeze-up when thickening surface ice and permafrost restrict river discharge, causing water to overflow existing ice. Successive cycles of overflowing and freezing of water from upstream groundwater sources accumulate enormous quantities of ice, with late-winter aufeis on some rivers attaining thicknesses of 3 to 5 meters, covering up to 20 square kilometers in some Alaskan fields (even larger in Siberia), and storing as much as a third of the annual discharge of the river in the form of ice. In addition, aufeis maintain an unfrozen base throughout winter due to the release of latent heat as water is converted to ice, which warms the underlying sediments, and a thick insulating layer of ice above. Although aufeis have been studied by hydrologists and are known to be required for winter and spawning habitat for important local fish species, understanding of their ecology is poor. In recognition of this, these investigators will conduct a targeted assessment of the ecological importance of a single aufeis field on the Kuparuk River, Alaska as a first step toward developing a hypothesis-driven research program. The investigators propose that aufeis be viewed as winter oases due to their wet bases that supply water and heat to otherwise frozen habitats. Aufeis also function as summer oases by providing a stable supply of water to riverbed and downstream habitats. This preliminary study will focus on assessing 1) river flow and nutrient chemistry above, within, and below the aufeis field, and 2) the potential for year-round, unfrozen habitat beneath the aufeis field. The investigators will collect water samples for nutrient analysis in transects extending 2.5 km upstream and downstream from the aufeis field. They will collect hourly data on river stage, temperature, and electrical conductivity along each transect. They will also install pairs of piezometers to depths of 1 meter and 2 meters to measure the vertical hydraulic gradient between the underlying aquifer and the surface channel, and dissolved oxygen, temperature, and electrical conductivity of hyporheic waters at these points. Measurements of vertical hydraulic gradient will determine whether river reaches are generally upwelling or downwelling. To estimate volume and the potential seasonal contributions of the aufeis to river discharge they will use precise digital elevation models created from low-altitude vertical photogrammetry. Year-round temperature and electrical conductivity records will provide data for simple end-member mixing analyses to determine the proportion of aufeis meltwater to the river during the thaw season. During freeze-up and into the winter, these records will provide estimates of potential downstream influences of the spring-water downstream of the aufeis if subsurface flow is maintained. In order to assess the vertical influence of aufeis, the investigators will instrument nine transects with digital temperature loggers. They anticipate that loggers directly under the aufeis will never record temperatures below freezing but that those outside the aufeis footprint will. The investigators also propose August and April ground-penetrating radar surveys to determine thaw depths. Finally, PVC wells penetrating about one meter below the surface will be used to sample small invertebrate animals living in river sediments and below aufeis. The project will support two masters-level graduate students and will involve two undergraduate field assistants in the summer fieldwork.

Logistics Summary:
The goal of this collaborative study between Huryn (1503868, U of AL, LEAD) and Gooseff (1504453, CU) is to assess the potential effects of aufeis on the structure and function of Arctic river-floodplain ecosystems in a warming climate. Aufeis are massive accumulations of ice that are features of many Arctic rivers. Researchers will conduct their field work over two seasons, in 2016 and 2017. In 2016 researchers will install instruments under the Kuparuk aufeis, roughly 30 miles north of Toolik Field Station in northern Alaska. They will visit Toolik from June to early September. They will visit experiment sites using the Toolik helicopter in June and multiple times in August, with two additional trips for gear. In addition, the project will visit other aufeis fields in the Arctic Refuge. In 2017 researchers will visit the sites in mid-April via helicopter from Toolik. In the summer of 2017, they will then conduct field work similar to 2016, with several additional visits to each location.

IAB will provide access to services and infrastructure at Toolik Field Station. CPS will provide Toolik user days, helicopter support, truck rental, and camping gear from existing NSF inventory. All other logistics, including land use permits, will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Toolik04 / 11 / 2016 09 / 07 / 201611
2017Alaska - Toolik04 / 21 / 2017 09 / 01 / 20176
 


Project Title: Extreme summer melt: Assessing the habitability and physical structure of rotting first-year Arctic sea ice (Award# 1304228)

PI: Junge, Karen (kajunge@uw.edu)
Phone: 0(206) 543.8938 
Institute/Department: U of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratory 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=13...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
This project has two main objectives: 1) determination of the physical and microbial characteristics and microstructural evolution of sea ice exposed to severe melt; and 2) exploration of the influence of biogenic particles such as sea ice algae, bacteria and polymer gels on the melting behavior of sea ice. This research will develop and apply state-of-the-art microbiological, molecular, biogeochemical and geophysical techniques to examine the character and evolution of natural Arctic sea ice at the end of the melt season at field sites near Barrow, Alaska. This project will assess: (1) ice physical characteristics (ice density, salinity, permeability, albedo, and microstructure) using standard and novel microscopy and X-ray computed tomography techniques; (2) ice algal and bacterial characteristics (abundance, activity, biomass, productivity and diversity) using epifluorescence and confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and massively parallel taq sequencing techniques; (3) polymer gel characteristics (abundance, composition, gel carbon biomass, and size) using in situ microscopy, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy techniques; and (4) the relationship between biogenic particles and ice physical characteristics, in particular microstructural properties for melted and intact ice samples using image analysis and correlative statistical methods. This project will carry out educational outreach by offering research experience to an undergraduate student, mentoring a postdoctoral research associate, and entrainment of relevant scientific results into both academic curricula and public outreach.

Logistics Summary:
This project aims to develop and apply state-of-the-art microbiological, molecular, biogeochemical and geophysical techniques to examine the character and evolution of natural Arctic sea ice at the end of the melt season at field sites near Utqiagvik (Barrow), Alaska. The overall approach will focus on method development in 2014 and field studies and sample analysis in 2015-17. In 2014 researchers will develop and refine techniques that allow for the examination of melting ice that will then be used in the field. In 2015 a field team of 5 will employ methods developed in year one to study sea ice that is in the process of being naturally rotted (ice sustaining an extended melt period). The focus would be on measurements of microbial characteristics and their polymeric secretions, in concert with evaluation of the physical and microstructural properties of the ice during the evolution and final stages of summer melt (early May through mid-July). Researchers will focus on shore - fast ice off the coast of Pt. Barrow, Alaska. The field work plan includes: 1) obtaining and analyzing ice cores from melting ice accessible from the beach at sites in both the Chukchi Sea and Elson Lagoon, representing various ice types. Researchers will use snowmachines and ATVs to access the ice from the beach (until safety dictates the use of a boat), 2) obtaining floating ice samples in Elson Lagoon and Chukchi Sea from a boat at the very end of the melt season and, 3) obtaining ice samples that have undergone melting for subsequent microstructural analysis in the cold lab facility at the home institution. Researchers plan to conduct sampling twice a week and processing of three ice horizons (top, middle, bottom). Researchers will process samples for bulk biological, chemical and physical parameters on site or in the Barrow laboratory. In addition, an ice core from each site for each sampling date will be shipped to the home institution for later analysis. No field work was conducted in 2016. In 2017 researchers will conduct one trip in July collecting rotten ice samples by boat offshore with three people for approximately 7 days.

CPS will provide vehicles, equipment rental, laboratory and freezer space, lodging, bear guards, boat support, dry ice (2015 only), safety equipment, and assistance with North Slope Borough and UIC permitting. All other logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)05 / 04 / 2015 07 / 21 / 20155
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)07 / 08 / 2017 07 / 19 / 20173
 


Project Title: Late Season Productivity, Carbon, and Nutrient Dynamics in a Changing Arctic (Award# 1504394)

PI: Juranek, Laurie W (ljuranek@coas.oregonstate.edu)
Phone: 0(541) 737.2368 
Institute/Department: Oregon State University, College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Cynthia Suchman ()
Discipline(s): | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/dbo/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Logistics: http://www.omao.noaa.gov/learn/marine-operations/
Data: https://arcticdata.io/
Logistics: https://www.sikuliaq.alaska.edu/

Science Summary:
Satellite measurements have documented significant reductions in sea ice cover, thickness, and duration throughout the Arctic Ocean in recent decades. Because of the complex interactions and feedbacks among physical, biogeochemical and ecological processes in the Arctic, there is significant uncertainty regarding how these changes in sea ice will impact the marine biological pump, which fuels the rich bottom communities on Arctic Ocean shelves and is key to the regional carbon cycle. While responses of the biological pump to increased light availability in spring are currently being pursued, a considerable gap in knowledge exists regarding biological processes in the late summer and early fall. Recent studies indicate a several-decade trend of intensifying wind forcing over the Alaskan margin along the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas in the late, ice-free season (September-November). These events could lead to mixing of nutrients into surface waters, fueling increased biological production and sequestering additional carbon into shelf bottom waters prior to the winter ice advance. However, the lack of direct, concurrent observations of primary and net community productivity rates, and nutrient and carbon distributions during this poorly-sampled time of year hinders efforts to assess the ecosystem implications of such changes. This project proposes to address the question of increasing biological production in the late season through intensive field sampling in two successive years. The investigators will use an innovative approach to better characterize how primary productivity (PP), net community productivity (NCP), and particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic carbon stocks (POC, DOC, DIC) are influenced by episodic nutrient inputs to the surface ocean in late summer and early fall. Over two field campaigns, they will collect high resolution surface measurements of dissolved gases, particulate and dissolved organic matter stocks and dissolved inorganic nutrients and carbon using a ship of opportunity (year 1) and dedicated research cruises (year 2). The use of geochemical rate tracers (oxygen/argon-based NCP and oxygen isotope-based PP; inventory changes of POC, DOC, nutrients, and DIC) offers a distinct advantage over incubation-based approaches by integrating processes on longer timescales (weekly to monthly). This approach is well-suited to capture the effects of episodic upwelling and subsequent ecosystem processing. On the dedicated regional research cruise in year 2 the investigators will also use a towed pumping sled to capture high-resolution vertical and cross-shelf observations. This towed sled will be equipped with standard CTD and optical sensors and interfaced to fast shipboard analyzers for measurement of nutrients and inorganic carbon (pCO2, DIC), as well as to automated samplers to collect water for oxygen/argon ratios, oxygen isotope, POC and DOC measurements. High-resolution chemical and biological distributions will be combined with ship-based ADCP measurements of water column velocities and continuity-based mass-balance calculations to constrain rates of NCP as well as the extent of vertical and lateral material fluxes. Outreach and education elements include a pilot program to engage pre-service secondary STEM teachers in educational planning and field work portions of the work. The program will provide field experience and on the job science training to teachers and result in short media outreach pieces and targeted curriculum addressing the three dimensions of science from the next generation science standards. The project will support one graduate student and several undergraduate students, who will participate in all aspects of the field and analytical work. The project will contribute to the early career development of a junior investigator.

Logistics Summary:
The objective of this project is to better characterize how Arctic Ocean primary productivity, net community productivity, and particulate and dissolved organic and inorganic carbon stocks, are influenced by episodic nutrient inputs in the late season. In 2015 a field team of three will participate in the 29-day cruise to the Chukchi Sea and eastern Beaufort on the NOAA Ship Brown. Researchers will collect hydrographic and chemical data and sample for zooplankton on ~10 shelf transects. In February 2016 the PI will travel to Utqiagvik (Barrow) for an outreach event, and then in July 2016 the PI will travel to Anchorage for an outreach aspect of the project. During the fall of 2016 a research team of 20 will participate in a 27 day research cruise aboard the R/V Sikuliaq in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. The cruise will begin and end in Nome, AK. Researchers will return in 2017, details are TBD.

CPS will provide lodging and transportation for outreach work in Alaska, and travel costs and salary for a community observer for the cruise. All other logistics, including the cruise in 2015, will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Arctic Ocean and Seas - Beaufort Sea08 / 06 / 2015 09 / 03 / 20153
2015Arctic Ocean and Seas - Chukchi Sea08 / 06 / 2015 09 / 03 / 20153
2016Alaska - Anchorage07 / 18 / 2016 07 / 20 / 20161
2016Alaska - Nome08 / 31 / 2016 09 / 30 / 201612
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)02 / 03 / 2016 02 / 05 / 20161
2016Arctic Ocean and Seas - Chukchi Sea09 / 02 / 2016 10 / 03 / 201612
2017Alaska - Nome08 / 31 / 2017 09 / 30 / 201712
2017Arctic Ocean and Seas - Chukchi Sea09 / 02 / 2017 10 / 03 / 201712
 


Project Title: Tapping outstanding new lake records of annual- to millennial-scale Holocene climate variability in the north Pacific region (Award# 1602106)

PI: Kaufman, Darrell S (darrell.kaufman@nau.edu)
Phone: 0(928) 523.7192 
Institute/Department: Northern Arizona University, School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Sustainability 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\EAR
Program Manager:  Marguerite Toscano (mtoscano@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences\Climate Change |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimato...
Project: https://www.southalaskalakes.com

Science Summary:
Understanding climate variability over a wide range of timescales is a primary objective of climate science research because it is likely to improve our ability to foresee future climate. The investigators will document past (Holocene = 12,000 years) climate changes on time scales ranging from annual to millennial using evidence from sediments stored in lakes around Anchorage, Alaska, where climate closely tracks the broader North Pacific region. In addition, the sedimentary records contain information about: (1) ash-fall hazards from Cook Inlet volcanoes, (2) the magnitude and frequency of major earthquakes, (3) changes in glacier meltwater input to Eklutna Lake, a major source of electricity and freshwater for Anchorage, and (4) long-term environmental variability, which serves as a baseline reference for recent ecosystem changes. The project will support early-career scientists and will train graduate and undergraduate students. This study will take advantage of the best annually laminated (varved) sediment -- among the most valuable sources of proxy climate data -- ever recovered from Alaska. Fluctuations in varve thickness and grain size of sediments recovered from the glacier-fed study lakes reflect major hydroclimate changes. In addition, new sediment cores from non-glacial lakes will provide a multi-proxy approach to understanding how shifts in the mean state of climate during the Holocene were associated with changes in north Pacific climate variability.

Logistics Summary:
This project will investigate Holocene climate changes using sediments from lakes around Anchorage, Alaska, where climate variability during the instrumental period closely tracks the climate of the broader North Pacific region. During the summers of 2017 and 2018 a team of four researchers will travel to several lakes in south central Alaska to collect sediment cores. The lakes are about 65 miles south of Anchorage on the Kenai Peninsula. In 2017 the team will visit road accessible lakes in June. They will start in Anchorage and use a boat and motor to do the work on the lakes. In 2018 they will visit the lakes not accessible from the road via float plane.

CPS will provide a truck, float plane (2018 only), general camping equipment from existing NSF inventory, satellite phone, inflatable boat and outboard motor, and miscellaneous field gear. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Kenai Peninsula06 / 08 / 2017 06 / 26 / 20174
2018Alaska - Kenai Peninsula05 / 15 / 2018 06 / 26 / 20184
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Vegetation And Ecosystem Impacts On Permafrost Vulnerability (Award# 1417908)

PI: Kholodov, Alexander (alkholodov@alaska.edu )
Phone: 0(907) 474.7698 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, Geophysical Institute 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Nontechnical Realistic representations of heat exchange in permafrost ecosystems are necessary for accurate predictive understanding of the permafrost carbon feedback under future climate scenarios. This project will provide a quantitative pan-arctic assessment of the effects of vegetation and landscape characteristics on permafrost thermal regimes. By working across ecosystems, landscape characteristics, and regions, the research will identify broad trends, and intensive energy balance sites will provide a mechanistic study of ecosystem impacts on permafrost response to climate change. The impacts of this study will be enhanced through integration of research results into regional and site-specific permafrost models and synthesis activities that will examine ecosystem impacts on energy balance and permafrost vulnerability to climate change. This work will have broad impacts on the scientific community and general public because it brings together important issues in the global environment and raises awareness of the connection between ecosystem dynamics and permafrost thaw. The proposed project will provide training opportunities for undergraduate students through collaboration between the researchers and an NSF funded field research experience for undergraduates. The researchers will mentor several students as part of this proposed work and will also teach two arctic system science courses at a predominantly undergraduate institution. This project will enhance scientific understanding through continued work with education centers, local communities and, in particular, with teachers and outreach coordinators. Technical Significant declines in permafrost distribution are expected as the climate warms, but large uncertainties remain in determining the fate of permafrost under future climate scenarios. These uncertainties are driven, in large part, by vegetation and ecosystem properties that modulate the effect of climate on permafrost temperatures. Long-term monitoring of permafrost temperatures demonstrates the importance of these local conditions, yet there has been no pan-arctic effort to measure ecological and landscape variables in concert with permafrost temperature monitoring. This project will use a combination of field and remotely-sensed data to address the question of how vegetation and landscape factors modulate permafrost temperature response to climate change. To address this question the researchers will couple an extensive pan-arctic assessment of vegetation-permafrost dynamics with an intensive study of shrub and tree canopy cover effects on ecosystem energy balance. The first component of this research will be conducted at long-term permafrost temperature monitoring sites in Siberia and Alaska, and the second component, the vegetation-energy balance sites that will be established as part of this proposal, will be conducted at a shrub-tree canopy cover gradient in Siberia, where most permafrost regions are located. These intensively studied energy balance sites will provide an improved mechanistic understanding of the effects of ecosystem components, and interactions among these components, on ecosystem energy balance and permafrost vulnerability to climate change. This mechanistic knowledge will, in turn, support interpretation of broad patterns observed through a pan-arctic sampling of the permafrost temperature monitoring sites.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Natali (1417700, WHRC), Loranty (1417745, Colgate U) and Kholodov (1417908, UAF) will utilize a combination of field and remotely sensed data to understand how vegetation and landscape factors might modulate permafrost temperature response to climate change. Logistic details under 1417700.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Alaska - Coldfoot0
2015Alaska - Nome0
2015Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
2015Alaska - Toolik0
2015Russia - Cherskii0
2016Alaska - Coldfoot0
2016Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2016Russia - Cherskii0
2016Russia - Chokurdakh0
2017Alaska - Coldfoot0
2017Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2017Russia - Cherskii0
2018Alaska - Coldfoot0
2018Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2018Russia - Cherskii0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Community based permafrost and climate monitoring in rural Alaska (Award# 1503900)

PI: Kholodov, Alexander (alkholodov@alaska.edu )
Phone: 0(907) 474.7698 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, Geophysical Institute 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Social and Human Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://permafrost.gi.alaska.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The overarching goal of this project is to help the tribal communities of Upper Kuskokwim region take the lead in assessing and responding to the environmental changes that are coming with warming climate and thawing permafrost. Alaska's land, water, plants, wildlife, and seasons are undergoing a great upheaval, and its people, especially the tribal communities living in remote villages are directly and severely impacted by these changes. The project will help build the tribal capacity to monitor changes in local climate and permafrost by providing the Tribes the scientific knowledge and skills necessary to acquire, analyze, and interpret scientific data through training and education. Researchers will establish local climate and permafrost observation system and map land cover and permafrost in the Upper Kuskokwim region. It will also develop a geo-hazard map for the region to facilitate safe subsistence and recreational practices and land use. The specific objectives are to 1) engage traditionally-underserved tribal communities of the Upper Kuskokwim region in permafrost and climate change research, 2) build community capacity to monitor changes in local climate and permafrost, 3) model the state and distribution of near-surface permafrost, and 4) develop a geo-hazard map. The high-resolution land cover, permafrost, and geo-hazard maps will serve the communities' need to identify sites experiencing rapid changes and could be hazardous. The land cover map will serve as a baseline map to detect future changes in land cover. The modeled permafrost maps of current and future decades will help identify sites where permafrost degradation will likely be severe if the climate continues to warm. The project will offer the traditionally-underserved tribal communities of the Upper Kuskokwim region and the Tribal Council an opportunity to engage in climate research. It will provide them the motivation, resources, climate science knowledge and skills to study the impact of climate change on their tribal way of life and environment. The data, knowledge, and skills gained through this project will benefit the tribal communities in adaptive management of subsistence resources, implementation of safe land use practices, and planning for the future. The scientific community will also benefit hugely by having an improved understanding of permafrost dynamics, access to field data and maps from this understudied remote part of Alaska. In addition, the project will provide outreach and workshops on climate change to the community members in Nikolai and to all students and teachers in Iditarod Areas School District through the Distance Learning Center facility in Fairbanks, Alaska.

Logistics Summary:
This project between PI Kholodov (1503900, UAF) and the Telida Village Council (via a subaward) intends to build tribal capacity to monitor changes in local climate and permafrost in the Upper Kuskokwim region of Alaska. The project will equip the Tribe with scientific knowledge and skills necessary to acquire, analyze, and interpret scientific data through training and education. In August 2016, a team of six (three researchers from Fairbanks and three people from Nikolai) will visit Nikolai for several days and then access the field site in Telida via fixed wing charters. In Nikolai, the researchers will begin training Telida Village Council team members and perform community outreach; in Telida, they will install sensors and survey sites of major landscape change. In 2017 two field trips are planned: the first in late February to conduct a snow survey and do soil coring; the second in August to maintain the observation network. A group of eight to nine people will visit the research site via snowmachine during the first trip and fixed wing charter for the second trip. For each trip, three team members will fly via fixed wing aircraft to Nikolai where they will meet the rest of the team already onsite. In 2018 a group of five people from Nikolai will visit the research site to collect data and maintain the observation network.

CPS will provide fixed-wing air charters from Fairbanks to Nikolai and Telida Village, snowmachine rental, communications equipment, and basic camp and field safety gear from existing NSF inventory. All other logistics, including boat support, will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Nikolai08 / 16 / 2016 08 / 26 / 20166
2016Alaska - Telida08 / 20 / 2016 08 / 25 / 20166
2017Alaska - Nikolai02 / 22 / 2017 08 / 26 / 20173
2017Alaska - Telida02 / 23 / 2017 08 / 25 / 20179
2018Alaska - Telida08 / 15 / 2018 08 / 31 / 20185
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Carbon, Water, and Energy Balance of the Arctic Landscape at Flagship Observatories in Alaska and Siberia (Award# 1504006)

PI: Kling, George W (gwk@umich.edu)
Phone: 0(734) 647.0894 
Institute/Department: U of Michigan, Department of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Ecology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://arc-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/
Data: http://www.lternet.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/
Data: https://climate.iarc.uaf.edu/geonetwork/srv/en/mai...
Data: https://www.iab.uaf.edu/

Science Summary:
Arctic terrestrial ecosystems exchange greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and methane), water vapor, and energy with the atmosphere. The balance between uptake and release of these quantities influences both the Arctic region and the global climate system. The terrestrial cycling of carbon, water, and energy are strongly linked, and therefore need to be studied at the same time and in the same place. This project continues long-term measurements of carbon, water, and energy balance in terrestrial and freshwater systems in the Alaskan Arctic, extending measurements that began in 2007. Carbon loss over the winter has recently increased dramatically at one of our study sites, as winter air and soil temperatures have warmed. This study will determine whether these losses continue and seek to understand the underlying causes. Broader impacts of this project include contributions to teaching and learning, including underrepresented groups, support of undergraduate summer research, participation in the Marine Biology Laboratory Logan Science Journalism program and the Arctic LTER Schoolyard program, and outreach to K-12 schools in Fairbanks, Alaska, and to Native Alaskan communities. This project will support career development of two female Principal Investigators at UAF. The proposed research will extend continuous measurements of carbon, water, and energy balance in three tundra ecosystems near Imnavait Creek, Alaska. Ecosystem/atmosphere flux measurements have been collected at these sites via eddy covariance since 2007. Long-term monitoring of hydrology and stream chemistry of Imnavait Creek and depth of thaw in its catchment area will be maintained. Additional measurements to help interpret these data will include water table depth, plant community composition, and vegetation greenness via reflectivity, which is related to leaf area and biomass. Long-term measurements of stream chemistry and discharge are also available at Imnavait, enabling a comprehensive assessment of carbon budgets. All data will be made publicly available and archived at the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) web site, the International Arctic Research Center Data Archive, and the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS).

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Bret-Harte (1503912, UAF), Kling (1504006, U Mich), and Rastetter (1503781, MBL) continues work begun under NSF grant 1107707 (lead PI Shaver). The researchers will extend time-series data on carbon, water, and energy balance data that have been collected on tundra ecosystems near Toolik Field Station (TFS) via eddy covariance since 2007. Logistic details under 1503912.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Nutritional Landscapes of Arctic Caribou: Observations, Experiments, and Models Provide Process-Level Understanding of Forage Traits and Trajectories (Award# 1604160)

PI: Kofinas, Gary P (gary.kofinas@alaska.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 474.7078 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, Institute of Arctic Biology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Terrestrial Arctic systems are the result of complex interactions between climate, vegetation, herbivores, and humans that must be studied together to understand their functional traits. While low temperatures and short-growing seasons limit plant growth, enough plant biomass exists to support herds of migratory caribou, on which Alaska Natives depend. Any changes in the plants at the base of the food web can have cascading consequences for herbivores and human consumers and their interactions. Today, the Arctic system is in the midst of change resulting in new vegetation assemblages, changes in the nutritive value of plant tissues, and ultimately in the diets of migratory caribou and the humans that depend on them. This project examines the nutritional landscape of the Central Arctic Caribou Herd as a unifying concept, describing the nutritional landscape as caribou available protein (CAP) and caribou available energy (CAE), integrative forage quantity measures that reflect biomass, species composition, plant C and N content, digestibility, and secondary compounds. The core objectives are gaining understanding of the drivers of spatial and temporal patterns in the amounts of CAP and CAE across the tundra; caribou use of this nutritional landscape; how the amounts of CAP and CAE will differ in the future under likely climate scenarios and long-term experiments, and the interactions between caribou and Native communities. The broader impacts of this study involve several groups of Alaskan stakeholders, including: harvesters of the North Slope community of Nuiqsut, the worldwide caribou community, and students at multiple stages of education. The project will embed a team member with hunters in Nuiqsut, and develop an educational scientific documentary on the caribou - Alaska Native interactions for high school students. The group plans to employ village students and undergraduates affiliated with the Alaska Native Science and Engineering Program to assist with experimental work and vegetation collection at Toolik Lake. This research is significant to ecologists from the Circumarctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment Network, dedicated to caribou conservation and sustainable management in the US, Canada, and Scandinavia, who will use the data to consider how a suite of climate change scenarios affect herd fecundity and population dynamics. The intellectual merit of this project stems from the merging of five elements to understand Arctic System function and response to climate change: (1) A landscape-scale assessment of plant species, soil and plant C and N, digestibility, and secondary compounds that will be used to calculate the amounts of CAP (kg m-2) and CAE (kJ m-2); (2) analysis of how closely caribou foraging is tied to the nutritional landscape throughout the year; (3) analysis of samples from an existing long-term winter - summer climate change experiment to provide data on how CAP and CAE will differ in the future; (4) prediction of future nutritional landscapes and caribou foraging interactions; and (5) observations of Alaska Native hunter harvesting and attributes of the system that determine their spatial and temporal patterns. These project components will enable an integrative understanding of how an important herbivore, caribou, interact with a landscape that is rapidly changing. This research: (1) examines the Arctic System from primary production to secondary consumers and the influence of climate change across multiple trophic levels; (2) applies broadly by examining the most abundant large herbivore and its food sources, both of which are distributed throughout the Arctic; and (3) integrates experimental, observational, and modeling approaches to understanding ecological systems and climate change. The integration of observation, experimental data and modeling to describe current and forecast future nutritional landscapes is intended to provide a mechanistic understanding of Arctic System function and transform the understanding of climate-vegetation-caribou-subsistence hunter interactions.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Welker (1604249, UAA, Lead), Sexton (1604105, UMD), Leffler (1602440, SD State), Liston (1602898, CSU) and Kofinas (1604160, UAF) will examine the nutritional landscape of the Central Arctic Caribou Heard as a unifying concept in Arctic System Ecology. During the spring through fall in 2017 – 2019 research teams of between three and nine participants will sample vegetation along the migration route of the Central Arctic Caribou Heard and collar caribou to track migration. Logistic details under 1604249.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Coldfoot0
2017Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Coldfoot0
2018Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2019Alaska - Coldfoot0
2019Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
2019Alaska - Toolik0
 


Project Title: NASA Operation IceBridge (OIB) (Award# NASAIceBridge)

PI: Kurtz, Nathan T (nathan.t.kurtz@nasa.gov)
Phone: 0(301) 614.5013 
Institute/Department: National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Thomas Wagner (thomas.wagner@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Earth Science | Geological Sciences\Glaciology | Meteorology and Climate | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/data/icebridge/campaign_data_summ...
Blog: http://polarfield.com/blog/operation-icebridge-bir...
Project: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/icebridge/index....
Project: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2016/operatio...

Science Summary:
Operation IceBridge (OIB), a NASA mission that began in 2009, is the largest airborne survey of Earth's polar ice ever flown. Using instruments to map Arctic and Antarctic areas once a year, it will yield an unprecedented three-dimensional view of Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets, ice shelves and sea ice, documenting the behavior of the rapidly changing features of Greenland's and Antarctica's ice. Objectives: 1) Make airborne laser altimetry measurements over the ice sheets and sea ice to fill in the data gap between the end of the lifetime of ICESat-1 in 2009 and the launch of ICESat-2 planned for 2018. 2) Link measurements made by ICESat, ICESat-2, and CryoSat-2 to allow their comparison and the production of a long-term, ice sheet altimetry record. 3) Use airborne altimetry and radar to monitor key, rapidly changing areas of ice, including sea ice, ice sheets and glaciers, in the Arctic and Antarctic to maintain a long term observation record, improve understanding of glacial dynamics, and augment predictive models of sea level rise and sea ice cover. 4) In conjunction with altimetry measurements, collect other remotely sensed data to improve predictive models of sea level rise and sea ice cover, especially the following: · Ice sheet and sea ice thickness, structure and extent; · Bed topography underlying land-based ice; · Bathymetry beneath floating ice shelves; · Snow accumulation and firn structure; and · Other geophysical constraints that will improve estimates of the geothermal and oceanic heat flux

Logistics Summary:
Researchers working on NASA's Operation IceBridge will employ specially instrumented aircraft to monitor the most sensitive and critical areas of sea ice, ice sheets and glaciers during the gap in satellite coverage caused by the failure of ICESat-1, in 2009, and the launch of ICESat-2, planned for late 2015. The first IceBridge flights were conducted in March/May 2009 over Greenland, and in October/November 2009 over Antarctica; they have continued yearly in the boreal spring (for the Arctic) and boreal fall (for Antarctica). In 2012, NASA will fly about 300 hours and more than 40 ICESat missions over and around Greenland in 2012. In 2012 PolarTREC teacher, Tim Spuck (0956825TS), will join the team. In 2013, PolarTREC teacher, Mark Buesing (0956825MMB) will join the team. And in 2014 PolarTREC teacher Russell Hood (1345146RH) will join. In 2016, IceBridge will conduct three campaigns to measure the impact of the melt season on Arctic sea and land ice. The first one will take place in Thule, Greenland for about a month mid April to mid May. The second one will take place in late July and will be based out of Barrow, Alaska, focusing on the sea ice cover in the Beaufort Sea. The third, planned for late August to early September, will be based in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, and repeat land ice missions that IceBridge completed in May, to measure how fast ice thins during the upcoming melt season. The Barrow campaign will last about two weeks, while the Kangerlussuaq deployment will go on for three weeks. In 2017 this National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Office of Naval Research (ONR) -funded effort provides a research-based field course at Thule Air Base, Greenland during the week of 09 Mar – 17 Mar. Approximately 14 participants (2-4 faculty and 6-8 students) will travel to Thule, Greenland to conduct work on the measurements of snow depth and drift distribution and sea-ice features as part of the NASA funded Operation IceBridge project. Students will also deploy and test a new ice buoy designed in collaboration with ONR and PI Rigor’s Arctic Observing eXperiment (AOX) project. Researchers will then work out of Fairbanks in March for a week, Svalbard in April for a week, return to Thule in April, and then work out of Kangerlussuaq for approximately 3 weeks at the end of April to mid May. In 2017 PolarTREC teacher, Adeena Teres (1630463AT) will join the team.

In 2009-2013 CPS will provide Air National Guard cargo airlift between Kangerlussuaq and Thule in both directions. NSF recoups these costs via an interagency funds transfer. IceBridge self-supports all other aspects of their field campaigns in Greenland using their own aircraft (mostly the NASA P-3), including lodging/meals in both Kanger and Thule. All other logistics will be planned and paid for by the grant, including all logistics in 2014. In 2016, CPS will provide space for an emergency part requirement AEY>SFJ on an existing Twin Otter charter, transport of two drums of fuel on ANG flight from Kanger to Raven Camp, and a small amount of ground support in Kanger.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2009Greenland - Thule0
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2010Greenland - Thule0
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2011Greenland - Thule0
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 01 / 2012 04 / 30 / 20121
2012Greenland - Thule04 / 04 / 2012 04 / 30 / 20121
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 03 / 2013 04 / 18 / 20131
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 07 / 2014 04 / 24 / 20141
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)08 / 23 / 2016 09 / 14 / 20161
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 23 / 2016 09 / 14 / 20161
2016Greenland - Thule04 / 16 / 2016 05 / 13 / 20161
2017Alaska - Fairbanks03 / 08 / 2017 03 / 15 / 20171
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 10 / 2017 05 / 03 / 20171
2017Greenland - Thule03 / 06 / 2017 04 / 29 / 20173
2017Norway - Svalbard0
2018Greenland - Thule03 / 06 / 2018 04 / 20 / 20182
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Nutritional Landscapes of Arctic Caribou: Observations, Experiments, and Models Provide Process-Level Understanding of Forage Traits and Trajectories (Award# 1602440)

PI: Leffler, Alan (Joshua) (alan.leffler@sdstate.edu)
Phone: 0(605) 688.6024 
Institute/Department: South Dakota State University, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Terrestrial Arctic systems are the result of complex interactions between climate, vegetation, herbivores, and humans that must be studied together to understand their functional traits. While low temperatures and short-growing seasons limit plant growth, enough plant biomass exists to support herds of migratory caribou, on which Alaska Natives depend. Any changes in the plants at the base of the food web can have cascading consequences for herbivores and human consumers and their interactions. Today, the Arctic system is in the midst of change resulting in new vegetation assemblages, changes in the nutritive value of plant tissues, and ultimately in the diets of migratory caribou and the humans that depend on them. This project examines the nutritional landscape of the Central Arctic Caribou Herd as a unifying concept, describing the nutritional landscape as caribou available protein (CAP) and caribou available energy (CAE), integrative forage quantity measures that reflect biomass, species composition, plant C and N content, digestibility, and secondary compounds. The core objectives are gaining understanding of the drivers of spatial and temporal patterns in the amounts of CAP and CAE across the tundra; caribou use of this nutritional landscape; how the amounts of CAP and CAE will differ in the future under likely climate scenarios and long-term experiments, and the interactions between caribou and Native communities. The broader impacts of this study involve several groups of Alaskan stakeholders, including: harvesters of the North Slope community of Nuiqsut, the worldwide caribou community, and students at multiple stages of education. The project will embed a team member with hunters in Nuiqsut, and develop an educational scientific documentary on the caribou - Alaska Native interactions for high school students. The group plans to employ village students and undergraduates affiliated with the Alaska Native Science and Engineering Program to assist with experimental work and vegetation collection at Toolik Lake. This research is significant to ecologists from the Circumarctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment Network, dedicated to caribou conservation and sustainable management in the US, Canada, and Scandinavia, who will use the data to consider how a suite of climate change scenarios affect herd fecundity and population dynamics. The intellectual merit of this project stems from the merging of five elements to understand Arctic System function and response to climate change: (1) A landscape-scale assessment of plant species, soil and plant C and N, digestibility, and secondary compounds that will be used to calculate the amounts of CAP (kg m-2) and CAE (kJ m-2); (2) analysis of how closely caribou foraging is tied to the nutritional landscape throughout the year; (3) analysis of samples from an existing long-term winter - summer climate change experiment to provide data on how CAP and CAE will differ in the future; (4) prediction of future nutritional landscapes and caribou foraging interactions; and (5) observations of Alaska Native hunter harvesting and attributes of the system that determine their spatial and temporal patterns. These project components will enable an integrative understanding of how an important herbivore, caribou, interact with a landscape that is rapidly changing. This research: (1) examines the Arctic System from primary production to secondary consumers and the influence of climate change across multiple trophic levels; (2) applies broadly by examining the most abundant large herbivore and its food sources, both of which are distributed throughout the Arctic; and (3) integrates experimental, observational, and modeling approaches to understanding ecological systems and climate change. The integration of observation, experimental data and modeling to describe current and forecast future nutritional landscapes is intended to provide a mechanistic understanding of Arctic System function and transform the understanding of climate-vegetation-caribou-subsistence hunter interactions.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Welker (1604249, UAA, Lead), Sexton (1604105, UMD), Leffler (1602440, SD State), Liston (1602898, CSU) and Kofinas (1604160, UAF) will examine the nutritional landscape of the Central Arctic Caribou Heard as a unifying concept in Arctic System Ecology. During the spring through fall in 2017 – 2019 research teams of between three and nine participants will sample vegetation along the migration route of the Central Arctic Caribou Heard and collar caribou to track migration. Logistic details under 1604249.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Coldfoot0
2017Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Coldfoot0
2018Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2019Alaska - Coldfoot0
2019Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
2019Alaska - Toolik0
 


Project Title: Investigating the Health and Wellbeing of Alaska Native Elderly in Northwest Alaska through Community Participatory Based Research Methods (Award# 1719404)

PI: Lewis , Jordan P (jplewis@alaska.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 786.4708 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Anchorage, WWAMI, School of Medical Education 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Social and Human Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
Alaska Native communities have a strong sense of respect for their older residents. In many Alaskan rural communities, whose primary population is Alaska Native people, the elderly are still relied upon for their deep knowledge and understanding of the natural environment, heritage languages, and cultural practices which are important not only for economic survival but social cohesion and community wellbeing. However, change is deeply affecting Alaska Native communities and Alaska Native people are forced to adapt to the new environmental, economic and social realities that affect their worlds. This research project will explore how Alaska Native elderly are adapting to rapid economic, environmental, and social change by exploring Alaska Native elderly and their own understanding and definition of what successful aging means to them. The current research project will establish a better understanding of successful aging from the perspectives of Alaska Native elderly in Northwest Alaska. Being the Principal Investigator’s second research project on this topic, this project has the potential to inform future studies of indigenous successful aging, studies that allow the elderly themselves to subjectively define for themselves what it means to age well. In the spirit of community-based participatory research, several communities in Northwest Alaska reached out to the principal investigator, Dr. Jordan Lewis (Aleut, Native Village of Naknek), to request that similar research be conducted in their region. They did so after learning of his "Successful Aging Study," which was carried out in Bristol Bay Alaska from 2007-2009 and brought awareness of the value of positive, or generative, focused research with the elderly, highlighting their lessons and knowledge for healthy aging. This research study will consist of 60 qualitative in-depth interviews with Alaska Native elderly to establish an indigenous understanding of what successful aging means for Alaska Natives in Northwest Alaska and what is required to age in place. Interviews will be conducted with Alaska Native elderly and their family members in their own homes in five participating communities, as well as those who have relocated to the Quyanna Care facility in Nome, Alaska. Through these interviews the research team will explore the concept of successful aging and hope to gain a sense of Alaska Native beliefs about aging, what is required to age in place and how relocation to facilities for the elderly impacts views of successful aging. In the spirit of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR), participants will be engaged through the entire research process, from conception to data analysis. Meetings will be held in participating communities to review the findings and receive feedback; this will ensure the findings reflect the unique perspectives of the Elders, families, communities, and region. These findings will also be compared with the previous study on successful aging conducted in Bristol Bay to compare and contrast experiences of aging in these two rural regions of Alaska. This study will also explore what is required to age in place to reduce or eliminate the need for the elderly to relocate - taking with them the language, culture, and history of the community. Previous research by the PI has shown that enabling older Alaskan Native people to remain in their homes and communities contributes to the health and wellbeing of the communities. The research will shed additional light on what it means to age well in rural Alaska and determine what role their community plays in how Alaska Native people subjectively define their aging process. The significance of this research advances discovery through the establishment of a locally and culturally informed, Alaska Native, understanding of successful aging that builds on the PI's previous projects. In addition to contributing to the academic literature on successful aging, it promotes teaching and learning from the Elders on healthy aging in rural Alaska. It also educates researchers on the importance of CBPR and allowing the elderly to subjectively define their aging process, as well as engaging the local community throughout the entire research process, which promotes the coproduction of knowledge and bi-directional learning. This research project broadens the participation of underrepresented groups (Alaska Natives) and puts them on equal footing with the scientists in interpreting results and in presenting the results. This research also has the potential to contribute to the disciplines of anthropology, gerontology, community psychology, sociology, and others by paving the way for future researchers interested in indigenous aging. The research findings can influence health and social policy in Alaska and how healthcare and long-term support services are delivered to older residents in rural communities. The results of this research will be published and be disseminated for other researchers, gerontologists, anthropologists, and students to use with the permission of the tribal governing authorities, the Alaska Native participants and their communities. This study will also highlight that aging does not have to equal poor health and immobility; aging well should be a right that can be attained by everyone. This research has the potential to inform health professionals, policy advocates, local and state officials about the factors that determine whether or not rural Alaska communities are able to meet the needs of their elderly and enable them to live their remaining years as they may wish.

Logistics Summary:
This research project will address whether Alaska Natives will be able to age well and successfully in their home communities/regions at a time when rural Alaska communities are experiencing social change and transition. Researchers will work collaboratively with tribal communities to develop culturally appropriate home-based and long-term care and support services unique to their culture, geography, and demographics based on the live experiences of those who are aging well in homes and long term care facilities in rural Alaska. In Spring 2017, the PI and a graduate student will travel twice to six rural Alaskan villages (Nome, Unalakleet, Shaktoolik, Stebbins, St. Michael, Koyuk) to obtain tribal approvals, introduce the project, answer questions, and recruit participants. In Fall 2017, the graduate student will return to the same villages to conduct one on one interviews with approximately 60 Alaska Native (AN) Elders to establish an indigenous understanding of what successful aging means for AN in Northwest Alaska and what is required to age in place. The graduate student will make a second trip in year two to present preliminary findings. Note* In 2016 the original grant 1522744 was transferred to 1719404 when the PI moved institutions from University of Washington to University of Alaska, Anchorage. No field work had been conducted under the original grant.

All logistics will be organized by the researcher and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Koyuk05 / 12 / 2017 05 / 15 / 20171
2017Alaska - Nome05 / 25 / 2017 05 / 28 / 20171
2017Alaska - Shaktoolik05 / 15 / 2017 05 / 17 / 20171
2017Alaska - St. Michael Island05 / 20 / 2017 05 / 23 / 20171
2017Alaska - Stebbins05 / 17 / 2017 05 / 20 / 20171
2017Alaska - Unalakleet05 / 10 / 2017 05 / 12 / 20171
2018Alaska - Koyuk05 / 13 / 2018 05 / 14 / 20182
2018Alaska - Nome05 / 16 / 2018 05 / 18 / 20182
2018Alaska - Shaktoolik05 / 14 / 2018 05 / 15 / 20182
2018Alaska - St. Michael Island05 / 12 / 2018 05 / 13 / 20182
2018Alaska - Stebbins05 / 11 / 2018 05 / 12 / 20182
2018Alaska - Unalakleet05 / 10 / 2018 05 / 11 / 20182
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: The WArming and irRadiance Measurement (WARM) buoy: Assessing the role of solar energy in heating, photosynthesis, and photo-oxidation in the upper Arctic (Award# 1602521)

PI: Light, Bonnie (bonnie@apl.washington.edu)
Phone: 0(206) 543.9824 
Institute/Department: U of Washington, Polar Science Center 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://psc.apl.washington.edu/UpTempO/Data.php
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The WARM buoy collects measurements of light, temperature, salinity and phytoplankton abundance under the Arctic sea ice. The Arctic ice pack has suffered continued thinning and reduction in seasonal extent, resulting in changes to the amount of sunlight penetrating through the ice and into the ocean beneath, having consequences for the physical and biological environment. Sunlight absorbed by the ocean under the ice causes warming, which can lead to accelerated ice melt resulting in even more sunlight reaching the ocean. In addition, warmer water also affects living organisms, influencing the ability of Arctic adapted species to survive, and possibly promoting the northward advancement of sub-Arctic species. Thinner ice also increases light available for photosynthesis, affecting the timing of phytoplankton blooms. If phytoplankton growth occurs early in the season then zooplankton, the organisms that feed on them can miss the bloom with consequences for the entire food web of the Arctic. This project aims to provide observations to help determine how the under-ice environment is changing by using autonomous buoys which overcome the limitations of ship-based observations. The buoys have proven to be very robust and can survive for approximately one year, providing hourly observations which will be available in near-real time to the research community and interested public parties. The buoys will be deployed in early spring in the western Beaufort Sea, with anticipated drift west over the Chukchi Shelf. This project will continue the WARM buoy initiative by improving the existing design to include increased vertical resolution of temperature and light measurements, the addition of salinity measurement to enable water mass identification, and a second fluorometer to identify sinking phytoplankton biomass. The data collected will provide a time series of important physical and biogeochemical properties over a complete seasonal cycle. It will enable us to address questions related to the effects of a thinner and more open ice pack on the absorption of solar radiation, ocean heating, the phenology of pelagic primary production, and carbon cycling. The buoys have proven to be very robust and can survive for approximately one year, providing hourly observations which will be available in near real time to the research community and interested public parties. The buoys will be deployed in early spring in the western Beaufort Sea, with anticipated drift west over the Chukchi Shelf. The Arctic ice pack acts as a barrier controlling the availability of UV and visible light to the water column. Continued thinning and reduction of seasonal Arctic ice has resulted in alterations in the timing and magnitude of solar radiation penetrating the upper Arctic Ocean. Amplification of solar radiation absorption into the ocean acts to warm and stratify the surface layer, which can induce further ice retreat and delay fall freeze-up. Resulting thermal stratification affects the ecosystem by limiting vertical replenishment of nutrients with a direct consequence on the magnitude of primary production. A warmer water column can also play a fundamental role in setting thresholds for the abundance and distribution of plankton communities, affecting trophic efficiency and promoting the northward advancement of sub-Arctic species. Thinner ice increases the light available for photosynthesis and net primary production, affecting the timing of primary production. Small timing mis-match between phytoplankton blooms and zooplankton reproductive cycles can have consequences for the entire lipid-driven Arctic marine ecosystem. Changes in the duration of UV exposure through longer open water periods has the potential to increase photochemical remineralization of terrestrial and marine organic matter and production of labile organic material that can be used by microbes. Determining the impact of solar radiation changes on warming, primary production, and photochemistry are all critical in assessing and predicting the effects of climate change on the marine carbon cycle. The measurement of these variables within and beneath the seasonal ice pack is challenging due to the limitations of ship based observations, but this can be resolved by using the autonomous WARM buoys deployed within the ice and designed to survive ice melt.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Hill (1603548, ODU) and Light (1602521, UW) will assess the role of solar energy in heating, photosynthesis, and photo-oxidation in the upper Arctic. This project is a continuation of an Arctic Overserving Network (AON) project to measure the penetration of solar radiation, temperature, and biological characteristics beneath first-year pack ice during ice covered, melting and open water phases (The WArming and irRadiance Measurement project (WARM). Logistics details under 1603548.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
2018Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
 


Project Title: Collaborative research: Developing a System Model of Arctic Glacial Lake Sedimentation for Investigating Past and Future Climate Change (Award# 1418274)

PI: Liljedahl, Anna (akliljedahl@alaska.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 474.1951 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...
Project: http://www2.nau.edu/arcss-p/
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Accurate records of natural variability that cover broad temporal and spatial scales, and that capture intervals of non-linear change are needed to fully comprehend the arctic system. This project aims to develop the first system model to simulate the full chain of processes that control how weather and climate affect the processes that lead to deposition of a sediment record in lakes in glaciated watersheds. This model provides an alternative approach to previous statistically-based models traditionally used by paleo-climatologists to infer past climate variability from lake sediment records. The new process-based quantitative understanding will lay the groundwork for future studies that will be aimed at recovering records of environmental and climate change that extend back thousands of years. This project will contribute to ongoing efforts through collaborations with: utility managers of the Municipality of Anchorage who are planning for diminished glacier meltwater input to Eklutna Lake, a major source of their electricity and freshwater and with resource managers at US Fish and Wildlife Service who are developing a monitoring network for the Arctic Refuge and who are striving to foresee future changes in habitat quality associated with glacier retreat. This project will benefit climate science researchers by leading to more accurate climate reconstructions, which will be used as benchmarks for validating global climate model output. Finally, it will support four early-career scientists and will train graduate and undergraduate students in system-science research.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this collaborative project between McKay (1418000, NAU), Liljedahl (1418274,UAF) and Loso (1418032, Alaska Pacific U) will develop a system model that encodes the major processes that govern the amount and grain size of sediment that accumulates in Arctic lakes in glaciated catchments, and to acquire the field-based data for model input and testing. Logistics details under 1418000.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Alaska - Eklutna Lake0
2015Alaska - Lake Peters0
2016Alaska - Eklutna Lake0
2016Alaska - Lake Peters0
2017Alaska - Eklutna Lake0
2017Alaska - Lake Peters0
2018Alaska - Eklutna Glacier0
2018Alaska - Lake Peters0
 


Project Title: Methane release from thermokarst lakes: Thresholds and feedbacks in the lake to watershed hydrology-permafrost system (Award# 1500931)

PI: Liljedahl, Anna (akliljedahl@alaska.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 474.1951 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, Water and Environmental Research Center 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences\Sources of Methane to the Atmosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://data.eol.ucar.edu
Data: http://data.iarc.uaf.edu
Project: http://dggs.alaska.gov/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
Methane is an important greenhouse gas, much more so than carbon dioxide over the short term. There is a lot of it in frozen ground, called permafrost, in the Arctic that can be released as the permafrost thaws, so warming in the Arctic can lead to more warming, a so-called positive feedback. Understanding such feedbacks is an important part of understanding how the arctic system works. Much of this process occurs at the bottoms of lakes, where some of the methane is frozen in lake sediments beneath the lake, but some also comes from under the permafrost deep under the lake. Methane release from the sub-permafrost environment under lakes would be a new and poorly understood feedback to the climate system. This project is a first step in exploring these processes within the hydrology-permafrost-methane lake-to-watershed system to inform future biogeochemical models for methane release. Since lakes in areas of discontinuous permafrost are common, the study domain will offer process-oriented insights that are applicable across the Arctic. The project will also train postdocs, graduate and undergraduate students and support an early-career scientist. In addition there will be outreach to science teachers and their students in fieldwork and classroom activities on lakes and integration of results into K-G12 curriculum through the National Geographic Society's Learning program, and to millions of National Geographic magazine readers, television viewers and K- G12 students. Further, the efforts will contribute to the Alaska Geological and Hydrological Survey program to develop a detailed understanding of Alaska's groundwater systems via the central involvement of the Alaska Geological and Geophysical Survey.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers will study the methane releases from the sub-permafrost environment under lakes in the Goldstream Creek Watershed near Fairbanks, AK. Results from the fieldwork and laboratory tests will inform future biogeochemical models for methane release to the atmosphere. Six to eight researchers will conduct research via day trips accessing study sites by personal vehicle from the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. Field work will take place throughout each year from September 2015 through August of 2017. Field activities include installation of meteorological towers, intensive studies of lakes, steam gaging, gas sampling, and mapping of the permafrost via installation of thermistors and an extensive helicopter Electromagnetic Sensor survey. Laboratory work and data analysis will complete the project in 2018. Via a sub-award, Ron Daanen will provide expertise and knowledge for the acquisition of the geophysical survey to map permafrost distribution in three dimensions. DGGS has expertise with geophysical data acquisition and will work closely with Daanen and the provider to assure data quality. The geophysical dataset will be made available through the DGGS website when data is approved by DGGS experts and considered of high quality.

All logistics will be organized by the researcher and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Alaska - Fairbanks09 / 01 / 2015 12 / 01 / 20156
2016Alaska - Fairbanks01 / 01 / 2016 12 / 01 / 20166
2017Alaska - Fairbanks01 / 01 / 2017 08 / 01 / 20176
 


Project Title: EAGER: Linking the Chlorine and Carbon Cycles in the Arctic Coastal Plain (Award# 1712774)

PI: Lipson, David (dlipson@mail.sdsu.edu)
Phone: 0(619) 594.4460 
Institute/Department: San Diego State University, Department of Biology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.metagenomics.anl.gov/
Data: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra
Data: https://arcticdata.io/
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
The element, chlorine, is not normally studied in natural environments, except in areas that have been contaminated with toxic compounds like pesticides, industrial solvents or radioactive 36Cl. It is often assumed that chlorine enters non-contaminated ecosystems mostly in the form of chloride (the same negative ion in table salt), and that chloride does not interact with plants or soil microorganisms. However, there is growing evidence that chloride is taken up and transformed by plants and soil microorganisms into complex chlorine-containing organic compounds. In environments where oxygen is scarce, some bacteria can use these chlorinated organic compounds instead of oxygen in a form of anaerobic respiration called organohalide respiration (OHR). In this way, these bacteria can quickly use up energy sources that would otherwise be used to produce methane. This means that an active biological chlorine cycle could reduce the amount of methane that is released into the atmosphere. Methane is a strong greenhouse gas, trapping about 30 times as much heat per molecule as carbon dioxide. The Arctic region has been warming faster than the rest of the planet, and large amounts of organic carbon are stored in Arctic soils. It is thus important to understand how much soil carbon will be lost to the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide or methane, since these two gases have different effects on the climate the climate system. This project measures rates of biological chlorine cycling in locations across the Arctic Coastal Plain of northern Alaska, and tests whether organohalide respiration does in fact significantly reduces methane production in these areas. This project could inform models of greenhouse gas emissions, improve understanding of the fate of chlorinated contaminants in Arctic soils, and further the basic science of biological chlorine cycling. The project will involve students at a minority-serving institution (San Diego State University) and a high school teacher, who will lead broader outreach and education efforts. This research addresses the following two questions: (1) Does OHR inhibit methanogenesis via competition for H2? (2) How does the relative magnitude of Cl cycling and its relationship to CH4 flux change along a coastal-inland gradient in the Arctic Coastal Plain? The experimental approach consists of a field survey that compares CH4 fluxes and indicators of Cl cycling along a gradient of coastal influence from Barrow to the foothills of the Brooks Range, and a laboratory incubation experiment to study the relationships among OHR, methanogenesis, other terminal electron acceptor processes, and H2 availability. Indicators of Cl cycling include sizes and transformation rates of soil Cl pools, metagenomes describing the relative abundance of genes and microbial taxa associated with Cl cycling and other anaerobic processes, and 37Cl and 36Cl isotopic analysis to infer the dominant Cl cycling processes and to constrain long-term cycling rates. The laboratory incubation will follow anaerobic processes (OHR, iron reduction, methanogenesis, acetogenesis, and sulfate reduction) in microcosms varying in Clorg and H2 concentration to establish the thermodynamic hierarchy among these processes and whether competition is alleviated by increased H2.

Logistics Summary:
This EAGER project will conduct of a field survey that compares methane fluxes and indicators of CL cycling along a gradient of coastal influence from Barrow to the foothills of the Brooks Range, and a laboratory incubation experiment to study the relationships among OHR, methanogenesis, other terminal electron acceptors processes and H2 availability. During June 2017, a team of three researchers will visit Toolik Field Station for four days. Then in 2018 a three-person research team will conduct two field campaigns for approximately one-week in May and one-week in July. The research team will use air support (both fixed-wing and helicopter), ATVs, and snowmachines to access a series of 10 field location along a latitudinal gradient between Barrow and Toolik Field Station.

In 2017, CPS will provide user days at Toolik Field Station. In 2018, CPS will provide user days at Toolik Field Station, lodging at Barrow and Atqasuk, helicopter and fixed-wing charters, truck rentals in Barrow and Prudhoe Bay, snowmachine and ATV rentals in Barrow, radios in Barrow, BARC lab space, assistance with UIC and NSB permitting, and safety and communications equipment. IAB will provide access to infrastructure and services at Toolik Field Station. All other logistics, including land use permits, will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Toolik06 / 01 / 2017 06 / 07 / 20173
2018Alaska - Atqasuk05 / 20 / 2018 07 / 14 / 20183
2018Alaska - Toolik05 / 20 / 2018 07 / 14 / 20183
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)05 / 20 / 2018 07 / 14 / 20183
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Snow, Wind, and Time: Understanding Snow Redistribution and Its Effects on Sea Ice Mass Balance (Award# 1602889)

PI: Liston, Glen E (Glen.Liston@colostate.edu)
Phone: 0(970) 491.8220 
Institute/Department: Colorado State University, Department of Atmospheric Chemistry 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Anjuli Bamzai (abamzai@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The insulating and reflective properties of snow substantially influence Arctic sea ice growth and decay. The overwhelming consensus within the scientific community is that the details of snow and sea ice interactions must be better incorporated in Earth System models, yet basic information on snow processes remains poorly quantified. The limited treatment of snow in Earth System models is largely based on datasets from field experiments on multi-year ice and does not capture changing snow properties and processes. Increasingly pervasive younger, thinner ice carries a different snowpack and is likely much more sensitive to snow conditions than the multi-year ice of the past. Predicting Arctic climate requires that we understand snow on sea ice and its interactions and feedbacks among the rest of the climate system components. A particularly important aspect of snow on sea ice is its fine-scale spatial redistribution. Wind-driven snow redistribution into dunes and drifts controls thermal fluxes and melt pond formation, exerting considerable control over ice mass balance. The principal investigators of this project will study snow distribution, its variability, and its effects on ice mass balance using an integrated field observation and modeling approach. This project will contribute to STEM workforce development in multiple fashions. It will provide support for an early-career scientist during his formative years. It will support the training of a graduate student. It will entrain undergraduate students and high school interns into the research effort. Outreach to local schools near the institutions of the principal investigators will be enabled through blogs and classroom presentations. The project will enable an outreach program targeted at improving science engagement at the Barrow schools. Field programs will track snow distributions over the course of a multi-month experiment, while modeling efforts will seek to reproduce the observed evolution of snow conditions. Lidar technology will track snow surface position as drifts build, erode, and migrate, creating time series of three-dimensional snow surface models with cm-scale accuracy. Snow properties observed in pit studies will be synthesized with surface position maps to construct a three-dimensional snow stratigraphy for model initialization and the study of aggregate snow thermal properties. The observations will be integrated into a pair of resolved-scale snow and sea ice models to quantify impacts of snow redistribution on sea ice mass balance through alteration of thermal conduction and melt pond formation. Model trials and development will permit investigation of the representations of snow redistribution in the models and will quantify the importance of snow processes on the annual ice mass balance. A library of prior field observations and short visits to offshore sites will be used to validate the generality of the field sites and assess the variability of snow distributions. The model will also be used to investigate how to best aggregate (or parameterize) snow properties and processes at coarser resolutions found in Earth System models. Findings and results will be shared with the Earth System modeling community to support development of improved snow-on-sea-ice representations.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this collaborative project between Polashenski (1603361, Dartmouth) and Liston (1602889, CSU) will study snow distribution, its variability, and its effects on ice mass balance using an integrated field observation and modeling approach. The field program will track snow distributions over the course of a multi-month experiment, while the modeling effort will seek to reproduce the observed evolution of snow conditions. Logistic details under 1603361.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Nutritional Landscapes of Arctic Caribou: Observations, Experiments, and Models Provide Process-Level Understanding of Forage Traits and Trajectories (Award# 1602898)

PI: Liston, Glen E (Glen.Liston@colostate.edu)
Phone: 0(970) 491.8220 
Institute/Department: Colorado State University, Department of Atmospheric Chemistry 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Terrestrial Arctic systems are the result of complex interactions between climate, vegetation, herbivores, and humans that must be studied together to understand their functional traits. While low temperatures and short-growing seasons limit plant growth, enough plant biomass exists to support herds of migratory caribou, on which Alaska Natives depend. Any changes in the plants at the base of the food web can have cascading consequences for herbivores and human consumers and their interactions. Today, the Arctic system is in the midst of change resulting in new vegetation assemblages, changes in the nutritive value of plant tissues, and ultimately in the diets of migratory caribou and the humans that depend on them. This project examines the nutritional landscape of the Central Arctic Caribou Herd as a unifying concept, describing the nutritional landscape as caribou available protein (CAP) and caribou available energy (CAE), integrative forage quantity measures that reflect biomass, species composition, plant C and N content, digestibility, and secondary compounds. The core objectives are gaining understanding of the drivers of spatial and temporal patterns in the amounts of CAP and CAE across the tundra; caribou use of this nutritional landscape; how the amounts of CAP and CAE will differ in the future under likely climate scenarios and long-term experiments, and the interactions between caribou and Native communities. The broader impacts of this study involve several groups of Alaskan stakeholders, including: harvesters of the North Slope community of Nuiqsut, the worldwide caribou community, and students at multiple stages of education. The project will embed a team member with hunters in Nuiqsut, and develop an educational scientific documentary on the caribou - Alaska Native interactions for high school students. The group plans to employ village students and undergraduates affiliated with the Alaska Native Science and Engineering Program to assist with experimental work and vegetation collection at Toolik Lake. This research is significant to ecologists from the Circumarctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment Network, dedicated to caribou conservation and sustainable management in the US, Canada, and Scandinavia, who will use the data to consider how a suite of climate change scenarios affect herd fecundity and population dynamics. The intellectual merit of this project stems from the merging of five elements to understand Arctic System function and response to climate change: (1) A landscape-scale assessment of plant species, soil and plant C and N, digestibility, and secondary compounds that will be used to calculate the amounts of CAP (kg m-2) and CAE (kJ m-2); (2) analysis of how closely caribou foraging is tied to the nutritional landscape throughout the year; (3) analysis of samples from an existing long-term winter - summer climate change experiment to provide data on how CAP and CAE will differ in the future; (4) prediction of future nutritional landscapes and caribou foraging interactions; and (5) observations of Alaska Native hunter harvesting and attributes of the system that determine their spatial and temporal patterns. These project components will enable an integrative understanding of how an important herbivore, caribou, interact with a landscape that is rapidly changing. This research: (1) examines the Arctic System from primary production to secondary consumers and the influence of climate change across multiple trophic levels; (2) applies broadly by examining the most abundant large herbivore and its food sources, both of which are distributed throughout the Arctic; and (3) integrates experimental, observational, and modeling approaches to understanding ecological systems and climate change. The integration of observation, experimental data and modeling to describe current and forecast future nutritional landscapes is intended to provide a mechanistic understanding of Arctic System function and transform the understanding of climate-vegetation-caribou-subsistence hunter interactions.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Welker (1604249, UAA, Lead), Sexton (1604105, UMD), Leffler (1602440, SD State), Liston (1602898, CSU) and Kofinas (1604160, UAF) will examine the nutritional landscape of the Central Arctic Caribou Heard as a unifying concept in Arctic System Ecology. During the spring through fall in 2017 – 2019 research teams of between three and nine participants will sample vegetation along the migration route of the Central Arctic Caribou Heard and collar caribou to track migration. Logistic details under 1604249.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Coldfoot0
2017Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Coldfoot0
2018Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2019Alaska - Coldfoot0
2019Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
2019Alaska - Toolik0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Vegetation And Ecosystem Impacts On Permafrost Vulnerability (Award# 1417745)

PI: Loranty, Michael (mloranty@colgate.edu)
Phone: 0(315) 228.7451 
Institute/Department: Colgate University,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Nontechnical Realistic representations of heat exchange in permafrost ecosystems are necessary for accurate predictive understanding of the permafrost carbon feedback under future climate scenarios. This project will provide a quantitative pan-arctic assessment of the effects of vegetation and landscape characteristics on permafrost thermal regimes. By working across ecosystems, landscape characteristics, and regions, the research will identify broad trends, and intensive energy balance sites will provide a mechanistic study of ecosystem impacts on permafrost response to climate change. The impacts of this study will be enhanced through integration of research results into regional and site-specific permafrost models and synthesis activities that will examine ecosystem impacts on energy balance and permafrost vulnerability to climate change. This work will have broad impacts on the scientific community and general public because it brings together important issues in the global environment and raises awareness of the connection between ecosystem dynamics and permafrost thaw. The proposed project will provide training opportunities for undergraduate students through collaboration between the researchers and an NSF funded field research experience for undergraduates. The researchers will mentor several students as part of this proposed work and will also teach two arctic system science courses at a predominantly undergraduate institution. This project will enhance scientific understanding through continued work with education centers, local communities and, in particular, with teachers and outreach coordinators. Technical Significant declines in permafrost distribution are expected as the climate warms, but large uncertainties remain in determining the fate of permafrost under future climate scenarios. These uncertainties are driven, in large part, by vegetation and ecosystem properties that modulate the effect of climate on permafrost temperatures. Long-term monitoring of permafrost temperatures demonstrates the importance of these local conditions, yet there has been no pan-arctic effort to measure ecological and landscape variables in concert with permafrost temperature monitoring. This project will use a combination of field and remotely-sensed data to address the question of how vegetation and landscape factors modulate permafrost temperature response to climate change. To address this question the researchers will couple an extensive pan-arctic assessment of vegetation-permafrost dynamics with an intensive study of shrub and tree canopy cover effects on ecosystem energy balance. The first component of this research will be conducted at long-term permafrost temperature monitoring sites in Siberia and Alaska, and the second component, the vegetation-energy balance sites that will be established as part of this proposal, will be conducted at a shrub-tree canopy cover gradient in Siberia, where most permafrost regions are located. These intensively studied energy balance sites will provide an improved mechanistic understanding of the effects of ecosystem components, and interactions among these components, on ecosystem energy balance and permafrost vulnerability to climate change. This mechanistic knowledge will, in turn, support interpretation of broad patterns observed through a pan-arctic sampling of the permafrost temperature monitoring sites.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Natali (1417700, WHRC), Loranty (1417745, Colgate U) and Kholodov (1417908, UAF) will utilize a combination of field and remotely sensed data to understand how vegetation and landscape factors might modulate permafrost temperature response to climate change. Logistic details under 1417700.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Alaska - Coldfoot0
2015Alaska - Nome0
2015Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
2015Alaska - Toolik0
2015Russia - Cherskii0
2016Alaska - Coldfoot0
2016Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2016Russia - Cherskii0
2016Russia - Chokurdakh0
2017Alaska - Coldfoot0
2017Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2017Russia - Cherskii0
2018Alaska - Coldfoot0
2018Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2018Russia - Cherskii0
 


Project Title: Collaborative research: Developing a System Model of Arctic Glacial Lake Sedimentation for Investigating Past and Future Climate Change (Award# 1418032)

PI: Loso, Michael G (mloso@alaskapacific.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 564.8263 
Institute/Department: Alaska Pacific University,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...
Project: http://www2.nau.edu/arcss-p/
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Accurate records of natural variability that cover broad temporal and spatial scales, and that capture intervals of non-linear change are needed to fully comprehend the arctic system. This project aims to develop the first system model to simulate the full chain of processes that control how weather and climate affect the processes that lead to deposition of a sediment record in lakes in glaciated watersheds. This model provides an alternative approach to previous statistically-based models traditionally used by paleo-climatologists to infer past climate variability from lake sediment records. The new process-based quantitative understanding will lay the groundwork for future studies that will be aimed at recovering records of environmental and climate change that extend back thousands of years. This project will contribute to ongoing efforts through collaborations with: utility managers of the Municipality of Anchorage who are planning for diminished glacier meltwater input to Eklutna Lake, a major source of their electricity and freshwater and with resource managers at US Fish and Wildlife Service who are developing a monitoring network for the Arctic Refuge and who are striving to foresee future changes in habitat quality associated with glacier retreat. This project will benefit climate science researchers by leading to more accurate climate reconstructions, which will be used as benchmarks for validating global climate model output. Finally, it will support four early-career scientists and will train graduate and undergraduate students in system-science research.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this collaborative project between McKay (1418000, NAU), Liljedahl (1418274,UAF) and Loso (1418032, Alaska Pacific U) will develop a system model that encodes the major processes that govern the amount and grain size of sediment that accumulates in Arctic lakes in glaciated catchments, and to acquire the field-based data for model input and testing. Logistics details under 1418000.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Alaska - Eklutna Lake0
2015Alaska - Lake Peters0
2016Alaska - Eklutna Lake0
2016Alaska - Lake Peters0
2017Alaska - Eklutna Glacier0
2017Alaska - Lake Peters0
2018Alaska - Eklutna Glacier0
2018Alaska - Lake Peters0
 


Project Title: Research Opportunities in the Arctic for Minorities (ROAM2): Elucidating drivers of Arctic ecosystem responses to global change (Award# 1612212)

PI: Lougheed, Vanessa L (vlougheed@utep.edu)
Phone: 0(915) 747.6887 
Institute/Department: U of Texas, El Paso (UTEP), Biological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\PSI
Program Manager: Ms. Elizabeth Rom (elrom@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://cybershare.utep.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Few undergraduate programs appear to be adequately designed to prepare students with data analysis skills, especially as these pertain to Arctic Science. In order to address urgent challenges and needs in both student training and global-change science, the overarching goal of this project is to train students at this Hispanic-serving institution to be leading data professionals capable in cross-disciplinary collaboration, team science, and scientific communication. The program will center on the infusion of quantitative skills development in course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) spanning an undergraduate curriculum that addresses data intensive challenges in Arctic ecosystem ecology. Using legacy and recent Arctic data resources for the Barrow area in northernmost Alaska, together with field experiences and lab-based manipulations, the PIs will orchestrate authentic, collaborative research experiences, where students will develop research questions, collect, analyze, and synthesize data, and communicate results in scientifically valid venues on topics that have yet to be investigated. This projectl builds on the PIs prior success with both International Polar Year funding for a program that took underserved students to Antarctica (PLR 0632360), funding for undergraduate cyberinfrastructure training (DUE 0733055), and funding for a GK-12 program (DGE 0947993). A series of novel and vertically integrated CUREs will be designed that are: i) implemented in both lower and upper-division courses; b) focused in the area of data-intensive ecosystem ecology; and c) constructed in a manner intended to enhance students' cognitive and non-cognitive attributes. Arctic ecologists and a specialist in education research will collaborate to design the CUREs and complete a formal evaluation of the educational impact of the proposed activities. Tutorials implemented across the curriculum, as well as web-based resources, will facilitate skills development and transfer of knowledge and data. Nearly 200 students will be impacted directly by this program, which will serve to reinforce a pipeline of students, especially Hispanic students, into UTEP graduate programs. Existing archived Arctic data resources will be applied in a training environment; new complementary data will be collected, integrated, analyzed, published and archived using standardized format and best practice. Through contributions to CUREnet and other online media, the PIs will also support adoption by other institutions. Presentations of results will occur at local to national scales and be published in peer-reviewed journals, and additional outreach activities in El Paso and Barrow will also impact high school and community college students.

Logistics Summary:
The program supports a field course that will center on the infusion of quantitative skills development in course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) spanning an undergraduate curriculum that addresses data intensive challenges in Arctic ecosystem ecology. Participants will use legacy and recent Arctic data resources for the Barrow, Alaska area, together with field experiences and lab-based manipulations, to orchestrate collaborative research experiences, where students will develop research questions, collect, analyze, and synthesize data. During August 2017 and 2018, a field course of up to eight students and instructors will develop and conduct individual research projects while working in Barrow for approximately two weeks. In 2017 PolarTREC teacher, Ruth Rodriguez (1630463RR) will join the team.

CPS will provide lodging, truck rentals, assistance with UIC and NSB permitting, radios, and bear guards. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)07 / 25 / 2017 08 / 10 / 20179
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)07 / 25 / 2018 08 / 10 / 20188
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Sustainability of critical areas for eiders and subsistence hunters in an industrializing nearshore zone (Award# 1263051)

PI: Lovvorn, James R (lovvorn@siu.edu)
Phone: 0(307) 399.7441 
Institute/Department: Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Zoology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://eloka-arctic.org
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=12...

Science Summary:
For this project researchers will model habitat requirements and map viable prey densities for a formerly hunted but now threatened species (Spectacled Eider, SPEI) and a commonly hunted species (King Eider, KIEI) in the Chukchi nearshore zone, and determine long-term variability in the eiders' access to those areas through the ice. Researchers will refine these maps with traditional ecological knowledge on conditions and areas where hunting for KIEI typically occurs. They will estimate probabilities that different eider feeding areas that are accessible through the ice and conducive to hunting would be eliminated during migration by oil spills from pipelines built along four alternative routes. Researchers will use this information to inform structured decision-making workshops we will hold in the Native community. These workshops will help create a local vision for sustainability, in terms of potential risks of different pipeline routes to subsistence and cultural values of eiders, relative to cash benefits of local construction projects. Local villagers will be involved in creating and shaping the data set, and will be the main participants in structured decision-making workshops. The team will integrate the work with outreach and education programs conducted in these villages by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This project will yield important information for future evaluations and decision-making by Endangered Species and Migratory Bird Management Offices. The modern scientific and traditional ecological data, and facilitation of community consensus-building, will expedite later impact assessments by BOEM and other agencies as oilfield development proceeds. On a hemispheric scale, the approach developed will serve as a prototype applicable to the many such situations developing across the Arctic.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Lovvorn (1263051, SIU), Huntington (1262803, Huntington Consulting), and Hollmen (1262825, AK SeaLife) focuses on eiders, eider habitats, and developing a decision making process by which scientific data, traditional ecological knowledge, and cultural values can be considered by local villagers as they formulate a vision for sustainability. Researchers will make one or more preliminary visits to the villages – Wainwright, Point Lay, and Point Hope – who depend on access to eiders for subsistence hunting. Starting in spring 2014 researchers will meet with local officials and citizens, and to make presentations that explain the field work, interviews, and workshops. Workshops, outreach and continuing interviews will also be held each fall from 2014-2017, with local hunters in Wainwright and Point Lay.

All logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)05 / 12 / 2014 10 / 16 / 20143
2014Alaska - Wainwright05 / 12 / 2014 10 / 16 / 20143
2015Alaska - Point Hope05 / 12 / 2015 09 / 21 / 20155
2015Alaska - Point Lay05 / 12 / 2015 09 / 21 / 20155
2015Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)01 / 12 / 2015 09 / 21 / 20156
2015Alaska - Wainwright01 / 12 / 2015 09 / 21 / 20155
2016Alaska - Point Hope05 / 12 / 2016 09 / 21 / 20165
2016Alaska - Point Lay05 / 12 / 2016 09 / 21 / 20165
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)05 / 12 / 2016 09 / 21 / 20165
2016Alaska - Wainwright05 / 12 / 2016 09 / 21 / 20165
2017Alaska - Point Hope05 / 12 / 2017 09 / 21 / 20175
2017Alaska - Point Lay05 / 12 / 2017 09 / 21 / 20175
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)05 / 12 / 2017 09 / 21 / 20175
2017Alaska - Wainwright05 / 12 / 2017 09 / 21 / 20175
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: The roles of plant roots, mycorrhizal fungi and uptake of deep nitrogen in the permafrost carbon feedback to warming climate (Award# 1504312)

PI: Mack, Michelle C (michelle.mack@nau.edu)
Phone: 0(928) 523.9415 
Institute/Department: Northern Arizona University, Department of Biological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Logistics: http://toolik.alaska.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Release of carbon frozen in permafrost (frozen ground) has been identified as one of the strongest and most likely positive feedbacks between the biosphere and the warming climate. Permafrost nitrogen release has the potential to stabilize the response of the carbon cycle to climate warming because it is a negative, within-system feedback. It could confer resilience to ecosystem-atmosphere interactions in a warming Arctic. The research under this award will advance understanding of the arctic system by incorporating this feedback into a terrestrial biosphere model used extensively by the community for forecasting arctic environmental change and its links to the Earth system. The collaborative nature of the project will build partnerships between ecosystem ecologists and molecular biologists, creating new knowledge about the role of plant-fungal mutualisms in Earth system feedback cycles. The project will support career development of two female arctic scientists at the postdoctoral or new faculty level. It will contribute to the training of two graduate students in biogeosciences, ecology, and molecular biology, and provide an authentic field or laboratory research experience for about twenty undergraduate students. The project will contribute to broadening participation of under-represented groups in ecological and environmental sciences. About 1,700 Pg of organic carbon (C) reside in the permafrost soils and sediments of Arctic and Boreal regions. Because this stock is more than twice the size of the atmospheric C pool, there is considerable interest in understanding how the C balance of permafrost ecosystems will respond to observed and predicted climate warming. As permafrost soils thaw, organic matter that has been cryogenically protected for hundreds to thousands of years is exposed to microbial decomposition and released to the atmosphere as greenhouse gases. One key factor that may strongly influence C balance in these ecosystems is the concurrent release of nitrogen (N), the element most likely to limit plant productivity. Release of N at or after thaw could increase plant N availability, stimulate plant C uptake and offset or balance permafrost C emissions. Although scientists acknowledge the key role N is likely to play in the permafrost C feedback to climate, there have been few empirical studies of the factors that control its fate in warming permafrost ecosystems. The objective of this project is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the role of permafrost N in the C balance of Alaskan tundra landscapes underlain by permafrost soils. The project will focus on plant acquisition of permafrost N because in most N-limited terrestrial ecosystems, plant uptake is the dominant fate of N released by microbial processes. Plants depend on fungal partners to access N beyond the reach of roots, so this research will also focus on plant mycorrhizal status and fungal community composition to elucidate the role fungal symbionts play in plant N acquisition. Finally, other fates of permafrost N will be explored, including stasis and loss. Proposed research will explore three general questions: What is the potential for release of plant-available nitrogen from thawing permafrost soil organic matter; what proportion of N released deep in the soil profile, at the base of the active layer, is acquired by mycorrhizae and plants and what are the key biotic and abiotic factors that control acquisition; and how will permafrost thaw and N release affect net ecosystem carbon balance and net biogeochemical radiative forcing from permafrost thaw at local and regional scales? The research approach includes three elements: observations of plants, fungi and soils across a regional survey of upland tundra ecological landscape units on the North Slope of the Brooks Range, Alaska; occupying intensive research sites in cold and warm moist acidic tundra, where measurements of mycorrhizal fungi and plant N acquisition and N loss will be made within long-term warming experiments and well-characterized natural thaw gradients; and modeling and regional integration with a terrestrial biosphere model specifically developed to simulate C and N dynamics in high latitude systems.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Mack (1504312, NAU), Taylor (1504496, UNM) and Genet (1504091, UAF) will focus on plant acquisition of permafrost nitrogen and will explore the potential and proportion of release of plant-available nitrogen from thawing permafrost soil organic matter. During the summers of 2016 – 2018, a team of 4-5 researchers (with exchanges in and out) will conduct fieldwork based out of Toolik Field Station (CPS supported) and at Eight Mile Lake during years 2015 and 2016 . In 2016, the team will first go into the field for approximately five days in mid June with five people. And then return in August for another two weeks. Also in 2016 PolarTREC teacher Nell Kemp (1525880NK) will join the team at Toolik Field Station.

In years 2016-2018, CPS will provide Toolik user days. IAB will provide access to infrastructure and services at Toolik Field Station. All other logistics, including land use permits and the work at Eight Mile Lake, will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Alaska - Eightmile Lake07 / 20 / 2015 09 / 10 / 20159
2016Alaska - Eightmile Lake09 / 01 / 2016 09 / 05 / 20167
2016Alaska - Toolik06 / 26 / 2016 08 / 26 / 201613
2017Alaska - Toolik08 / 10 / 2017 08 / 20 / 20174
2018Alaska - Toolik08 / 10 / 2018 08 / 20 / 20184
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Shrub Impacts on Nitrogen Inputs and Turnover in the Arctic, and the Potential Feedbacks to Vegetation and Climate Change (Award# 1556496)

PI: Mack, Michelle C (michelle.mack@nau.edu)
Phone: 0(928) 523.9415 
Institute/Department: Northern Arizona University, Department of Biological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\BIO\DEB
Program Manager: Dr. Matthew Kane (mkane@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://arc-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
Ecosystems develop and change through interactions between living organisms and their physical environment. A shift in vegetation is one of the most important changes an ecosystem can experience, because it can alter exchanges of energy (originating from sunlight), water, and elements such as carbon and nitrogen, among air, plants, and soil. In the Arctic, a widespread shift from tundra to shrub-dominated vegetation appears to be occurring. This research project will discern whether, through complex interactions, this transition to shrublands in the Arctic is likely to result in the release of more carbon into the air (as either carbon dioxide or methane, which are both greenhouse gases). Vast amounts of carbon are stored in Arctic and northern soils, so reduced carbon storage in the Arctic may affect weather and climate in other parts of the world. This project will assess the contributions of different shrub feedbacks to carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling. Snow depth will be manipulated with existing snow fences across a natural gradient of shrub density and height, and a new snowfence experiment will be established in alders. Shrub-induced changes in soil C over the longer term in one ecosystem will be examined in an 18-year-old species removal experiment. Shrub growth, primary production, and biomass will be measured. Long-term effects of added snow on ecosystem N partitioning and shrub N uptake will be measured in a 15N tracer experiment. N fixation will be measured in alder populations and moss communities associated with shrubs. The relative strengths of different shrub feedbacks to N availability and uptake by vegetation will be evaluated. This project will improve prediction of the consequences of shrub expansion in the Arctic, and its potential impacts on regional and global climate. Results will contribute to training of graduate and undergraduate students, to public outreach and training of K-12 teachers and students, and to development of a web-based resource for education.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Bret-Harte (1556481, Lead, UAF) and Mack (1556496, NAU) will evaluate shrub feedbacks to carbon and nitrogen cycling in the Arctic that involve both soil organic matter turnover and new nitrogen inputs. The work will facilitate prediction of the biogeochemical consequences of shrub expansion, particularly alder expansion, in the Arctic. See 1556481 for logistic details.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2019Alaska - Toolik0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Birnirk prehistory and the emergence of Inupiaq Culture in Northwestern Alaska, archaeological and anthropological perspectives. (Award# 1523205)

PI: Mason, Owen K (geoarch85@gmail.com)
Phone: 0(907) 441.5598 
Institute/Department: U of Colorado, Boulder, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Social and Human Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: http://www.uaf.edu/aqc/
Data: http://www.uaf.edu/geology/

Science Summary:
This multidisciplinary program of research will explore human interaction, settlement history, climate and landscape dynamics in relation to the Birnirk archaeological complex at ca. AD 1000. After a period of hiatus, Birnirk site KTZ-304 at Cape Espenberg (Inuigniq) was occupied at a pivotal cultural and environmental moment in Northwest Alaska and the larger Bering Sea region, just before AD 1000 and prior to the emergence of Inupiaq culture around AD 1300. Cape Espenberg is a key location for this cultural history both because of the presence of Ipiutak, Birnik and Thule archaeological sites and as ancestral land of today’s Kigiqtaamiut of Shishmaref. Interrelated and integrated analytical approaches involving cultural and physical anthropology, archaeology and paleoecology will (a) form the framework for continued excavation at site KTZ-304 (b) contribute to study architectural features, archaeofauna, ceramics, and artifacts in order to elucidate social networks, subsistence systems and technology, and to understand the impact of climate and resource availability on peoples’ activities, decisions and movements; (c) guide the collecting of paleoenvironmental data through targeted sampling of swales and ridges to date dune ridge stabilization, reconstruct terrestrial vegetation and map the location of the ocean relative to the site; (d) integrate ancient DNA (aDNA) studies to establish the broader genetic relationships of Inuit societies in the region and beyond; (e) explore how Kigiqtaamiut interpret material culture to understand the past, narrate history and generate knowledge; (f) foster a dialog on the role of material culture today in the community of Shishmaref and between the Kigiqtaamiut and the scientists to construct more reflexive interpretations of the past, and thus; (g) advance understanding of the origin of Inupiaq culture through the development of a high-resolution chronology of settlement and landscape formation, cultural shift and climate variation. This research will offer the opportunity to relate social processes and population dispersal to environmental change by obtaining data from a diverse group of disciplines. By combining aDNA and cultural anthropology, it will be possible to address the genetic legacy of Inupiat peoples while learning how Kigiqtaamiut construct, understand, and articulate their history. In turn, it will foster a dialogue not only across disciplines but also among researchers and the local community. The archaeological component will provide a detailed and discrete view of technological and subsistence condition at a key moment of AD 1000 to explore Birnirk as a potential newcomer in the cultural chronology, addressing the long-standing hypotheses of colonization on the one hand and continuity and subsequent in situ development on the other. Paleoecological data will provide climatic yardsticks for storminess and seashore history during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the onset of the Little Ice Age, a poorly understood interval in northwest Alaska. New tree-ring data will contribute to the long-term process of building tree ring chronologies for the last 1500 years in Alaska.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Alix (1523160, UAF), O'Rourke (1732344, U of Kansas Center for Research), Anderson (1523079, PSU), and Mason (1523205, INSTAAR, CU) will conduct three years of research (2016-2018) exploring human interaction, settlement history, climate and landscape dynamics in relation to the Birnirk archaeological complex at ca. AD 1000. By combining aDNA and cultural anthropology, this project will address the genetic legacy of Inupiat peoples while learning how kigiqtaamiut construct, understand, and articulate their history. Logistic details under 1523160.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Cape Espenberg0
2017Alaska - Cape Espenberg0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: AON: The Arctic Great Rivers Observatory (Arctic-GRO) (Award# 1602680)

PI: McClelland, James W (jimm@utexas.edu)
Phone: 0(361) 749.6756 
Institute/Department: U of Texas, Austin, Marine Science Institute 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences\Biogeochemistry | Geological Sciences\Climate Change | Geological Sciences\Hydrology | Geological Sciences\Rivers |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://www.arcticgreatrivers.org
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Just like changes in blood chemistry can be used to diagnose an individual's health, so too can changes in river water chemistry be used to evaluate the condition of a river's watershed. In the Arctic, six massive rivers capture freshwater runoff from two-thirds of the land area that drains to the Arctic Ocean. The chemistry of this runoff reflects watershed characteristics (e.g. soil composition), and carries essential nutrients to the marine environment. The overarching scientific objective of the Arctic Great Rivers Observatory (Arctic-GRO) is to make sustained observations of the chemistry of these six large rivers, which is vital for assessing changes on land that subsequently impact physical, chemical, and biological properties of the Arctic Ocean. The project involves partnerships with the Yukon River Intertribal Watershed Council, The Pilot Station Traditional Council, the Gwichya Gwich'in Renewable Resource Council, and with the University of Alaska at Kuskowkwin community college that serves the largely Yup’ik residents of the Yukon-Kuskowkwim Delta. . The six rivers included in the Arctic Great Rivers Observatory are the Yukon and Mackenzie in North American and the Ob, Yenisey, Lena, and Kolyma in Eurasia. The rivers will be sampled near their mouths, every two months for three years, using identical sample collection and preservation protocols. Approximately 40 parameters will be measured on all samples including dissolved and particulate organic carbon concentrations and isotopic compositions, concentrations of dissolved nutrients, major ions, and trace elements, and optical properties of dissolved organic matter, including UV absorbance and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices. For QA/QC purposes, every analysis will be conducted at a single laboratory. The resulting data, along with complementary data on river discharge, will be made available without restriction at the Arctic-GRO website (arcticgreatrivers.org) and through the NSF Arctic Data Center. Arctic-GRO data, which build on observatory records that extend back to 2003, provide valuable end-members for the oceanographic research community as well as for analyses of terrestrial landscape change.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Holmes (1602615, LEAD, WHRC), Spencer, (1603149, FSU), McClelland (1602680, UTexas), and Shiklomanov (1602879, UNH) will continue the Arctic-GRO river sampling project (previously under 1107774) for 2017 through 2019. Logistic details under 1602615.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Pilot Station0
2017Canada - Mackenzie Delta0
2017Russia - Kolyma River0
2017Russia - Lena River0
2017Russia - Ob River0
2017Russia - Yenisey River0
2018Alaska - Pilot Station0
2018Canada - Mackenzie Delta0
2018Russia - Kolyma River0
2018Russia - Lena River0
2018Russia - Ob River0
2018Russia - Yenisey River0
2019Alaska - Pilot Station0
2019Canada - Mackenzie Delta0
2019Russia - Kolyma River0
2019Russia - Lena River0
2019Russia - Ob River0
2019Russia - Yenisey River0
 


Project Title: Collaborative research: Developing a System Model of Arctic Glacial Lake Sedimentation for Investigating Past and Future Climate Change (Award# 1418000)

PI: McKay, Nicholas P ( Nicholas.McKay@nau.edu)
Phone: 0(928) 606.9823 
Institute/Department: Northern Arizona University, School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Sustainability 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...
Project: http://www2.nau.edu/arcss-p/
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Accurate records of natural variability that cover broad temporal and spatial scales, and that capture intervals of non-linear change are needed to fully comprehend the arctic system. This project aims to develop the first system model to simulate the full chain of processes that control how weather and climate affect the processes that lead to deposition of a sediment record in lakes in glaciated watersheds. This model provides an alternative approach to previous statistically-based models traditionally used by paleo-climatologists to infer past climate variability from lake sediment records. The new process-based quantitative understanding will lay the groundwork for future studies that will be aimed at recovering records of environmental and climate change that extend back thousands of years. This project will contribute to ongoing efforts through collaborations with: utility managers of the Municipality of Anchorage who are planning for diminished glacier meltwater input to Eklutna Lake, a major source of their electricity and freshwater and with resource managers at US Fish and Wildlife Service who are developing a monitoring network for the Arctic Refuge and who are striving to foresee future changes in habitat quality associated with glacier retreat. This project will benefit climate science researchers by leading to more accurate climate reconstructions, which will be used as benchmarks for validating global climate model output. Finally, it will support four early-career scientists and will train graduate and undergraduate students in system-science research.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this collaborative project between McKay (1418000, NAU), Liljedahl (1418274,UAF) and Loso (1418032, Alaska Pacific U) will develop a system model that encodes the major processes that govern the amount and grain size of sediment that accumulates in Arctic lakes in glaciated catchments, and to acquire the field-based data for model input and testing. Beginning in the spring of 2015, and for two consecutive years thereafter, several consecutive teams of three or four researchers will collect hydrological, meteorological and sedimentological data from lakes and their watersheds in southern and northern Alaska. The 2015 season features two concurrent field campaigns: one team will work throughout the melt season at Eklutna Lake, commuting from nearby Anchorage; another will conduct 3 months of continuous remote work at Lake Peters in the Brooks Mountain Range. The research teams will use and inflatable boat and electric motor to access Eklutna Lake, helicopter to access Eklutna Glacier, and a fixed-wing aircraft will be used to access Lake Peters. During 2016 and 2017, a research team will conduct three 2-3 week field campaigns at Lake Peters, concurrent with the ongoing melt season field campaign at Eklutna Lake. In 2017 PolarTREC teacher, Rebecca Harris (1630463RH) will join the team in the field. In 2018, the team will demobilize in May.

CPS will provide: helicopter support and a boat and electric motor to support the work on Eklutna Glacier and Lake; and fixed-wing charters, a boat and motor, remote camping gear, a satellite phone, and a remote medical kit to support the work at Lake Peters. CPS also will cover the cost of three digital elevation models (DEMs) and their associated ortho images of the Lake Peters watershed, commercial flights (2015) and lodging for the Lake Peters team between FAI and Coldfoot. In 2016 only, CPS will also provide a truck, snowmachine, and a PFS staff member to drive a snowmachine trailer for the spring campaign. In 2018 only, CPS will provide a truck rental, staff support, and fixed-wing charter for the May demobilization. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Alaska - Eklutna Lake04 / 04 / 2015 09 / 23 / 20154
2015Alaska - Lake Peters05 / 01 / 2015 08 / 15 / 201514
2016Alaska - Eklutna Glacier05 / 09 / 2016 09 / 20 / 20162
2016Alaska - Lake Peters04 / 15 / 2016 08 / 20 / 20169
2017Alaska - Eklutna Lake06 / 05 / 2017 06 / 12 / 20173
2017Alaska - Lake Peters05 / 12 / 2017 06 / 12 / 20174
2018Alaska - Eklutna Glacier05 / 05 / 2018 05 / 12 / 20181
2018Alaska - Lake Peters0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Adding animals to the equation: assessing herbivore impacts on carbon cycling in northern Alaska (Award# 1603677)

PI: McLaren, Jennie (jrmclaren@utep.edu)
Phone: 0(915) 747.8903 
Institute/Department: U of Texas, El Paso (UTEP), Biological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://arc-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/
Data: http://arctos.database.museum/
Data: http://herbivory.biology.ualberta.ca/
Logistics: http://toolik.alaska.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Small mammals graze on the vegetation of the Arctic tundra. Although this grazing may influence many aspects of tundra ecosystems, current models do not include grazing by small mammals. In this project, the abundance of voles and lemmings will be varied experimentally using fenced plots. The investigators will observe the responses in the plots, especially focusing on changes in the cycling of carbon and nitrogen. To understand how the current climate controls the importance of grazing by small mammals, the investigators will conduct their studies at three sites in Alaska located in the Seward Peninsula, the foothills of the Brooks Range, and on the Arctic coastal plain. The natural abundance of voles and lemmings will be studied at these sites to provide background for applying the experimental results throughout the Arctic. The results will be used to expand a mathematical model of tundra ecosystems to include grazing by small mammals, which will improve the predictions that can be made about how the Arctic may change in the future. The research will involve a number of undergraduate students and investigators will integrate their research into classes and other educational programs. In addition, they will present a radio program in Barrow, AK. The investigators will investigate the importance of herbivory by small mammals in controlling the cycling of carbon and nutrients in the rapidly changing Arctic tundra. Through studies at three sites along a latitudinal gradient, the investigators will employ both observations and experiments to quantify the role of grazing by rodents (voles and lemmings) in the functioning of tundra ecosystems. The observations of rodent population dynamics along with ecosystem function will provide key new information relevant to understanding the feedbacks of the Arctic tundra to the global climate. The manipulation of rodent density through exclosures and enclosures will show how potential changes in rodent populations may influence the tundra ecosystem response. In corporation of the observational and experimental results into a quantitative ecosystem model will enhance predictions of future changes and feedbacks with climate.

Logistics Summary:
The goal of this collaborative project between Boelman (1603777, Lead, LDEO), Gough (1603760, Towson), Rastetter (1603560, MBL), McLaren (1603677, U of Texas), and Rowe (1603654, UNH) is to quantify and gain mechanistic understanding of the impact of small mammal herbivores on carbon and nutrient dynamics in the rapidly changing Alaskan arctic tundra and incorporate these impacts into a biogeochemical model to make future predictions of how the animals mediate tundra-atmosphere carbon exchange. Logistic details under 1603777.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Seward Peninsula0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2018Alaska - Seward Peninsula0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2019Alaska - Seward Peninsula0
2019Alaska - Toolik0
2019Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2020Alaska - Seward Peninsula0
2020Alaska - Toolik0
2020Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2021Alaska - Seward Peninsula0
2021Alaska - Toolik0
2021Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
 


Project Title: 2013-2018 UNAVCO Community Proposal Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope: The GAGE Facility (Award# 1261833)

PI: Miller, Meghan (Meghan@unavco.org)
Phone: 0(303) 381.7514 
Institute/Department: UNAVCO,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\EAR
Program Manager: Dr. Russell Kelz (rkelz@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.unavco.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=12...

Science Summary:
The GAGE Facility: Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope Cooperative Agreement (CA) supports advancement of cutting-edge community geodetic research around the world. Over the last two decades, space-based geodetic observations have enabled measurement of the motions of the Earth's surface and crust at many different scales, with unprecedented spatial and temporal detail and increased precision, leading to fundamental discoveries in continental deformation, plate boundary processes, the earthquake cycle, the geometry and dynamics of magmatic systems, continental groundwater storage and hydrologic loading. Space geodesy furthers research on earthquake and tsunami hazards, volcanic eruptions, coastal subsidence, wetlands health, soil moisture and groundwater distribution. Of particular importance are contributions to understanding of processes related to climate dynamics, including hurricane tracking and intensity, sea level rise, and changes in mountain glaciers and large polar ice sheets. As global population disproportionately increases in hazards-prone coastal and tectonically active regions of the US and across the globe, the societal relevance of quantifying, understanding, and potentially mitigating natural hazards grows. Geoscientists using global geodetic infrastructure coupled with leading edge techniques are well poised to advance basic research that is in the U.S. and global public interest as the challenges of living on a dynamic planet escalate. NSF-funded geodesy investigators are active on every continent, across a broad spectrum of the geosciences, and facilitated by data and engineering services that are now merged under the GAGE Facility. GAGE continues operations of: 1) the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), an integrated set of geodetic networks that includes 1100 continuous GPS sites (with ~350 high-rate, low-latency data streams and ~125 surface meteorological sensors), 78 borehole strainmeters and seismometers, and 6 long-baseline laser strainmeters, and tiltmeters on several volcanoes; 2) global engineering and data services primarily to NSF-funded investigators who use terrestrial and satellite geodetic technologies in their research and provision of network operations support to community GPS networks and NASA's Global GNSS Network (GGN); and 3) Education and community outreach activities. NSF's Division of Polar Programs (PLR) contributes to the GAGE Facility support of PI research and GPS networks in Greenland and Antarctica. NASA contributes to the GAGE Facility to support the GGN and the activities of the IGS Central Bureau, which underlie the internationally coordinated reference frame products that make high-precision geodesy possible.

Logistics Summary:
This grant continues a Cooperative Agreement under grant 0735156. For the years 2013 – 2018, NSF has guided UNAVCO to integrate all of these activities into a single GAGE Facility: Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope. A single Cooperative Agreement will create efficiencies in facility operation, reporting, and sponsor oversight, allowing UNAVCO to meet the needs of a vigorously growing and rapidly diversifying science community despite expected resource constraints. A total of approximately 50 additional telemetered GPS stations with ongoing UNAVCO O&M support are planned under GAGE, GNET and GLISN. UNAVCO also maintains several community dGPS stations at: Summit Station, Utqiagvik (Barrow) Station, Atqasuk field station, Toolik Lake field station in the Arctic and Palmer Station, McMurdo Station, and South Pole Station in the Antarctic. These sites will continue to be maintained under GAGE. For each year of the grant one to two UNAVCO staff members may make a site visit (4-6 days) to Utqiagvik (Barrow), Alaska to calibrate and maintain the installations and to train on-site staff and researchers as necessary. Staff members may also visit Atqasuk to perform maintenance on the dGPS base station. Staff members may also visit Toolik Field Station if the base station requires technical intervention/maintenance. In 2017 one UNAVCO staff member will visit Utqiagvik (Barrow), and Toolik Field Station, Alaska to calibrate and maintain the installations and to train on-site staff and researchers as necessary. Staff members may also visit Atqasuk to perform maintenance on the dGPS base station. One staff member will travel to Summit Station, Greenland via Kangerlussuaq flying on the Air National Guard to install a second GNSS base station at the TAWO facility and met tower to overlap with the GPS station on the Green House which is to be decommissioned in 2018.

In Greenland, CPS will provide ANG passenger and cargo coordination support, accommodation (KISS) and meals (meal tickets) in Kangerlussuaq, safety equipment, and Summit Station user days. CPS will provide lodging, truck and UIC permits in Utqiagvik (Barrow). UIC Science will maintain the dGPS base station radio and dGPS rover equipment in Barrow. All equipment scheduling will be done by a local UIC Science staff member or CPS staff member, if on site. UNAVCO will cover the cost of training UICS or CPS staff under this grant. The PI will arrange and pay for all other logistics through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)04 / 16 / 2014 04 / 19 / 20141
2015Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)06 / 01 / 2015 06 / 06 / 20152
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)05 / 29 / 2016 06 / 05 / 20161
2017Alaska - Toolik05 / 04 / 2017 05 / 11 / 20171
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)05 / 11 / 2017 05 / 14 / 20171
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 16 / 2017 08 / 28 / 20171
2017Greenland - Summit08 / 18 / 2017 08 / 26 / 20171
2018Alaska - Atqasuk1
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)1
2018Greenland - Summit1
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Local Adaptation in a Dominant Arctic Tundra Sedge (Eriophorum Vaginatum) and its Effects on Ecosystem Response in a Changing Climate (Award# 1417645)

PI: Moody, Michael L ( mlmoody@utep.edu)
Phone: 0(915) 747.5087 
Institute/Department: U of Texas, El Paso (UTEP), Biological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://dryas.mbl.edu/
Logistics: http://toolik.alaska.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
Eriophorum vaginatum is presently a dominant component of moist tussock tundra, but is susceptible to competition from more rapidly growing deciduous shrubs under warming conditions. The project has three objectives: 1) to investigate the genetic factors that lead to local adaptation in E. vaginatum; 2) to examine natural disturbance as a mechanism for genotypes from warmer climates to establish in tussock tundra of northern regions; and 3) to test the hypothesis that local adaptation and adaptational lag will have important consequences for plant phenology, photosynthesis, primary productivity, plant growth, and nutrient cycling. The findings of this project may serve as an indicator of the potential effects of adaptational lag on plant responses to climate change. Research results will be integrated into the manual for the International Tundra Experiment, which has been a developing resource for long term Arctic research. The project directly involves undergraduate research experience for students at Wilkes, a largely undergraduate university, and University of Texas at El Paso, a minority serving institution. Marine Biological Laboratory also will involve students in the research directly through their Semester in Environmental Sciences program, which will involve students in analyzing data taken directly from the Arctic project. K-12 students in Wilkes-Barre will be involved in Arctic research by studying plants shipped from Alaska. K-12 students in El Paso will be exposed to Arctic research through already established programs that engage graduate students with high school students through presentations of research results. This research will use approaches from molecular ecology and population biology to investigate the causes of local adaptation in Eriophorum vaginatum. It will use methods of ecosystem ecology to investigate the consequences of local adaptation for the response of E. vaginatum to a rapidly warming climate. Genetic markers will be used to determine patterns of genetic diversity and gene flow for populations of E. vaginatum in northern Alaska. Uncovering the underlying genetic structure and population genetic dynamics will provide important insight into the ability for E. vaginatum to adapt to a changing climate. A recent burn site will be seeded with E. vaginatum from different populations with measures of seedling establishment and health followed by identifying genotype success utilizing molecular markers. The processes will be measured in gardens that include both transplants and plants exposed to warming with open-top chambers to simulate the combined effects of northward migration of southern ecotypes and climate warming.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Fetcher (1418010, Wilkes), Moody (1417645, UTEP) and Tang (1417763, MBL) will use approaches from molecular ecology and population biology to investigate the causes of local adaptation in Eriophorum vaginatum, a dominant species of Arctic moist tundra. Logistic details under 1418010.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Alaska - Toolik0
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
 


Project Title: Doctoral Dissertation Research: Gender at the Nunalleq Site: Community Perspectives from Quinhagak, Alaska (Award# 1738508)

PI: Moss, Madonna L (mmoss@uoregon.edu)
Phone: 0(541) 346.6076 
Institute/Department: U of Oregon, Eugene, Department of Anthropology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Social and Human Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
The goal of this project is to collect information about gender and Yup'ik lifeways of the past from residents of Quinhagak, Alaska, and to apply this knowledge to archaeological interpretations of social life at the pre-contact site of Nunalleq. Interviews with Yup'ik residents of Quinhagak will focus on how Yup'ik communities defined gender in the past, and how gendered identities may be visible archaeologically in the artifacts and built spaces of Nunalleq. Using community knowledge as the cornerstone for archaeological interpretations ensures that Yup'ik perspectives are honored in the research process and that gendered social identities are considered in a complex and contextual manner. As a community-based project, this research is part of a larger disciplinary movement towards Indigenous community involvement in the planning and implementation of archaeological projects and the interpretation and analysis of resultant data. The benefits of such approaches are myriad: not only does community-based research attend to the specific needs and conditions of Indigenous communities (many of whom are marginalized), but such strategies often result in more robust and publically-relevant research questions and analysis. Together, the Nunalleq site and the neighboring community of Quinhagak provide a unique opportunity for community-based research on gender. Located just a few miles outside of Quinhagak, Nunalleq has long been a fixture in local histories, and its links to the 13th-17th century Bow and Arrow wars connect it to a broader regional heritage that has been little explored. Nunalleq has been subject to remarkable permafrost preservation, with artifacts of unusual quality being recovered in very high numbers. The confluence of having high-quality archaeological data alongside a community with knowledge of and interest in the site creates an ideal setting for community-based research on gender and social identities, themes that are best explored with robust archaeological and oral historical data. That themes of gender and social identity have received little attention in regional archaeological studies further suggests the importance of this study, as does Nunalleq's status as an archaeological resource increasingly threatened by environmental change.

Logistics Summary:
This PhD dissertation will study gender and social dynamics in the pre-contact (last 350 years) Yukon-Kuskokwim Nunalleq archeological site, located in southwestern Alaska close to the contemporary Yup’ik village of Quinhagak, Alaska. Grounded in feminist, gender, and de-colonizing theories, this work will contribute new and much needed information on past gender roles in western Alaska. In 2017, one researcher will travel to the village Quinhagak to conduct interviews with native Yup’ik residents. Over a period of 6 weeks, the researcher will interview approximately 40 people using semi-structured techniques focusing on how Yup'ik communities defined gender in the past, and how gendered identities may be visible archaeologically in the artifacts and built spaces of Nunalleq. The researcher will return to the village in the summer of 2018 for three weeks to analyze artifacts collected from the Nunalleq site housed in Quinhagak’s Cultural Center, and to further consult with community members.

All logistics will be organized by the researcher and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Quinhagak06 / 18 / 2017 07 / 29 / 20171
2018Alaska - Quinhagak06 / 18 / 2018 07 / 29 / 20181
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Impact of subglacial discharge on turbulent plume dynamics and ocean-glacier heat and mass transfer (Award# 1503910)

PI: Motyka, Roman (rjmotyka@uas.alaska.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 586.1994 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Southeast,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Cynthia Suchman ()
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Glaciology | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://cchdo.ucsd.edu/
Data: http://nsidc.org/
Data: http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: http://www.unavco.org/
Data: http://www.wgms.ch/
Data: https://www.passcal.nmt.edu/content/data-archiving

Science Summary:
Recent and on-going retreat of many Northern hemisphere marine-terminating glaciers is contributing significantly to sea level rise. It is driven by poorly understood processes occurring at the ice-ocean interface, such as subglacial discharge into the ocean, turbulent plume dynamics, submarine melting, and iceberg calving. These processes are inherently interdisciplinary, requiring expertise in both glaciology and oceanography and difficult to observe, requiring innovative field techniques and careful site selection. This project will address the relationship between subglacial discharge, turbulent plume dynamics, and submarine melting through a comprehensive field campaign at LeConte Glacier, Alaska, supplemented by a state-of-the-art modeling effort. The field site is ideal because it spans a wide range of forcings on daily to seasonal time scales and because the near-terminus fjord environment is accessible year round. A successful project will provide a unique data set and improved models for projecting contributions to future sea level rise. This project will develop a parameterization of a plume, driven by subglacial discharge, as it interacts with the face of a marine-terminating glacier. This is a goal that has been endorsed by the international community. It will be accomplished by conducting three intensive field campaigns to: sample the upwelling plume directly with manned and autonomous vessels, measure the downstream impact of the plume on near-terminus fjord circulation, determine subglacial discharge and submarine melt rates, and survey associated changes in glacier terminus dynamics. Subglacial discharge and ambient water properties in the proglacial fjord will be monitored throughout the project in order to provide important context for the intensive field campaigns, and a range of parameter space to be explored by a turbulence-resolving hydrodynamic plume model. Data from the intensive field campaigns will be used to validate the plume model, which will then be used to explore the wider range of parameter space that is provided by long-term measurements. The latter will allow investigation of the impact of submarine melting on glacier dynamics over seasonal timescales.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Amundson (1504288, LEAD, UAS), Nash (1504191, OSU), Sutherland (1504521, U Oregon) and Motyka (1503910, UAF) will address the relationship between subglacial discharge, turbulent plume dynamics, and submarine melting through a comprehensive field campaign a LeConte Glacier, Alaska. Researchers will investigate tidewater glacier retreat by making combined oceanographic and glaciological observations that will quantify the heat and freshwater fluxes associated with sub glacially forced turbulent plumes while simultaneously characterizing the structure of the evolving ice face and near-terminus strain rates. Logistic details under 1504288.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - LeConte Glacier0
2017Alaska - LeConte Glacier0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Impact of subglacial discharge on turbulent plume dynamics and ocean-glacier heat and mass transfer (Award# 1504191)

PI: Nash, Jonathan D (nash@coas.oregonstate.edu )
Phone: 0(541) 737 4573 
Institute/Department: Oregon State University, College of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Cynthia Suchman ()
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Glaciology | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://cchdo.ucsd.edu/
Data: http://nsidc.org/
Data: http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: http://www.unavco.org/
Data: http://www.wgms.ch/
Data: https://www.passcal.nmt.edu/content/data-archiving

Science Summary:
Recent and on-going retreat of many Northern hemisphere marine-terminating glaciers is contributing significantly to sea level rise. It is driven by poorly understood processes occurring at the ice-ocean interface, such as subglacial discharge into the ocean, turbulent plume dynamics, submarine melting, and iceberg calving. These processes are inherently interdisciplinary, requiring expertise in both glaciology and oceanography and difficult to observe, requiring innovative field techniques and careful site selection. This project will address the relationship between subglacial discharge, turbulent plume dynamics, and submarine melting through a comprehensive field campaign at LeConte Glacier, Alaska, supplemented by a state-of-the-art modeling effort. The field site is ideal because it spans a wide range of forcings on daily to seasonal time scales and because the near-terminus fjord environment is accessible year round. A successful project will provide a unique data set and improved models for projecting contributions to future sea level rise. This project will develop a parameterization of a plume, driven by subglacial discharge, as it interacts with the face of a marine-terminating glacier. This is a goal that has been endorsed by the international community. It will be accomplished by conducting three intensive field campaigns to: sample the upwelling plume directly with manned and autonomous vessels, measure the downstream impact of the plume on near-terminus fjord circulation, determine subglacial discharge and submarine melt rates, and survey associated changes in glacier terminus dynamics. Subglacial discharge and ambient water properties in the proglacial fjord will be monitored throughout the project in order to provide important context for the intensive field campaigns, and a range of parameter space to be explored by a turbulence-resolving hydrodynamic plume model. Data from the intensive field campaigns will be used to validate the plume model, which will then be used to explore the wider range of parameter space that is provided by long-term measurements. The latter will allow investigation of the impact of submarine melting on glacier dynamics over seasonal timescales.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Amundson (1504288, LEAD, UAS), Nash (1504191, OSU), Sutherland (1504521, U Oregon) and Motyka (1503910, UAF) will address the relationship between subglacial discharge, turbulent plume dynamics, and submarine melting through a comprehensive field campaign a LeConte Glacier, Alaska. Researchers will investigate tidewater glacier retreat by making combined oceanographic and glaciological observations that will quantify the heat and freshwater fluxes associated with sub glacially forced turbulent plumes while simultaneously characterizing the structure of the evolving ice face and near-terminus strain rates. Logistic details under 1504288.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - LeConte Glacier0
2017Alaska - LeConte Glacier0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Vegetation And Ecosystem Impacts On Permafrost Vulnerability (Award# 1417700)

PI: Natali, Susan M (snatali@whrc.org)
Phone: 0(508) 444.1560 
Institute/Department: Woods Hole Research Center,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Realistic representations of heat exchange in permafrost ecosystems are necessary for accurate predictive understanding of the permafrost carbon feedback under future climate scenarios. This project will provide a quantitative pan-arctic assessment of the effects of vegetation and landscape characteristics on permafrost thermal regimes. By working across ecosystems, landscape characteristics, and regions, the research will identify broad trends, and intensive energy balance sites will provide a mechanistic study of ecosystem impacts on permafrost response to climate change. The impacts of this study will be enhanced through integration of research results into regional and site-specific permafrost models and synthesis activities that will examine ecosystem impacts on energy balance and permafrost vulnerability to climate change. Significant declines in permafrost distribution are expected as the climate warms, but large uncertainties remain in determining the fate of permafrost under future climate scenarios. These uncertainties are driven, in large part, by vegetation and ecosystem properties that modulate the effect of climate on permafrost temperatures. Long-term monitoring of permafrost temperatures demonstrates the importance of these local conditions, yet there has been no pan-arctic effort to measure ecological and landscape variables in concert with permafrost temperature monitoring. This project will use a combination of field and remotely-sensed data to address the question of how vegetation and landscape factors modulate permafrost temperature response to climate change. To address this question the researchers will couple an extensive pan-arctic assessment of vegetation-permafrost dynamics with an intensive study of shrub and tree canopy cover effects on ecosystem energy balance. The first component of this research will be conducted at long-term permafrost temperature monitoring sites in Siberia and Alaska, and the second component, the vegetation-energy balance sites that will be established as part of this proposal, will be conducted at a shrub-tree canopy cover gradient in Siberia, where most permafrost regions are located. These intensively studied energy balance sites will provide an improved mechanistic understanding of the effects of ecosystem components, and interactions among these components, on ecosystem energy balance and permafrost vulnerability to climate change. This mechanistic knowledge will, in turn, support interpretation of broad patterns observed through a pan-arctic sampling of the permafrost temperature monitoring sites.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Natali (1417700, WHRC Lead), Loranty (1417745, Colgate U) and Kholodov (1417908, UAF) will utilize a combination of field and remotely sensed data to understand how vegetation and landscape factors might modulate permafrost temperature response to climate change. Beginning in July 2015, and for three consecutive summers thereafter, a field team of 2-8 will conduct measurements of vegetation, soil and landscape variables at NSF Arctic Observing Network (AON) long term permafrost borehole monitoring sites in Alaska and Russia. Field teams will work along Alaska’s Dalton Highway from Fairbanks to Prudhoe Bay in spring and summer, with overnights at Coldfoot, Toolik Field Station and in Prudhoe Bay. Researchers also will establish four vegetation-energy balance study sites comprising shrub-tree canopy cover gradient in Cherskii, Russia, in eastern Siberia. In 2015, and through 2018, researchers will visit all sites to collect data from automated instruments. In Russia, personnel from this grant collaborate with NSF Grant 1623764 (Loranty) to combine resources. In 2016, PolarTREC teacher Stanley Skotnicki (1525880SS) will join the team in Russia.

In Alaska, IAB will provide access to infrastructure and services at Toolik Field Station. CPS will provide user days at Toolik and Prudhoe Bay, truck rental in Fairbanks, lodging at Coldfoot, and minimal camping equipment including a medical kit, satellite phones, and VHF radios. In Russia, CPS will provide user days at the Northeast Science Station and technical field support. All other logistics, including land use permits, will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Alaska - Coldfoot07 / 06 / 2015 07 / 08 / 20157
2015Alaska - Fairbanks07 / 01 / 2015 08 / 15 / 20158
2015Alaska - Nome07 / 27 / 2015 07 / 31 / 20154
2015Alaska - Prudhoe Bay07 / 15 / 2015 07 / 18 / 20157
2015Alaska - Toolik06 / 23 / 2015 08 / 03 / 20159
2015Russia - Cherskii06 / 30 / 2015 07 / 21 / 20152
2016Alaska - Coldfoot08 / 08 / 2016 08 / 20 / 20163
2016Alaska - Prudhoe Bay04 / 03 / 2016 08 / 20 / 20165
2016Alaska - Toolik04 / 03 / 2016 08 / 20 / 20168
2016Russia - Cherskii06 / 26 / 2015 09 / 01 / 201610
2016Russia - Chokurdakh07 / 02 / 2016 07 / 28 / 20164
2017Alaska - Coldfoot09 / 01 / 2017 09 / 15 / 20174
2017Alaska - Prudhoe Bay09 / 01 / 2017 09 / 15 / 20174
2017Alaska - Toolik06 / 20 / 2017 09 / 15 / 20176
2017Russia - Cherskii05 / 17 / 2017 08 / 16 / 20173
2018Alaska - Coldfoot2
2018Alaska - Prudhoe Bay2
2018Alaska - Toolik2
2018Russia - Cherskii2
 


Project Title: Constraining the Relationship Between Vegetation Change and Net Carbon Sequestration in Arctic and Boreal Peatlands (Award# 1557078)

PI: Nichols, Jonathan E (jnichols@ldeo.columbia.edu)
Phone: 0(845) 365.8428 
Institute/Department: Columbia University, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\BIO\DEB
Program Manager: Dr. Elizabeth Blood (eblood@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology\Ecology |

Project Web Site(s):
Logistics: http://toolik.alaska.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
Peat-forming ecosystems are key components of the global carbon cycle, as they are tremendous stores of carbon from carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. But peatlands also release methane back to the atmosphere. The degree to which peatlands act as carbon sinks and methane sources largely depends on the types of plants growing there. The far northern areas where Arctic peatlands occur are warming rapidly and so it is important to determine how sensitive their carbon storages are to changes in vegetation that are already underway. It is known that when the main peatland plants change from sphagnum mosses to sedges, as is happening in many areas, the rate of carbon storage may change a lot, but the specific response of any particular peatland is not easy to predict. Much of the unpredictability results from difficulties in telling apart the dominant plants in peatlands through history. If that was possible, then much better predictions into the future could be made. So the main objective of this project is to create a database of the chemical properties of Arctic sedges and other plants known to dominate peatlands in the past. The database will be available to the public and be set up so that it can be easily updated and added to. The project will also continue a program that brings high school teachers from the New York area to the arctic to participate in field studies associated with the project. These teachers will then develop teaching modules connected to high school science curriculums. Members of the Cyperaceae (sedges) inhabit diverse environments, spanning a wide range of moisture balance, pH, and nutrient availability. However, they are notoriously difficult to identify by their fossil remains in peat cores, even to the family level, because of the paucity of identifiable plant parts that are species specific. But while the plant parts themselves are often absent, chemicals they produced are almost always present. Of the thousands of compounds produced, most have yet to be properly characterized and linked to particular species. This project will generate such a database and will also relate vegetation types, as characterized by their chemical constituents, to net carbon accumulation rate. In doing so, the first predictive models of carbon accumulation in peatlands based on vegetation change will be developed. This is an important step towards fully integrating peatlands into global climate models, which will allow a more comprehensive understanding of the feedbacks between climate change and peatland carbon accumulation.

Logistics Summary:
This project will use biomarker distribution in Arctic and boreal peat to reconstruct past changes in paleovegetation, particularly amongst members of Cyperaceae (sedges), and relate reconstructed vegetation types to net carbon accumulation rate. During the summers of 2017 and 2018 a team of three researchers and a high school teacher will collect vegetation samples near Toolik Field Station for approximately one week. Field work will occur between the months of June and August, but specific timing will vary between years in order to collect vegetation that is in-bloom at different periods during the summer.

IAB will provide access to infrastructure and services at Toolik Field Station. CPS will provide user days at Toolik Field Station, and a truck rental out of Fairbanks. All other logistics, including land use permits, will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Toolik08 / 08 / 2017 08 / 15 / 20174
2018Alaska - Toolik08 / 01 / 2018 08 / 08 / 20183
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Birnirk prehistory and the emergence of Inupiaq Culture in Northwestern Alaska, archaeological and anthropological perspectives. (Award# 1732344)

PI: O'Rourke, Dennis H (orourke@ku.edu)
Phone: 0(785) 864.2642 
Institute/Department: U of Kansas, Department of Anthropology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Social and Human Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.uaf.edu/aqc/
Data: http://www.uaf.edu/geology/
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
This multidisciplinary program of research will explore human interaction, settlement history, climate and landscape dynamics in relation to the Birnirk archaeological complex at ca. AD 1000. After a period of hiatus, Birnirk site KTZ-304 at Cape Espenberg (Inuigniq) was occupied at a pivotal cultural and environmental moment in Northwest Alaska and the larger Bering Sea region, just before AD 1000 and prior to the emergence of Inupiaq culture around AD 1300. Cape Espenberg is a key location for this cultural history both because of the presence of Ipiutak, Birnik and Thule archaeological sites and as ancestral land of today’s Kigiqtaamiut of Shishmaref. Interrelated and integrated analytical approaches involving cultural and physical anthropology, archaeology and paleoecology will (a) form the framework for continued excavation at site KTZ-304 (b) contribute to study architectural features, archaeofauna, ceramics, and artifacts in order to elucidate social networks, subsistence systems and technology, and to understand the impact of climate and resource availability on peoples’ activities, decisions and movements; (c) guide the collecting of paleoenvironmental data through targeted sampling of swales and ridges to date dune ridge stabilization, reconstruct terrestrial vegetation and map the location of the ocean relative to the site; (d) integrate ancient DNA (aDNA) studies to establish the broader genetic relationships of Inuit societies in the region and beyond; (e) explore how Kigiqtaamiut interpret material culture to understand the past, narrate history and generate knowledge; (f) foster a dialog on the role of material culture today in the community of Shishmaref and between the Kigiqtaamiut and the scientists to construct more reflexive interpretations of the past, and thus; (g) advance understanding of the origin of Inupiaq culture through the development of a high-resolution chronology of settlement and landscape formation, cultural shift and climate variation. This research will offer the opportunity to relate social processes and population dispersal to environmental change by obtaining data from a diverse group of disciplines. By combining aDNA and cultural anthropology, it will be possible to address the genetic legacy of Inupiat peoples while learning how Kigiqtaamiut construct, understand, and articulate their history. In turn, it will foster a dialogue not only across disciplines but also among researchers and the local community. The archaeological component will provide a detailed and discrete view of technological and subsistence condition at a key moment of AD 1000 to explore Birnirk as a potential newcomer in the cultural chronology, addressing the long-standing hypotheses of colonization on the one hand and continuity and subsequent in situ development on the other. Paleoecological data will provide climatic yardsticks for storminess and seashore history during the Medieval Climate Anomaly and the onset of the Little Ice Age, a poorly understood interval in northwest Alaska. New tree-ring data will contribute to the long-term process of building tree ring chronologies for the last 1500 years in Alaska.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Alix (1523160, UAF), O'Rourke (1732344, U of Kansas Center for Research), Anderson (1523079, PSU), and Mason (1523205, INSTAAR, CU) will conduct three years of research (2016-2018) exploring human interaction, settlement history, climate and landscape dynamics in relation to the Birnirk archaeological complex at ca. AD 1000. By combining aDNA and cultural anthropology, this project will address the genetic legacy of Inupiat peoples while learning how kigiqtaamiut construct, understand, and articulate their history. Logistic details under 1523160. [NOTE *In 2017 O'Rourke changed institutions from University of Utah under NSF grant 1523059 to University of Kansas Center for Research at which time a new grant was given to O'Rourke (1732344). The lead on the collaboration is still Alix,1523160 for this collaboration.]

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Cape Espenberg0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Arctic Land Fast Sea Ice Formation in the Presence of Fresh Water Input (Award# 1603683)

PI: Obbard, Rachel W (Rachel.W.Obbard@Dartmouth.EDU)
Phone: 0(603) 646.9613 
Institute/Department: Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: http://www2.ucar.edu/
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
One of the most notable changes in the Arctic during recent years has been the variability in sea ice extent and timing. Changes in the character and seasonal cycle of nearshore sea ice is of particular importance to indigenous communities that use the nearshore sea ice as a platform for subsistence hunting and transportation. Observations and model projections also suggest increasing freshwater runoff to the coastal ocean from increased melting of glaciers and ice sheets, thawing of permafrost, and precipitation over land. This runoff impacts the sea ice that forms in the fall. Sea ice formed under freshwater influence reveals differences in salinity, porosity, and permeability, and thus its optical and mechanical properties. This project will provide unique observations of sea ice formation and structure under conditions of freshwater influence. This project will contribute to STEM workforce development through provision of support for the training of a graduate student. It will also entrain undergraduate students from Dartmouth?s Women in Science Project (WISP). One undergraduate will participate in the spring field work. The project will also apply for support for a PolarTREC teacher. K-12th grade outreach activities will be offered and will leverage existing programs at University of Washington such as participation in the Polar Science Weekend at the Pacific Science Center. The freshwater discharge to the coastal ocean affects thermodynamic processes in sea ice by changing salinity and temperature of the waters undergoing freezing. This three-year pilot project is designed to study sea ice formation and structure in the coastal ocean, while addressing the following important questions: 1. How do microstructure and the brine pocket network differ in sea ice that forms and grows where there is significant fresh water input compared to sea ice in the open ocean? 2. Can we monitor the onset of freezing, freezing rate and ice type in situ in sensitive nearshore areas, while collecting data remotely? 3. How does microstructure affect heat transfer along the length of an ice core? The project will combine recently developed observation and sampling technologies, and integrate expertise in field monitoring, and physical and chemical sea ice characterization. Sea ice formation, growth rate, and salinity will be monitored in situ at a location of freshwater input during the course of a growth season using a wire ladder. Oxygen isotopic ratios and optical thin section stratigraphy will be used to quantify freshwater influence. X-ray micro-computed tomography will be used to characterize porosity and brine channel topology at 1 cm intervals along ice cores and provide quantitative data on microstructural differences in ice influenced by the freshwater. Laboratory tests and modeling will be used to examine heat transfer through sea ice cores held at their in situ temperature gradient, as a function of microstructural stratigraphy.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Obbard (1603683, Dartmouth) and Rigor (1602533, UW) will establish new ways of monitoring and understanding sea ice formation in the presence of increased meltwater, and the collection of data on sea ice structure and characteristics that will inform sea ice model development. During the fall of 2017 and spring of 2018 a field team of 5 will travel to Utqiagvik (Barrow) to deploy two buoys, one in Elson Lagoon and another with the location to-be-determined. Researchers may make additional trips to perform equipment maintenance.

CPS will provide lodging in Utqiagvik (Barrow), truck rental, boat support for buoy deployment, snowmachine support for buoy retrieval, bear guards, UIC & NSB permitting, BARC lab space, and NARL staging and storage space. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)10 / 01 / 2017 10 / 20 / 20175
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)03 / 15 / 2018 03 / 23 / 20185
 


Project Title: Arctic Observing Networks: Collaborative Research: ITEX AON - understanding the relationships between vegetation change, plant phenology, and ecosystem function in a warming Arctic (Award# 1504381)

PI: Oberbauer, Steven F (oberbaue@fiu.edu)
Phone: 0(305) 348.2580 
Institute/Department: Florida International University, Department of Biological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Ecology |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://faculty.fiu.edu/~oberbaue/AON-ITEX.html
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The goal of this program is to document and understand arctic terrestrial change by maintaining and extracting value from the temporally-critical datasets of the International Tundra Experiment Arctic Observatory Network (ITEX-AON), which has been active in Alaska and Greenland since 2007. ITEX was chartered in 1990 to quantify the effects of inter-annual environmental variability and increased temperature on tundra plant phenology, growth, species composition and ecosystem function using sustained experimental techniques and background monitoring. The ITEX network has provided exceptional value by detecting changes in tundra plant and ecosystem responses to experimental warming and to background change across sites that span the major ecosystems of the Arctic. Unlike most monitoring programs that focus primarily on documenting change and rely on correlation to determine causal factors, ITEX can attribute cause for observed change because of the imbedded experimental approach, which is especially critical as the Arctic System is changing rapidly and in complex ways. This project will provide urgently needed data critical to understanding the impact of multi-scale vegetation change on ecosystem function, namely land-atmosphere carbon and water fluxes and energy balance. Observed changes in the Arctic over the past half century include substantial vegetation change and greening, permafrost warming, and surface hydrological change. Building on the US ITEX program started in 1994, the ITEX-AON (since 2007) has continued and expanded on a wide latitudinal transect consisting of five sites in Alaska and Greenland, collecting core ITEX data with methods designed to address specific needs outlined in the 2003 Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) Implementation Report. Core datasets include manual observations of phenology, vegetation structure and composition, and ecosystem function (carbon flux & nutrient cycling) on long-term ITEX control and experimental warming plots, repeat measurement of vegetation plots on the 1 km2 ARCSS grids, and a multifactor warming/moisture experiment in Greenland. In 2009, the ITEX-AON sampling scheme was expanded to include a larger spatial component to amplify the utility of the measurements collected. This included the addition of phenocams, automated mobile sensor platforms and medium-scale aerial imagery. The automated platforms measure a suite of vegetation surface properties with minimal effort across focal transects spanning strong moisture and microtopographic gradients at a near-daily frequency. These measurements capture the fine-scale changes in vegetation over the growing season that are missed by lower frequency manual measurements and provide a bridge between manual measurements and aerial imagery. Medium-scale aerial imagery, using Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), is acquired throughout the growing season for scaling of manual and automated measurements; satellite imagery is referenced to medium-scale aerial imagery to aid scaling of responses to the regional level. In this phase, collection of core data sets will continue with some streamlining to allow for collection of new data sets aimed at reinforcing the proven value of the program and its utility to adapt to and support future research needs.

Logistics Summary:
This grant continues activities supported by NSF award 1432982 related to the International Tundra eXperiment (ITEX), which has been active in Alaska and Greenland since 2007. The goal of researchers contributing to this collaboration between Oberbauer (1504381, FIU, LEAD), Hollister (1504224, GVSU), Welker (1504141, UAA) and Tweedie (1504345, UTEP) is to document and better understand Arctic terrestrial change by maintaining and extracting value from continuous data sets produced by the ITEX Arctic Observatory Network ( ITEX-AON). During this phase of the project, scientists will streamline collection of core data sets to accommodate new data sets aimed at reinforcing the proven value of the program and its capacity to adapt to and support future research needs. During the summers of 2016 through 2018, ITEX-AON researchers will continue to collect core data at Alaska field sites in Utqiagvik (Barrow), Atqasuk, Toolik Field Station, and Imnavait Creek; and at Thule Air Base, Greenland. In 2016, 3 people will travel to Thule Air Base, Greenland, in late May. They will reestablish ITEX plots, and continue manipulation experiments and sampling activities until early August. Personnel will depart on a staggered schedule.The last of the original field team will depart in early August, just after a fourth researcher arrives to complete field activities and close out the experiment for the season in mid-August. Also in 2016, 2 researchers will visit Utqiagvik (Barrow) and Atqasuk in April to change two batteries in the redundant power system at each site. In late-May, researchers will begin visits to Toolik Field Station for sampling at the station and Imnavait Creek. They will maintain a presence through August with a number of personnel change-outs. Trips to Utqiagvik (Barrow) and Atqasuk commence in early June, and continue through August as well. In 2017, 2 people will return to Thule Air Base, Greenland in early June. They will reestablish ITEX plots, and continue manipulation experiments and sampling activities until early August. Three additional personnel will arrive in mid-July for two weeks of field activities. In Alaska, researchers will begin arriving at Toolik Field Station in late May and will maintain a presence in the area through early September sampling phenology and vegetation properties of established transects. Utqiagvik (Barrow)/Atqasuk work will commence in early June with research teams traveling periodically to Atqasuk throughout the summer to conduct similar work.

In Utqiagvik (Barrow) and Atqasuk, CPS will provide lodging, bear guards, truck rentals, communications equipment, medical kits, ATV rentals, ATV trailer rentals, tents for field sites, radios, BARC laboratory space, storage space and assistance with UIC and NSB permits. UNAVCO will provide dGPS equipment that is based in Utqiagvik (Barrow). At Toolik Field Station and Imnavait Creek, CPS will provide Toolik user days, maintenance of remote power systems and boardwalks, and truck rentals from Fairbanks and Prudhoe Bay. IAB will provide access to infrastructure and services at Toolik. In Thule in 2017, CPS will provide berthing/lab/office space in Bldg 353, use of the Thule lab in Hangar 4, use of an NSF-owned truck, access to Bldg. 1971 to access instrumentation, access to Bldg. 628 for science staging/storage, communication gear, base contractor support for instrument maintenance, power to North Mountain, ANG freight, AMC freight and AMC travel tickets. All other logistics, including land use permits in Toolik, will be arranged and paid for by the PIs from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Atqasuk06 / 06 / 2016 08 / 20 / 20161
2016Alaska - Imnavait Creek05 / 26 / 2016 08 / 18 / 20161
2016Alaska - Toolik05 / 27 / 2016 09 / 05 / 20167
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)04 / 01 / 2016 08 / 31 / 20169
2016Greenland - Thule05 / 31 / 2016 10 / 21 / 20164
2017Alaska - Atqasuk1
2017Alaska - Imnavait Creek1
2017Alaska - Toolik1
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)1
2017Greenland - Thule06 / 08 / 2017 08 / 11 / 20176
2018Alaska - Atqasuk1
2018Alaska - Imnavait Creek1
2018Alaska - Toolik1
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)1
2018Greenland - Thule1
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Soil-Snow-Atmosphere Exchange of Mercury in the Interior Arctic Tundra (Award# 1304305)

PI: Obrist, Daniel (Daniel_Obrist@uml.edu)
Phone: 0(978) 934.3988 
Institute/Department: U of Massachusetts, Lowell, Environmental Earth & Atmospheric Science 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Geological Sciences | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=13...

Science Summary:
The goal of this project is to characterize soil-snow-atmosphere dynamics of mercury (Hg) in the snow-dominated Arctic tundra. Chemical conversion of Hg in snowpack from non-volatile forms to gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) can lead to substantial degassing of Hg from snow, thereby reducing the impact of atmospheric deposition. Contrary to the GEM chemistry seen in the midlatitude snowpack, preliminary observations from Toolik Lake, on the north slope of the Brooks Range, Alaska, provide evidence that photochemical GEM formation and degassing are suppressed in tundra snow and that for much of the winter, interstitial GEM is actually converted into non-volatile Hg. These patterns result in extended periods when interstitial snowpack air is depleted in GEM. If confirmed, this chemistry would likely signify a net transfer of atmospheric GEM to snow or underlying soils, thereby increasing Hg deposition to tundra ecosystems. Project objectives are to investigate (1) the frequency and underlying processes that determine GEM depletion and formation in arctic snowpack and tundra soils; (2) the degree to which GEM dynamics cause vertical Hg exchange between soils, snow, and the atmosphere; and (3) how these processes provide additional sources - or sinks - of Hg via atmosphere-surface transfer and snowmelt input. GEM concentrations in soils, snow, and air, as well as vertical exchanges, will be characterized at Toolik Field Station. Measurements will be made by means of a snow-sampling manifold system allowing for fully automated and continuous all-winter measurements of trace gases at multiple depths in the undisturbed snowpack and the atmosphere. These experiments will be supplemented by flux chamber measurements to assess the contribution of the underlying tundra soils. Other trace gas observations, and chemical characterization of soil, snow, melt water, and soil water will be incorporated to assess the environmental and biogeochemical controls on GEM dynamics and the Hg budget. This research will leverage ongoing LTER and NEON projects at the Toolik Field station, providing linkages between in-snow processes, tundra soil and freshwater biogeochemical cycling, pollution import into the Arctic, and ecosystem processes. The project will directly involve high school, undergraduate, graduate students, and a postdoctoral scientist. It will expand an existing partnership with local high school chemistry classes through research presentations in classrooms, laboratory tours, and data analyses using study results. Dissemination to the scientific community will be accomplished through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations, and by communication with U.S. and international regulatory agencies. The general public will be reached through news releases, institutional publications, open house events, and a web site. Data will be archived at the National Snow and Ice Data Center at the University of Colorado for distribution to the national and international polar research community.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this collaborative project between Obrist (1739567, U Mass) and Helmig (1304202, CU) will conduct measurements of soils-snow-atmosphere dynamics of mercury and other trace gases at Toolik Field Station in Alaska. The goal of this project is to quantify atmospheric deposition, re-emission, and mobilization of mercury in snowpack and soils of this Arctic tundra for the duration of one full year. In August 2014 a team of five researchers will travel to Toolik Field Station for the set up and installation of project instrumentation. For each subsequent month, a single researcher will travel to Toolik for data collection and instrument maintenance, with two researchers making the trip in September 2016 for instrument demobilization. Note that under NSF Supplement #1458858 the field work was extended from May 2016 to the first week of September 2016. In early 2017 the PI transferred from Nevada System of Higher Education, Desert Research Institute to University of Massachusetts Lowell, funding continues under 1739567.

IAB will provide access to services and infrastructure at Toolik Field Station. CPS will provide user days at TFS for the duration of this project. In 2014, CPS will provide a heated building with communications and some infrastructure, and assist with set up of the PI’s instrument tower; CPS will remove the infrastructure when field work is complete. All other logistics, including any land use permits, will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Alaska - Toolik08 / 27 / 2014 12 / 10 / 20146
2015Alaska - Toolik01 / 20 / 2015 12 / 09 / 20156
2016Alaska - Toolik02 / 01 / 2016 09 / 14 / 20167
2017Alaska - Toolik5
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Soil-Snow-Atmosphere Exchange of Mercury in the Interior Arctic Tundra (Award# 1739567)

PI: Obrist, Daniel (Daniel_Obrist@uml.edu)
Phone: 0(978) 934.3988 
Institute/Department: U of Massachusetts, Lowell, Environmental Earth & Atmospheric Science 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Geological Sciences | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
The goal of this project is to characterize soil-snow-atmosphere dynamics of mercury (Hg) in the snow-dominated Arctic tundra. Chemical conversion of Hg in snowpack from non-volatile forms to gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) can lead to substantial degassing of Hg from snow, thereby reducing the impact of atmospheric deposition. Contrary to the GEM chemistry seen in the midlatitude snowpack, preliminary observations from Toolik Lake, on the north slope of the Brooks Range, Alaska, provide evidence that photochemical GEM formation and degassing are suppressed in tundra snow and that for much of the winter, interstitial GEM is actually converted into non-volatile Hg. These patterns result in extended periods when interstitial snowpack air is depleted in GEM. If confirmed, this chemistry would likely signify a net transfer of atmospheric GEM to snow or underlying soils, thereby increasing Hg deposition to tundra ecosystems. Project objectives are to investigate (1) the frequency and underlying processes that determine GEM depletion and formation in arctic snowpack and tundra soils; (2) the degree to which GEM dynamics cause vertical Hg exchange between soils, snow, and the atmosphere; and (3) how these processes provide additional sources - or sinks - of Hg via atmosphere-surface transfer and snowmelt input. GEM concentrations in soils, snow, and air, as well as vertical exchanges, will be characterized at Toolik Field Station. Measurements will be made by means of a snow-sampling manifold system allowing for fully automated and continuous all-winter measurements of trace gases at multiple depths in the undisturbed snowpack and the atmosphere. These experiments will be supplemented by flux chamber measurements to assess the contribution of the underlying tundra soils. Other trace gas observations, and chemical characterization of soil, snow, melt water, and soil water will be incorporated to assess the environmental and biogeochemical controls on GEM dynamics and the Hg budget. This research will leverage ongoing LTER and NEON projects at the Toolik Field station, providing linkages between in-snow processes, tundra soil and freshwater biogeochemical cycling, pollution import into the Arctic, and ecosystem processes. The project will directly involve high school, undergraduate, graduate students, and a postdoctoral scientist. It will expand an existing partnership with local high school chemistry classes through research presentations in classrooms, laboratory tours, and data analyses using study results. Dissemination to the scientific community will be accomplished through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations, and by communication with U.S. and international regulatory agencies. The general public will be reached through news releases, institutional publications, open house events, and a web site. Data will be archived at the National Snow and Ice Data Center at the University of Colorado for distribution to the national and international polar research community.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this collaborative project between Obrist (1739567, UMass) and Helmig (1304202, CU) will conduct measurements of soils-snow-atmosphere dynamics of mercury and other trace gases at Toolik Field Station in Alaska. The goal of this project is to quantify atmospheric deposition, re-emission, and mobilization of mercury in snowpack and soils of this Arctic tundra for the duration of one full year. In August 2014 a team of five researchers will travel to Toolik Field Station for the set up and installation of project instrumentation. For each subsequent month, a single researcher will travel to Toolik for data collection and instrument maintenance, with two researchers making the trip in September 2016 for instrument demobilization. Note that under NSF Supplement #1458858 the field work was extended from May 2016 to the first week of September 2016. Instrumentation on Toolik Field Station will continue to operate and collect data through fall 2017. Other work to be continued under this grant for the remainder of 2017 includes ongoing laboratory analysis for Hg, trace metals, organic carbon and nitrogen are ongoing and samples are being processed by graduate and undergraduate students. As well as continued data analysis and QA/QC procedures have been performed and are ongoing to develop a final dataset of two full years of field measurements. *Note -In 2017 the PI transferred from Nevada System of Higher Education, Desert Research Institute to University of Massachusetts Lowell, details for previous work is carried under NSF grant 1304305.

IAB will provide access to services and infrastructure at Toolik Field Station. CPS will provide user days at TFS for the duration of this project. CPS will remove the infrastructure when field work is complete. All other logistics, including any land use permits, will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Toolik0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: The Importance of Shelf Break Upwelling to Upper Trophic Level Ecology in the Western Beaufort Sea (Award# 1603120)

PI: Okkonen, Stephen (okkonen@alaska.net)
Phone: 0(907) 283.3234 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, Institute of Marine Science 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The edge of the shallow continental shelf (called the 'shelf break') in the Beaufort Sea is vulnerable both to direct impacts of ongoing climate change and to indirect impacts that may result from increased human activity in response to new opportunities associated with ocean warming and sea ice reduction. Beaufort Sea shelf break upwelling may be increasing in frequency in response to recent large-scale atmospheric changes, potentially increasing the importance of the shelf-break environment for a range of upper trophic level animals. This grant will support research to increase our understanding of the importance of the region to upper trophic levels such as beluga whales, seabirds, and seals, provide a mechanistic understanding of the linked atmosphere-ocean- plankton-predator system, and predict future consequences and impacts of environmental change on this system. A substantial communications program built upon long-standing, well-established relationships between the researchers and Alaska North Slope communities and subsistence organizations is planned both to coordinate the planned sampling and to convey the results of the research back to the communities. Information will be disseminated locally before and during two research cruises using a range of media including daily email reports, Facebook pages, blogs, interviews on local radio stations, and flyers. A comprehensive project report, a summary report written in straightforward English, and a poster describing results will be disseminated to the North Slope communities. Project members will also present results of the research in local lecture series or to interested local organizations. Involvement of a K-12 teacher in at least one of the cruises is planned. Both cruises will have the participation of a local community observer who will communicate directly with local communities during the cruise and share local knowledge with the science party. The Beaufort Sea shelf break experiences frequent upwelling of deep, nutrient rich basin water onto the shelf. Such upwelling is not only a short-term source of heat, salt, and nutrients, and a mechanism promoting elevated primary production (production response), but it also transports populations between ocean regions and depth strata or regimes (physical response), potentially modifying ecosystem structure and availability of zooplankton and fish prey to upper trophic level consumers. The Beaufort Sea shelf break is a domain of enhanced abundance of upper trophic level animals, presumably in response to elevated availability of their prey. Here we will explore and identify the mechanisms linking broad-scale atmospheric forcing, ocean physical response, prey-base condition and distribution, upper trophic level animal aggregations, and climate change along the Beaufort Shelf break. Our overarching hypothesis is that atmospherically-forced (wind-induced) upwelling along this shelf break leads to enhanced feeding opportunities for intermediate links in the pelagic ecosystem (zooplankton, forage fish) that in turn sustain the exploitation of this environment by animals such as beluga whales, seabirds, and seals. This hypothesis will be addressed using a combination of ship-based fieldwork, long-term moorings equipped with physical and biological sensors, and syntheses of retrospective and projected model output and longer-term data. The distributions, abundances, condition, and biology of multiple trophic levels will be described within the context of the dynamics of the physical environment to expand our understanding of trophic linkages and the importance of shelf-break upwelling to that system. Physical and biological model output and retrospective data will be synthesized with the mechanistic understanding gained during the field program to retrospectively characterize wind-driven upper trophic level ecosystem variability and predict how the ecosystem may respond to future projections of these atmospheric drivers and ice-ocean conditions.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Ashjian (1603941, Lead, WHOI), Okkonen (1603120, UAF), Campbell (1603321, URI) and Stafford (1603259, UW) will focus on the Western Beaufort Sea to quantify the importance of shelf-break upwelling to upper trophic level ecology. Logistic details under 1603941.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Nome0
2017Arctic Ocean and Seas - Beaufort Sea0
2018Alaska - Nome0
2018Arctic Ocean and Seas - Beaufort Sea0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Ice Regime Shifts of Arctic Lakes Drive Interactions and Feedbacks with Permafrost and Climate (Award# 1417345)

PI: Parsekian, Andrew ( aparseki@uwyo.edu)
Phone: 0(307) 766.5320 
Institute/Department: U of Wyoming, Department of Geology and Geophysics 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
Shallow lakes and ponds may cover up to 40 percent of the land surface in Arctic lowland regions. Many of these water bodies traditionally freeze solid during the winter, preserving sub-lake permafrost and keeping soil carbon stocks immobile at depth. Slightly deeper lakes maintain some liquid water beneath floating ice, causing deep thaw zones in otherwise continuous permafrost. Evidence suggests that thinner ice growth in response to warmer, snowier winters is pushing many bedfast ice lakes to floating ice regimes. If such a regime shift becomes pervasive across lake-rich landscapes, resulting permafrost thaw and enhanced moisture and heat flux could generate positive feedbacks, further amplifying this regime change. This project examines the extent and dynamics of bedfast and floating ice lakes in relation to hypothesized interactions and feedback with permafrost and climate. A combination of remote sensing, field monitoring and geophysical measurements, experiments and physical models are used to isolate processes, quantify interactions and project changes. Project findings will be relevant locally for native village subsistence and for water supply to the petroleum industry, and globally for scientists studying permafrost thaw and Arctic climate change.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers in this collaboration between Arp (1417300, UAF, Lead) and Parsekian (1417345, UWYO) examine the extent and dynamics of bedfast and floating ice lakes in relation to hypothesized interactions and feedback with permafrost and climate. Researchers will use a combination of remote sensing; field monitoring and geophysical measurements; experiments; and physical models to isolate processes, quantify interactions, and project changes. Logistic details under 1417300.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Alaska - Fish Creek0
2015Alaska - Inigok 0
2015Alaska - Teshekpuk0
2015Alaska - Toolik0
2016Alaska - Fish Creek0
2016Alaska - Teshekpuk0
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2016Alaska - Umiat0
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2017Alaska - Inigok 0
2017Alaska - Teshekpuk0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: The Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO)-A Change Detection Array in the Pacific Arctic Region (Award# 1203906)

PI: Pickart, Robert S (rpickart@whoi.edu)
Phone: 0(508) 289.2858 
Institute/Department: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Physical Oceanography Dept. 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Oceanography\Biological, Physical and Chemical Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://pag.arcticportal.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=12...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Several regionally critical marine sites in the Pacific Arctic sector that have very high biological biomass and are focused foraging points for apex predators, have been reoccupied during multiple international cruises. The data documenting the importance of these ecosystem "hotspots" provide a growing marine time-series from the northern Bering Sea to Barrow Canyon at the boundary of the Chukchi and Beaufort seas. Results from these studies show spatial changes in carbon production and export to the sediments as indicated by infaunal community composition and biomass, shifts in sediment grain size on a S-to-N latitudinal gradient, and range extensions for lower trophic levels and further northward migration of higher trophic organisms, such as gray whales. There is also direct evidence of negative impacts on ice dependent species, such as walruses and polar bears. To more systematically track the broad biological response to sea ice retreat and associated environmental change, an international consortium of scientists are developing a coordinated Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) that includes selected biological measurements at multiple trophic levels. These measurements are being made simultaneously with hydrographic surveys and satellite observations. The DBO currently focuses on five regional biological "hotspot" locations along a latitudinal gradient and includes multiple national and international occupation of these sites over the year. The spatially explicit DBO network is organized through the Pacific Arctic Group (PAG), a consensus-driven, international collaboration sanctioned by the International Arctic Science Committee. This NSF-support project is a U.S. contribution to the DBO effort in the Pacific Sector, and the scientific needs to be met are consistent with research needs identified in the 2013 US National Ocean Policy planning effort and National Strategy for the Arctic Region, and within the 2014 US Arctic Implementation Plan. This project serves as a contribution to the US-led Arctic Observing Network and is improving international cooperative efforts for evaluating ecosystem impacts from high latitude climate change. Identifying and collecting key prey-predator biological data in the context of high priority physical and chemical measurements will allow for integration of these data into scientific community analyses and ecosystem modeling efforts. Outreach to local communities and media as well as national and international groups will ensure that both local Alaskan communities and the broader public will be made aware of changes in this sensitive part of the Arctic.

Logistics Summary:
This project is a collaborative study between 1204082 (Grebmeier, UMCES, LEAD), 1204044 (Frey, Clark University), and 1203906 (Pickart, WHOI). To more systematically track the broad biological response to sea ice retreat and associated environmental change, an international consortium of scientists are implementing a coordinated Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) that includes selected biological measurements at multiple trophic levels coincident with physical and chemical measurements. Scientists will participate in scientific cruises (and/or samples will be collected by scientists aboard ships transiting the study sites) from 2013 to 2017. Logistics details will be carried under Grebmeier, 1204082.

Support details will be carried under grant 1204082 (Grebmeier) in this database.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2013Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2013Arctic Ocean and Seas - Arctic Ocean0
2014Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2014Arctic Ocean and Seas - Arctic Ocean0
2015Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2015Arctic Ocean and Seas - Arctic Ocean0
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2016Arctic Ocean and Seas - Arctic Ocean0
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2017Arctic Ocean and Seas - Arctic Ocean0
2017Arctic Ocean and Seas - Chukchi Sea0
 


Project Title: Distance Learning through Self-Induced Learning Infrastructure (SELIN) Implemented by Arctic Anthropologists (Award# 1623813)

PI: Plattet, Patrick (pplattet@alaska.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 474.6608 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, Department of Anthropology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach | Social and Human Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: https://www.digitalethnographylab.org/
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
This EAGER (Early-concept Grants for Exploratory Research) award supports an exploratory project that investigates a developing field of anthropological research, human-animal communication, and tests a new e-learning platform for facilitating research training in the social sciences at the university level. The project pairs new distance learning software, Self-Induced Learning Infrastructure (SELIN), with materials designed to generate enthusiasm among college students for science research. Several programs in Alaska are currently using community based traditional knowledge as a launching point for science education. A good example is an existing lesson that uses dog sleds to teach physics to students from rural Alaskan communities. The Alaska based SELIN project team will add to these efforts by investigating a new area of social science research on human-animal interactions by investigating the relationships between dog mushers and their dogs. This relationship will be documented and the data used to create a course that teaches social science concepts and research methods to college students. SELIN, the new e-learning platform developed at the University of Neuchâtel, Switzerland, lends itself to a variety of observational sciences including biology, veterinary medicine, sociology, linguistics, and child development. The availability of SELIN distance courses in English will make the platform accessible to a wider audience. The findings and data that come from this research (which will be made available, unedited, to other researchers) about the cultural and economic factors that drive dog mushing will be beneficial to veterinarians and those involved in resource management in the Arctic. The fact that the course is asynchronous means it can deliver science to communities where there is limited access to scientists and science education, among them rural and Indigenous Arctic communities for whom the subject matter is of particular interest. The findings from the research used to develop the course on human and animal communication offer insights for those involved in practical applications such as training and coordinating activities with animal species for search and rescue, law enforcement, and potentially service animals who assist the disabled.

Logistics Summary:
This EAGER project will support the creation of a web-based research training program in the social sciences at the university level. Researchers will pair a new distance learning software, Self-Induced Learning Infrastructure (SELIN), with materials designed to generate enthusiasm about social and behavioral science research. Specifically, the researchers will create a new course: Human-Animal Interaction in Alaskan Dog Mushing (HAI) and include the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) in an emerging network of universities that will utilize and contribute courses to the SELIN platform. Researchers will collect multimedia ethnographic material (films, photos, interviews, texts) on Alaska sled dog racing and mushing. During the winter and spring of 2017, the researchers will collect data on “sprint” and “long distance” dog races throughout Alaska, including the Fur Rondezvous in Anchorage (4 days), The Race of Champions in Tok (4 days), the Yukon Quest along the Eagle Checkpoint (5 days), and the Limited/Open North American Championship in Fairbanks (6 days). In the fall of 2017, a field team of 1-3 will spend one week documenting subsistence salmon fishing related to dog mushing along the Yukon River near Eagle. The researchers will also document and record the preparation of the sled dog racing season over 20 days in several interior Alaskan locales, including Fairbanks, North Pole, and Tok.

All logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Anchorage02 / 23 / 2017 02 / 26 / 20172
2017Alaska - Eagle02 / 09 / 2017 09 / 25 / 20173
2017Alaska - Fairbanks03 / 10 / 2017 03 / 19 / 20173
2017Alaska - Tok03 / 23 / 2017 03 / 26 / 20173
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Snow, Wind, and Time: Understanding Snow Redistribution and Its Effects on Sea Ice Mass Balance (Award# 1603361)

PI: Polashenski, Christopher M (Christopher.M.Polashenski@Dartmouth.edu)
Phone: 0(603) 646.4219 
Institute/Department: Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Anjuli Bamzai (abamzai@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The insulating and reflective properties of snow substantially influence Arctic sea ice growth and decay. The overwhelming consensus within the scientific community is that the details of snow and sea ice interactions must be better incorporated in Earth System models, yet basic information on snow processes remains poorly quantified. The limited treatment of snow in Earth System models is largely based on datasets from field experiments on multi-year ice and does not capture changing snow properties and processes. Increasingly pervasive younger, thinner ice carries a different snowpack and is likely much more sensitive to snow conditions than the multi-year ice of the past. Predicting Arctic climate requires that we understand snow on sea ice and its interactions and feedbacks among the rest of the climate system components. A particularly important aspect of snow on sea ice is its fine-scale spatial redistribution. Wind-driven snow redistribution into dunes and drifts controls thermal fluxes and melt pond formation, exerting considerable control over ice mass balance. The principal investigators of this project will study snow distribution, its variability, and its effects on ice mass balance using an integrated field observation and modeling approach. This project will contribute to STEM workforce development in multiple fashions. It will provide support for an early-career scientist during his formative years. It will support the training of a graduate student. It will entrain undergraduate students and high school interns into the research effort. Outreach to local schools near the institutions of the principal investigators will be enabled through blogs and classroom presentations. The project will enable an outreach program targeted at improving science engagement at the Barrow schools. Field programs will track snow distributions over the course of a multi-month experiment, while modeling efforts will seek to reproduce the observed evolution of snow conditions. Lidar technology will track snow surface position as drifts build, erode, and migrate, creating time series of three-dimensional snow surface models with cm-scale accuracy. Snow properties observed in pit studies will be synthesized with surface position maps to construct a three-dimensional snow stratigraphy for model initialization and the study of aggregate snow thermal properties. The observations will be integrated into a pair of resolved-scale snow and sea ice models to quantify impacts of snow redistribution on sea ice mass balance through alteration of thermal conduction and melt pond formation. Model trials and development will permit investigation of the representations of snow redistribution in the models and will quantify the importance of snow processes on the annual ice mass balance. A library of prior field observations and short visits to offshore sites will be used to validate the generality of the field sites and assess the variability of snow distributions. The model will also be used to investigate how to best aggregate (or parameterize) snow properties and processes at coarser resolutions found in Earth System models. Findings and results will be shared with the Earth System modeling community to support development of improved snow-on-sea-ice representations.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this collaborative project between Polashenski (1603361, Dartmouth) and Liston (1602889, CSU) will study snow distribution, its variability, and its effects on ice mass balance using an integrated field observation and modeling approach. The field program will track snow distributions over the course of a multi-month experiment, while the modeling effort will seek to reproduce the observed evolution of snow conditions. Starting in December 2016 and into June 2017, a team of two to four researchers will make approximately eight short (~4 – 5 day) visits to Barrow to collect snow and ice measurements and deploy instrumentation on the sea ice. Visits may vary in duration or frequency as needed to observe snow conditions, but team is targeting 80 user days as their total footprint.

CPS will provide the following support in Utqiagvik (Barrow) from November 2016 through June 2017: lodging, truck rental, staging and storage space, snowmachines and sleds, radios, bear guards, satellite phone, med kit, temporary labor, helicopter air support for an April helicopter campaign, and assistance with NSB and UIC permits. CPS also procured a Riegl VZ-6000 LiDAR unit to be used by the PI for the duration of the project. UNAVCO will provide technical support for the unit as needed. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)11 / 28 / 2016 12 / 04 / 20163
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)01 / 09 / 2017 06 / 15 / 20175
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Carbon, Water, and Energy Balance of the Arctic Landscape at Flagship Observatories in Alaska and Siberia (Award# 1503781)

PI: Rastetter, Edward B (erastett@mbl.edu)
Phone: 0(508) 289.7483 
Institute/Department: Marine Biological Laboratory, The Ecosystems Center 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Ecology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://arc-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/
Data: http://www.lternet.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/
Data: https://climate.iarc.uaf.edu/geonetwork/srv/en/mai...
Data: https://www.iab.uaf.edu/

Science Summary:
Arctic terrestrial ecosystems exchange greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and methane), water vapor, and energy with the atmosphere. The balance between uptake and release of these quantities influences both the Arctic region and the global climate system. The terrestrial cycling of carbon, water, and energy are strongly linked, and therefore need to be studied at the same time and in the same place. This project continues long-term measurements of carbon, water, and energy balance in terrestrial and freshwater systems in the Alaskan Arctic, extending measurements that began in 2007. Carbon loss over the winter has recently increased dramatically at one of our study sites, as winter air and soil temperatures have warmed. This study will determine whether these losses continue and seek to understand the underlying causes. Broader impacts of this project include contributions to teaching and learning, including underrepresented groups, support of undergraduate summer research, participation in the Marine Biology Laboratory Logan Science Journalism program and the Arctic LTER Schoolyard program, and outreach to K-12 schools in Fairbanks, Alaska, and to Native Alaskan communities. This project will support career development of two female Principal Investigators at UAF. The proposed research will extend continuous measurements of carbon, water, and energy balance in three tundra ecosystems near Imnavait Creek, Alaska. Ecosystem/atmosphere flux measurements have been collected at these sites via eddy covariance since 2007. Long-term monitoring of hydrology and stream chemistry of Imnavait Creek and depth of thaw in its catchment area will be maintained. Additional measurements to help interpret these data will include water table depth, plant community composition, and vegetation greenness via reflectivity, which is related to leaf area and biomass. Long-term measurements of stream chemistry and discharge are also available at Imnavait, enabling a comprehensive assessment of carbon budgets. All data will be made publicly available and archived at the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) web site, the International Arctic Research Center Data Archive, and the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS).

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Bret-Harte (1503912, UAF), Kling (1504006, U Mich), and Rastetter (1503781, MBL) continues work begun under NSF grant 1107707 (lead PI Shaver). The researchers will extend time-series data on carbon, water, and energy balance data that have been collected on tundra ecosystems near Toolik Field Station (TFS) via eddy covariance since 2007. Logistic details under 1503912.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2019Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Adding animals to the equation: assessing herbivore impacts on carbon cycling in northern Alaska (Award# 1603560)

PI: Rastetter, Edward B (erastett@mbl.edu)
Phone: 0(508) 289.7483 
Institute/Department: Marine Biological Laboratory, The Ecosystems Center 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://arc-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/
Data: http://arctos.database.museum/
Data: http://herbivory.biology.ualberta.ca/
Logistics: http://toolik.alaska.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Small mammals graze on the vegetation of the Arctic tundra. Although this grazing may influence many aspects of tundra ecosystems, current models do not include grazing by small mammals. In this project, the abundance of voles and lemmings will be varied experimentally using fenced plots. The investigators will observe the responses in the plots, especially focusing on changes in the cycling of carbon and nitrogen. To understand how the current climate controls the importance of grazing by small mammals, the investigators will conduct their studies at three sites in Alaska located in the Seward Peninsula, the foothills of the Brooks Range, and on the Arctic coastal plain. The natural abundance of voles and lemmings will be studied at these sites to provide background for applying the experimental results throughout the Arctic. The results will be used to expand a mathematical model of tundra ecosystems to include grazing by small mammals, which will improve the predictions that can be made about how the Arctic may change in the future. The research will involve a number of undergraduate students and investigators will integrate their research into classes and other educational programs. In addition, they will present a radio program in Barrow, AK. The investigators will investigate the importance of herbivory by small mammals in controlling the cycling of carbon and nutrients in the rapidly changing Arctic tundra. Through studies at three sites along a latitudinal gradient, the investigators will employ both observations and experiments to quantify the role of grazing by rodents (voles and lemmings) in the functioning of tundra ecosystems. The observations of rodent population dynamics along with ecosystem function will provide key new information relevant to understanding the feedbacks of the Arctic tundra to the global climate. The manipulation of rodent density through exclosures and enclosures will show how potential changes in rodent populations may influence the tundra ecosystem response. In corporation of the observational and experimental results into a quantitative ecosystem model will enhance predictions of future changes and feedbacks with climate.

Logistics Summary:
The goal of this collaborative project between Boelman (1603777, Lead, LDEO), Gough (1603760, Towson), Rastetter (1603560, MBL), McLaren (1603677, U of Texas), and Rowe (1603654, UNH) is to quantify and gain mechanistic understanding of the impact of small mammal herbivores on carbon and nutrient dynamics in the rapidly changing Alaskan arctic tundra and incorporate these impacts into a biogeochemical model to make future predictions of how the animals mediate tundra-atmosphere carbon exchange. Logistic details under 1603777.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Seward Peninsula0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2018Alaska - Seward Peninsula0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2019Alaska - Seward Peninsula0
2019Alaska - Toolik0
2019Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2020Alaska - Seward Peninsula0
2020Alaska - Toolik0
2020Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2021Alaska - Seward Peninsula0
2021Alaska - Toolik0
2021Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
 


Project Title: LTER: The Role of Biogeochemical and Community Openness in Governing Arctic Ecosystem Response to Climate Change and Disturbance (Award# 1637459)

PI: Rastetter, Edward B (erastett@mbl.edu)
Phone: 0(508) 289.7483 
Institute/Department: Marine Biological Laboratory, The Ecosystems Center 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\BIO\DEB
Program Manager: Dr. Louis Kaplan (lkaplan@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://www.lternet.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...

Science Summary:
The Arctic is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth. Responses to this warming involve acceleration of processes common to other ecosystems around the world (e.g., shifts in plant community composition) and changes to processes unique to the Arctic (e.g., carbon loss from permafrost thaw). The objectives of the Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) Project for 2017-2023 are to use the concepts of biogeochemical and community "openness" and "connectivity" to understand the responses of arctic terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems to climate change and disturbance. These objectives will be met through continued long-term monitoring of changes in undisturbed terrestrial, stream, and lake ecosystems in the vicinity of Toolik Lake, Alaska, observations of the recovery of these ecosystems from natural and imposed disturbances, maintenance of existing long-term experiments, and initiation of new experimental manipulations. Based on these data, carbon and nutrient budgets and indices of species composition will be compiled for each component of the arctic landscape to compare the biogeochemistry and community dynamics of each ecosystem in relation to their responses to climate change and disturbance and to the propagation of those responses across the landscape.

Logistics Summary:
This six-year Arctic Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) grant is a continuation of work begun under NSF grant 1026843 (Shaver) with field work from 2011-2016. Researchers will use the concepts of biogeochemical and community openness and connectivity to understand the responses of arctic terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems to climate change and disturbance. During the summers of 2017 through 2022 researchers affiliated with the Arctic LTER will conduct fieldwork on the tundra and in lakes and streams near Toolik Field Station. Each year, researchers will conduct a host of experiments in the greater Toolik area using Toolik Field Station as a base. In addition to a portfolio of experiments, the Arctic LTER has a number of education and outreach components, including people working under the Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program, under the PolarTREC grant, via various other teacher, journalist, and/or student field experience opportunities.

IAB will provide access to support and infrastructure at Toolik Field Station. CPS will provide user days at Toolik Field Station; helicopter support; truck rental, boardwalk installation, repair, and replacement; and safety and communications equipment. All other logistics, including land use permits, will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Toolik05 / 09 / 2017 09 / 27 / 201740
2018Alaska - Toolik05 / 01 / 2018 09 / 03 / 201810
2019Alaska - Toolik05 / 01 / 2019 09 / 03 / 201910
2020Alaska - Toolik05 / 01 / 2020 09 / 03 / 202010
2021Alaska - Toolik05 / 01 / 2021 09 / 03 / 202110
2022Alaska - Toolik05 / 01 / 2022 09 / 03 / 202210
 


Project Title: Coordination, Data Management and Enhancement of the International Arctic Buoy Programme (Award# 1503672)

PI: Rigor, Ignatius G (ignatius@uw.edu)
Phone: 0(206) 685.2571 
Institute/Department: U of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratory 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://iabp.apl.washington.edu/data.html
Data: http://iabp.apl.washington.edu/maps_daily_table.ht...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Dramatic changes in Arctic climate have occurred during the past two decades. Many of these changes were first observed and studied using data from the International Arctic Buoy Program (IABP), which maintains at least 100 buoys in the Arctic Ocean that collect data on surface water temperature, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and ice motion. These data are analyzed and made available to the research community by the United States IABP. IABP data were fundamental in demonstrating that atmospheric pressure has decreased, air temperature has increased, and the clockwise circulation of current and ice in the Arctic Ocean has weakened in recent decades. The integrated effect of all these changes contributed to the precipitous decrease in the average age (thickness) of sea ice observed during this period. The data help us understand the recent record low summer sea ice extents. The project will continue the United States interagency Arctic buoy program which began collecting data in 1979 and provide critical atmospheric, ice, and surface ocean measurements that cannot be obtained by other means. The project also has a multifaceted outreach program to share science with the public that includes the principal investigator participating in programs such as the Polar Science Weekend, public presentations, K-12 school visits, and public communication through interactions with journalists. The observations from the IABP have been essential for: 1) monitoring Arctic and global climate change, 2) forecasting weather and sea ice conditions, 3) forcing, assimilation, and validation of global weather and climate models and, 4) validation of satellite derived estimates of sea ice motion, surface temperature, sea ice thickness, etc. Our ability to predict weather and sea ice conditions requires in situ observations of surface meteorology and ice motion. These observations are assimilated into Numerical Weather Prediction models that are used to forecast weather on synoptic time scales, e.g. by the National Weather Service; and into the many long-term atmospheric re-analyses (e.g. National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research re-analysis) that are used for innumerable climate studies. Based on a recommendation by the National Academy of Sciences in 1974, the Arctic Ocean Buoy Program was established by the Pacific Science Center/Applied Physics laboratory, University of Washington, in 1978 to support the Global Weather Experiment. The program continued through 1990 under funding from various agencies. In 1991, the IABP succeeded the Arctic Ocean Buoy Program, but the basic objective remains unchanged: maintaining a network of drifting buoys on the Arctic Ocean to provide meteorological and oceanographic data for real-time operational requirements and research purposes including support to the World Climate Research Program, the World Weather Watch Program, and the Arctic Observing Network. The project will collect data from all Arctic buoys, analyze, disseminate, and archive all IABP data, and maintain historical data bases.

Logistics Summary:
The objectives of this research are the coordination, data management, and deployment of buoys by the U.S. International Arctic Buoy Program (USIABP). This work will provide fundamental meteorological buoys for other AON projects, and fill gaps in the AON such as in the Bering Sea and Eurasian Arctic. During the spring, summer, and fall in 2016 – 2017, researchers for this project will make multiple trips to Utqiagvik (Barrow) to deploy buoys and conduct routine buoy maintenance. In 2017, researchers will also travel to Thule, Greenland to deploy buoys using a Danish C-130 aircraft.

In Utqiagvik (Barrow), CPS will provide lodging, NARL storage/warehouse space, truck rental, snowmachine rental, bear guards, radios, and assistance with UIC and NSB permits. For the work in Thule, CPS will provide cargo support from IAB to Thule. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)03 / 18 / 2016 11 / 10 / 20166
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)01 / 09 / 2017 10 / 10 / 20173
2017Greenland - Thule08 / 31 / 2017 09 / 07 / 20173
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Arctic Land Fast Sea Ice Formation in the Presence of Fresh Water Input (Award# 1602533)

PI: Rigor, Ignatius G (ignatius@uw.edu)
Phone: 0(206) 685.2571 
Institute/Department: U of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratory 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: http://www2.ucar.edu/
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
One of the most notable changes in the Arctic during recent years has been the variability in sea ice extent and timing. Changes in the character and seasonal cycle of nearshore sea ice is of particular importance to indigenous communities that use the nearshore sea ice as a platform for subsistence hunting and transportation. Observations and model projections also suggest increasing freshwater runoff to the coastal ocean from increased melting of glaciers and ice sheets, thawing of permafrost, and precipitation over land. This runoff impacts the sea ice that forms in the fall. Sea ice formed under freshwater influence reveals differences in salinity, porosity, and permeability, and thus its optical and mechanical properties. This project will provide unique observations of sea ice formation and structure under conditions of freshwater influence. This project will contribute to STEM workforce development through provision of support for the training of a graduate student. It will also entrain undergraduate students from Dartmouth?s Women in Science Project (WISP). One undergraduate will participate in the spring field work. The project will also apply for support for a PolarTREC teacher. K-12th grade outreach activities will be offered and will leverage existing programs at University of Washington such as participation in the Polar Science Weekend at the Pacific Science Center. The freshwater discharge to the coastal ocean affects thermodynamic processes in sea ice by changing salinity and temperature of the waters undergoing freezing. This three-year pilot project is designed to study sea ice formation and structure in the coastal ocean, while addressing the following important questions: 1. How do microstructure and the brine pocket network differ in sea ice that forms and grows where there is significant fresh water input compared to sea ice in the open ocean? 2. Can we monitor the onset of freezing, freezing rate and ice type in situ in sensitive nearshore areas, while collecting data remotely? 3. How does microstructure affect heat transfer along the length of an ice core? The project will combine recently developed observation and sampling technologies, and integrate expertise in field monitoring, and physical and chemical sea ice characterization. Sea ice formation, growth rate, and salinity will be monitored in situ at a location of freshwater input during the course of a growth season using a wire ladder. Oxygen isotopic ratios and optical thin section stratigraphy will be used to quantify freshwater influence. X-ray micro-computed tomography will be used to characterize porosity and brine channel topology at 1 cm intervals along ice cores and provide quantitative data on microstructural differences in ice influenced by the freshwater. Laboratory tests and modeling will be used to examine heat transfer through sea ice cores held at their in situ temperature gradient, as a function of microstructural stratigraphy.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Obbard (1603683, Dartmouth) and Rigor (1602533, UW) will establish new ways of monitoring and understanding sea ice formation in the presence of increased meltwater, and the collection of data on sea ice structure and characteristics that will inform sea ice model development. Logistic details under 1603683.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
 


Project Title: LTREB: Following the reorganization and resynchronization of biogeochemical cycles after an unprecedented tundra fire (Award# 1556772)

PI: Rocha, Adrian V (arocha1@nd.edu)
Phone: 0(574) 631.9438 
Institute/Department: U of Notre Dame, Department of Biological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\BIO\DEB
Program Manager: Dr. Matthew Kane (mkane@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology\Ecology | Legacy Projects | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://arc-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/
Project: http://arc-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/fire-arctic-lan...
Data: http://fluxnet.ornl.gov/
Logistics: http://toolik.alaska.edu/
Data: http://www.nature.com/sdata/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Institute: http://www3.nd.edu/~rochalab/wordpress/

Science Summary:
The arctic tundra north of the tree line in Alaska is responding to the most rapid rates of warming on the globe. The responses include increased plant growth, thaw of the underlying permafrost, loss of soil carbon through increased microbial activity, and increased frequency and severity of wildfires. Historically, low temperatures have kept tundra fires as relatively infrequent events. But warming is anticipated to impact the fire regime by doubling fire size and frequency in the arctic by the year 2100. Fires impact ecosystem services provided by the tundra for decades to centuries by burning the vegetation and the layer of dead organic matter on top of the soil. As vegetation rapidly recolonizes the landscape after a fire through a process known as succession, its composition changes, as do the cycles of carbon and associated nutrients, like nitrogen and phosphorus. In fact, fires remove a large portion of nutrients needed to fuel the regrowth and recovery of vegetation, while at the same time, increase soil temperatures because the insulating organic layer has also been removed. Warmer soils may increase soil nutrient availability and lead a shift from grasses to shrubs over time. But it is unclear whether these changes are large enough to offset the initial carbon and nutrient losses during the fires, which is the main question this project seeks to answer. Besides the scientific results, an online documentary series will be produced that explains the effects of climate change and fire on arctic ecosystems. Formal outreach programs developed in prior projects that specifically address indigenous and minority populations living on the North Slope in Alaska and in Indiana will also be enhanced. This project will develop a multi-decadal record and mathematical model of post-fire carbon and nutrient cycling across three sites along a disturbance severity gradient within the largest recorded arctic tundra fire, the Anaktuvuk River fire from 2007. An existing eddy covariance system will be used to continue measurements of carbon and energy fluxes begun in 2008, along with soil chambers. A quantitative soil and biomass harvest was conducted in 2011 across a burn severity gradient. Post-fire trajectories from grass to shrub-dominated tundra should create a positive climatic feedback and produce a warming effect through decreased albedo. This project will be used to create a multi-decadal record of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes and stocks to parameterize, validate, and test the Multiple Element Limitation (MEL) model as applied to the biogeochemistry of arctic tundra.

Logistics Summary:
The objective of this project is to produce transformative understanding of post-fire succession for arctic tundra, and improve representation of biological processes in biogeochemical models. The work will highlight the importance of long-term ecological records, and develop techniques in which to use these data to test ecological models and theories. During late May through early September 2016 – 2020, the PI, two PhD students, a summer research assistant, and undergraduates will base out of Toolik Field Station, and make repeated sampling day trips to the area burned by the 2007 Anaktuvuk River Wildfire. Additionally, every two years (2017 and 2019), a group of 10-15 people will help with “the pluck” of 20 soil and biomass samples from each of three sites - in which all above and below ground biomass is separated by species and tissue.

IAB will provide access to services and infrastructure at Toolik Field Station. CPS will provide Toolik user days and helicopter support. All other logistics, including land use permits, will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Toolik05 / 24 / 2016 09 / 02 / 201610
2017Alaska - Toolik05 / 23 / 2017 09 / 03 / 201714
2018Alaska - Toolik05 / 15 / 2018 09 / 10 / 20188
2019Alaska - Toolik05 / 15 / 2019 09 / 10 / 20198
2020Alaska - Toolik05 / 15 / 2020 09 / 10 / 20208
 


Project Title: PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (Award# 1630463RR)

PI: Rodriguez, Ruth ()
Phone: 0(915) 926.4000 
Institute/Department: Clint ISD Early College Academy,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARE\TREC
Program Manager: Ms. Elizabeth Rom (elrom@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach\Formal Science Education: K-12 |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.polartrec.com/

Science Summary:
The Artic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) will administer and implement, "Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (PolarTREC)", an international program that brings together U.S. teachers to participate in cutting-edge field research with polar scientists in various, and often remote, locations in the Arctic and Antarctica. Through hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctica, participating teachers (pre-service and in-service) will improve teaching strategies, develop resources for their careers, and change how they teach STEM in the classroom. The program goal is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing educators and polar researchers together in professional collaboration. By integrating research and education, PolarTREC will help sustain and grow the considerable scientific and public enthusiasm for polar research and education. ARCUS will support a total of twelve teachers for Arctic field seasons in 2017 and Antarctic field seasons in 2017/2018. ARCUS will recruit, select, and match teachers and researchers, maintain a website for dissemination of information about the expeditions, provide orientation training for the teachers that includes field safety and communication training, provide travel support for the teachers to meet with scientists prior to deployments and for them to join the scientific expeditions in the field, and evaluate results of the program. Dissemination efforts via the website and public presentations are expected to reach many additional teachers, students, scientists and the public.

Logistics Summary:
PolarTREC teacher, Ruth Rodriguez, will join Dr. Lougheed's project (NSF grant 1612212) in Utqiagvik (Barrow), Alaska using legacy and modern data for the Utqiagvik (Barrow), Alaska area, together with field experiences and lab-based manipulations, the ROAM2 program will orchestrate authentic, collaborative research experiences, where undergraduate students from the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) will develop research questions, collect, analyze, and synthesize data, and communicate results in scientifically valid venues on topics in Arctic ecosystem ecology. These experiments will be completed using tundra soil monoliths and cores that we have brought back from Utqiagvik (Barrow). PolarTREC teacher Ruth Rodriguez will implement a similar student project in her classroom. For more information refer to grant 1612212 in this database.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
 


Project Title: AON: Development of Sustainable Observations of Thermal State of Permafrost in North America and Russia: The U.S. Contribution to the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (Award# 1304271)

PI: Romanovsky, Vladimir E (veromanovsky@alaska.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 474.7459 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, Geophysical Institute 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Permafrost |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://permafrost.gi.alaska.edu/
Project: http://permafrost.gi.alaska.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=13...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) is a metadata based system established in the late 1990s under the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). In Alaska, two major series of boreholes exist within the GTN-P with observations dating back to the 1970s; the US Geological Survey deep boreholes (>125 m) and the University of Alaska’s intermediate boreholes (<100m). This project will formally link approximately 80 Alaskan boreholes with about 200 sites of observations in other countries in Northern Eurasia, and in so doing will facilitate the establishment of a sustainable international network of permafrost temperature observations within the GTN-P framework. Moreover, in very close cooperation with several governmental agencies such as FWS, BLM, U.S. Park Service, and DOE ArcticNGEE over 25 new relatively shallow boreholes (up to 10 m) and about 40 surface boreholes (1.5 m) across northern Alaska will be equipped with temperature sensors and data loggers and incorporated into Alaskan portion of GTN-P. This work will coordinate data collection using standard equipment and protocols at the Alaskan borehole sites and at a selected and comparable number of sites in Russia. The Alaskan and Eurasian borehole temperature data sets will provide the baseline to reconstruct past surface temperatures, to assess the future rates of change in near-surface permafrost temperatures and permafrost boundaries, and to provide spatial data for validation of climate scenario models and temperature reanalysis approaches. This project provides the US contribution to the ongoing activities of GTN-P that obtains temperatures in a large number of globally distributed boreholes in order to provide a “snapshot” of permafrost temperatures in both time and space.

Logistics Summary:
This continuation of NSF grant 0856864 supports researchers working to formally link approximately 80 Alaskan boreholes with about 200 sites of observations in other countries in Northern Eurasia. So doing will facilitate the establishment of a sustainable international network of permafrost temperature observations within the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) framework. Starting in 2014, and for five consecutive seasons thereafter, a research team of 2-3 will visit permafrost observatories in Alaska, Canada, and Russia during spring and summer. In 2016 five scientists will visit Alaska and Canada field sites via short-duration trips conducted by a subset of the research team. Trips begin in early July and end in mid-August, each lasting two to eight days, depending on mode of transport and number of sites visited. The team will access sites by road or aircraft as necessary. For work in High Arctic Canada, the team will travel with the aircraft and camp in the field. In 2017 researchers will return in late July/ early August. Details are TBD.

IAB will provide access to infrastructure and services at Toolik Field Station. For each year of the grant, CPS will provide truck and ATV support; lodging in Nome, Barrow, Prudhoe Bay, and Toolik Field Station; fixed-wing support to Ivotuk and Kaktovik; Toolik helicopter support; and for Barrow-based work, assistance with North Slope Borough and Ukpeagvik Iñupiat Corporation permitting. In addition to the above, in specific years, CPS will provide the following supplemental air resources: in 2016, fixed-wing support to access field sites in the Canadian High Arctic (Green Cabin, Mould Bay, and Isachsen); in 2017, helicopter support and fuel caches in Kaktovik for access to field sites on the Hulahula River. All other logistics, including land use permits outside of Barrow, most work in Canada, and all work in Russia, will be arranged and paid for by the PI.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Alaska - Council07 / 20 / 2014 07 / 26 / 20143
2014Alaska - Ivotuk08 / 15 / 2014 08 / 15 / 20142
2014Alaska - Kaktovik08 / 19 / 2014 08 / 19 / 20142
2014Alaska - Nome07 / 20 / 2014 07 / 26 / 20143
2014Alaska - Prudhoe Bay07 / 16 / 2014 08 / 28 / 20145
2014Alaska - Toolik07 / 14 / 2014 08 / 27 / 20145
2014Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)08 / 21 / 2014 08 / 22 / 20142
2014Russia - Mirnyy07 / 28 / 2014 08 / 07 / 20142
2014Russia - Yakutsk07 / 28 / 2014 08 / 07 / 20142
2015Alaska - Council07 / 27 / 2015 07 / 31 / 20154
2015Alaska - Gakona08 / 17 / 2015 08 / 18 / 20152
2015Alaska - Ivotuk07 / 17 / 2015 07 / 17 / 20152
2015Alaska - Kaktovik08 / 10 / 2015 08 / 10 / 20153
2015Alaska - Kougarok07 / 27 / 2015 07 / 31 / 20154
2015Alaska - Nome07 / 27 / 2015 07 / 31 / 20154
2015Alaska - Prudhoe Bay08 / 26 / 2015 08 / 27 / 20154
2015Alaska - Toolik06 / 22 / 2015 08 / 28 / 20154
2015Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)08 / 05 / 2015 08 / 07 / 20152
2015Russia - Mirnyy07 / 28 / 2015 08 / 07 / 20152
2015Russia - Yakutsk07 / 28 / 2015 08 / 07 / 20152
2016Alaska - Coldfoot07 / 06 / 2016 07 / 06 / 20162
2016Alaska - Council07 / 14 / 2016 07 / 16 / 20163
2016Alaska - Gakona08 / 16 / 2016 08 / 17 / 20162
2016Alaska - Ivotuk08 / 04 / 2016 08 / 04 / 20162
2016Alaska - Kaktovik08 / 02 / 2016 08 / 02 / 20162
2016Alaska - Kougarok07 / 16 / 2016 07 / 18 / 20163
2016Alaska - Nome07 / 12 / 2016 07 / 14 / 20163
2016Alaska - Prudhoe Bay08 / 24 / 2016 08 / 24 / 20164
2016Alaska - Toolik07 / 06 / 2016 08 / 26 / 20163
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)08 / 09 / 2016 08 / 10 / 20162
2016Canada - Green Cabin, Banks Island07 / 23 / 2016 07 / 25 / 20163
2016Canada - Isachsen, Ellef Ringnes Island07 / 25 / 2016 07 / 28 / 20163
2016Canada - Mould Bay, Prince Patrick Island07 / 28 / 2016 07 / 30 / 20163
2016Russia - Mirnyy07 / 28 / 2016 08 / 07 / 20162
2016Russia - Yakutsk07 / 28 / 2016 08 / 07 / 20162
2017Alaska - Howe Island07 / 14 / 2017 07 / 21 / 20172
2017Alaska - Hulahula River06 / 23 / 2017 07 / 04 / 20173
2017Alaska - Ivotuk07 / 14 / 2017 07 / 21 / 20172
2017Alaska - Kaktovik06 / 23 / 2017 07 / 04 / 20173
2017Alaska - Nome06 / 09 / 2017 08 / 14 / 20173
2017Alaska - Prudhoe Bay06 / 18 / 2017 06 / 20 / 20172
2017Alaska - Toolik04 / 14 / 2017 09 / 18 / 20173
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)07 / 28 / 2017 07 / 31 / 20172
2017Russia - Mirnyy07 / 28 / 2017 08 / 07 / 20172
2017Russia - Yakutsk07 / 28 / 2017 08 / 07 / 20172
2018Alaska - Howe Island07 / 14 / 2018 07 / 21 / 20182
2018Alaska - Ivotuk0
2018Alaska - Kaktovik06 / 18 / 2018 06 / 20 / 20182
2018Alaska - Nome06 / 09 / 2018 08 / 14 / 20183
2018Alaska - Prudhoe Bay06 / 18 / 2018 06 / 20 / 20182
2018Alaska - Toolik04 / 14 / 2018 09 / 18 / 20183
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)06 / 16 / 2018 06 / 19 / 20183
 


Project Title: EAGER: Reducing Scientific Uncertainty of Storm Trends in Savoonga and Shaktoolik, Alaska with Traditional Knowledge (Award# 1640960)

PI: Rosales, Jon R (jrosales@stlawu.edu)
Phone: 0(315) 229.5852 
Institute/Department: St. Lawrence University. , Environmental Studies 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate | Social and Human Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://aksik.org
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/catalog/
Data: https://catalog.data.gov/dataset/international-tre...

Science Summary:
Climate change scientists continue to have low confidence in their understanding of storm intensity in the Arctic. While it is likely that storm intensity has increased in this region and scientists expect storm intensity to continue to increase with additional climate change, more evidence is needed to decrease the uncertainty of the direction of storm intensity in the Arctic. This project aims to do that. Storm surge, how far waves rise on the land, will be used as a proxy for storm intensity. The height of driftwood deposits will be used as an indicator of a given storm’s intensity. This project aims to date driftwood deposits to show the direction of change in storm intensity over time. Driftwood samples will be collected and analyzed using standard dendrochronology techniques to date driftwood logs and estimate the age of driftwood deposits to within an estimated 20 years. Traditional ecological knowledge of storm events stored in the names of indigenous peoples in Savoonga and Gambell, Alaska will be used to identify the dates of large storms. These two Siberian Yupik villages name babies after significant events, like large storms, to retain knowledge of those events. This project catalogues the Siberian Yupik names of tribal members in Savoonga and Gambell to identify those names, and birthdates, of people named after large storms. Those dates will be used to narrow the date of driftwood deposits which will ultimately allow a measure of storm intensity over time.

Logistics Summary:
Beginning in 2016, this two year project will combine indigenous and scientific knowledge to determine if storm intensity has increased in the Bering Strait region of Alaska. Researchers will attempt to determine if past and current tribal names correlate with past storm events, based on the Siberian Yupik tradition of naming children born during great storms to commemorate those events. In the summer of 2016, three researchers will travel to Savoonga and Gambell, on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska to catalogue children names which are kept in the Tribal Council offices. In January 2017, one researcher will return to the villages and interview elders and hunters to discuss the fuller meaning of the names they found, and determine if the memory of past storm events is stored in the naming convention. The elders and hunters will then be asked where coastal driftwood deposits may be found on St. Lawrence Island and in Shaktoolik, since driftwood is often an indicator of storm surge. Two researchers will return to these villages in either June or July, 2017, to collect driftwood, and ship it back their home institution in order to date it using standard dendrochronology techniques.

All logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Gambell06 / 23 / 2016 06 / 25 / 20163
2016Alaska - Savoonga06 / 20 / 2016 06 / 23 / 20163
2017Alaska - Savoonga01 / 20 / 2017 01 / 22 / 20171
2017Alaska - Shaktoolik06 / 28 / 2017 06 / 30 / 20172
2017Alaska - St. Lawrence Island06 / 30 / 2017 07 / 03 / 20172
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Adding animals to the equation: assessing herbivore impacts on carbon cycling in northern Alaska (Award# 1603654)

PI: Rowe, Rebecca (rebecca.rowe@unh.edu)
Phone: 0(603) 862.0533 
Institute/Department: U of New Hampshire, Department of Natural Resources 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://arc-lter.ecosystems.mbl.edu/
Data: http://arctos.database.museum/
Data: http://herbivory.biology.ualberta.ca/
Logistics: http://toolik.alaska.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Small mammals graze on the vegetation of the Arctic tundra. Although this grazing may influence many aspects of tundra ecosystems, current models do not include grazing by small mammals. In this project, the abundance of voles and lemmings will be varied experimentally using fenced plots. The investigators will observe the responses in the plots, especially focusing on changes in the cycling of carbon and nitrogen. To understand how the current climate controls the importance of grazing by small mammals, the investigators will conduct their studies at three sites in Alaska located in the Seward Peninsula, the foothills of the Brooks Range, and on the Arctic coastal plain. The natural abundance of voles and lemmings will be studied at these sites to provide background for applying the experimental results throughout the Arctic. The results will be used to expand a mathematical model of tundra ecosystems to include grazing by small mammals, which will improve the predictions that can be made about how the Arctic may change in the future. The research will involve a number of undergraduate students and investigators will integrate their research into classes and other educational programs. In addition, they will present a radio program in Barrow, AK. The investigators will investigate the importance of herbivory by small mammals in controlling the cycling of carbon and nutrients in the rapidly changing Arctic tundra. Through studies at three sites along a latitudinal gradient, the investigators will employ both observations and experiments to quantify the role of grazing by rodents (voles and lemmings) in the functioning of tundra ecosystems. The observations of rodent population dynamics along with ecosystem function will provide key new information relevant to understanding the feedbacks of the Arctic tundra to the global climate. The manipulation of rodent density through exclosures and enclosures will show how potential changes in rodent populations may influence the tundra ecosystem response. In corporation of the observational and experimental results into a quantitative ecosystem model will enhance predictions of future changes and feedbacks with climate.

Logistics Summary:
The goal of this collaborative project between Boelman (1603777, Lead, LDEO), Gough (1603760, Towson), Rastetter (1603560, MBL), McLaren (1603677, U of Texas), and Rowe (1603654, UNH) is to quantify and gain mechanistic understanding of the impact of small mammal herbivores on carbon and nutrient dynamics in the rapidly changing Alaskan arctic tundra and incorporate these impacts into a biogeochemical model to make future predictions of how the animals mediate tundra-atmosphere carbon exchange. Logistic details under 1603777.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Seward Peninsula0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2018Alaska - Seward Peninsula0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2019Alaska - Seward Peninsula0
2019Alaska - Toolik0
2019Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2020Alaska - Seward Peninsula0
2020Alaska - Toolik0
2020Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2021Alaska - Seward Peninsula0
2021Alaska - Toolik0
2021Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
 


Project Title: Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative (LCC) (Award# ArcLCC)

PI: Schellekens, Matthew F (matts@usgs.gov)
Phone: 0(907) 479.5645 ext. 222 
Institute/Department: United States Geological Survey,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\USFW
Program Manager: Dr. Frank Rack (frack@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Hydrology |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://arcticlcc.org/

Science Summary:
The Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative (ALCC) supports conservation in the arctic by providing applied science and tools to land managers and policy makers. It is a self-directed partnership that functions through a structure of at-large partners, a core staff, and a steering committee of cooperating agencies and organizations. Its geographic scope ranges across North America from Alaska to Labrador. The Alaska portion encompasses three eco-regions: the Brooks Range, the Arctic Foothills, and the Arctic Coastal Plain. The conservation goals of the Arctic LCC are to provide information on, and predict effects of, climate driven changes and other landscape stressors; determine how climate driven changes affect subsistence users; and provide improved data and information access to managers and policy makers. The Arctic presents extraordinary challenges for resource managers who must anticipate the effects of climate-associated habitat change and incorporate that understanding into conservation planning. In order to make crucial planning decisions, managers need improved scientific information and tools. The Arctic LCC seeks to provide these tools.

Logistics Summary:
This project, funded by the Arctic Landscape Conservation Cooperative, supports conservation in the Arctic by providing applied science and tools to land managers and policy makers to provide information on, and predict effects of, climate-driven changes and other landscape stressors. In Alaska, the cooperative funds a variety of observations, including this hydrologic monitoring study of the Hulahula River Watershed. In 2013, researchers will base from Toolik Station to visit a monitoring site at Hulahula River, near Toolik, several times during the research season, transported by helicopter each time. In late-May/June, they will make four day trips during breakup (estimated roughly during the first ten days of June) to service a stream gage. The team will return to Toolik in July and September for sampling. For each of these visits, the helicopter will transport the team to Kavik Camp to pick up gear, and then fly them on to Hulahula. The helicopter will stay with the research team until they finish sampling, then return to Kavik, so the team can restore the gear before returning to Toolik Field Station. For the years 2014-2016, the researchers will again visit a stream gauge at the Hulahula River three times during breakup (estimated roughly during the first ten days of June), using helicopter support to reach the field site. Researchers will also sample once in July and once in September. They will base out of Toolik Field Station. In 2017, the researchers will visit the stream gauge three times during the summer – in June, July, and early September. The 2018 work is TBD.

IAB will provide access to infrastructure and services at Toolik Field Station. CPS will provide helicopter support. The NSF will recover costs of helicopter support (at an hourly rate) via an interagency transfer of funds between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the NSF. All other logistics, including permits, will be arranged and paid for by the PI.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2013Alaska - Hulahula River05 / 28 / 2013 09 / 05 / 20132
2013Alaska - Toolik05 / 28 / 2013 09 / 05 / 20132
2014Alaska - Hulahula River05 / 30 / 2014 09 / 03 / 20146
2014Alaska - Toolik05 / 30 / 2014 09 / 03 / 20146
2015Alaska - Hulahula River05 / 28 / 2015 09 / 09 / 20152
2015Alaska - Toolik05 / 28 / 2015 09 / 10 / 20152
2016Alaska - Hulahula River05 / 27 / 2016 09 / 07 / 20164
2016Alaska - Toolik05 / 27 / 2016 09 / 10 / 20164
2017Alaska - Hulahula River06 / 22 / 2017 09 / 07 / 20173
2017Alaska - Toolik06 / 22 / 2017 09 / 07 / 20173
2018Alaska - Hulahula River3
2018Alaska - Toolik06 / 22 / 2018 09 / 07 / 20183
 


Project Title: Does E. Vaginatum Take up Organic N? (Award# 1417758)

PI: Schimel, Joshua P (schimel@lifesci.ucsb.edu)
Phone: 0(805) 893.7688 
Institute/Department: U of California, Santa Barbara, Dept. Ecology, Evolution & Marine Biology and Envir. Studies 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.eri.ucsb.edu/content/data-and-services
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
Chapin et al. (1993) showed that Eriophorum vaginatum, the plant species that dominates arctic tussock tundra, not only can use organic N-sources, but actually grows better with amino acids as a sole N-source than with inorganic N salts. A challenge of this shifting view is that no one has actually quantified, for any plant species growing in the wild, and how much of E. vaginatum's total N demand is met by organic N-sources. This project will quantify the forms of N it uses, as well as assess organic nutrient dynamics in several other tundra communities. More broadly, researchers will develop approaches for assessing organic nutrition more in other ecosystem types and so test the developing organic nutrition theory of N-limited plants. The project will support undergraduate education by integrating new material into classes at University California Santa Barbara, and by offering research experiences to a University California Santa Barbara undergraduate during year-1 and an Alaskan student to help with the field season in year-2. It will coordinate with the Toolik Long Term Ecosystem Research education program in creating a module on "What Plants Eat." The participants will work with the Santa Barbara Natural History Museum to develop a suite of activities that will engage the public to target three goals: 1. A better appreciation of the role of soil in our lives and ecosystems, 2. To understand the Arctic as a component of the Earth System, and 3. To better appreciate how science and scientists work and think. The challenge to answering the question "Do plants really use organic N?" has been methodological. This project will use a combination of methods integrated through simulation modeling. The key novel method is microdialysis, in which a probe the size of a root is inserted into the soil, a carrier solution flows through it, and small molecules diffuse into it. Microdialysis will be coupled with intact root uptake kinetic studies, isotope partitioning, and analyzing diffusion and transport of amino acids, NH4+ and NO3- through soil to parameterize a root uptake model that will be used to synthesize and integrate the results. The first phase of the work will be done under controlled conditions in the greenhouse; then having refined the methods and assessed model parameters, the study will be moved into the field to assess seasonal patterns of N uptake and how it is affected by environmental manipulations.

Logistics Summary:
This project will evaluate nutrients use by the tussock forming sedge Eriophorum vaginatum in Alaska. Fieldwork will involve microdialysis measurements on individual tussocks. Sampling areas will be established that contain a range of tussocks which will be followed over the course of each season. Each will be instrumented with microdialysis probes and measured for N-supply. In August of 2014, the PI will conduct a short sampling period near Fairbanks, Alaska. From 2015 through 2017 a field team of 2-3 will conduct sampling from approximately June through August within both the footprint of the Toolik Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site and within the Imnavait Creek research area. Samples will be collected weekly at the Toolik control sites and monthly at the treatment plots and Imnavait Creek sites.

IAB will provide access to infrastructure and services at Toolik Field Station. CPS will provide TFS user days. All other logistics, including the 2014 field season in Fairbanks and Toolik and land use permits for Toolik, will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Alaska - Fairbanks08 / 24 / 2014 08 / 31 / 20142
2015Alaska - Toolik07 / 20 / 2015 08 / 03 / 20153
2016Alaska - Toolik06 / 16 / 2016 08 / 29 / 20166
2017Alaska - Toolik06 / 06 / 2017 08 / 21 / 20173
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Using field experiments to understand household barriers to energy efficiency in Alaska (Award# 1522836)

PI: Scott, Antony G (agscott@alaska.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 474.1851 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, Institute of Northern Engineering 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Social and Human Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
Energy efficiency is a policy goal of first magnitude. For individuals, it can imply significant welfare gains. For the country as a whole, it can imply not only improvement in energy independence but also attaining environmental goals. The research team will investigate the reasons why individuals fail to adopt seemingly adaptive conservation technologies and behaviors. This project is based on a series of studies that combine field experiments and data analysis of large policies initiatives in the state of Alaska. Heating costs throughout the polar North stress community resilience. Cold is extreme, hydrocarbon prices volatile, and local opportunity to adjust cash income to price shocks limited. Energy conservation would appear adaptive, and the State of Alaska provides substantial subsidies to facilitate household energy conservation. Despite this, relatively few adopt energy efficient technologies to reduce home heating costs. The research team plans to conduct three related studies to understand why. The project explores individual decision rules, the role of cash payoffs, information, and nuisance and other hidden costs of making investments to reduce energy for space and hot water heat. The project is focused on discovering opportunities to design better policy. Taking seriously the complexity of household decision-making, it will produce new information on engineering models, behavioral models, program effectiveness and policy alternatives. It will generate the first publically available data on household heating oil use -- a critical input to Northern energy policy. The project works collaboratively with local stakeholders, agencies, and academic communities, which will produce lessons for building future effective partnerships. Finally, the project entails substantial outreach and training with local participants through direct participation in the project in combination with educational opportunities. The first part of the research project jointly analyzes participant records in Alaska's Home Energy Rebate Program (HERP), which subsidizes investments to reduce space and hot water heat, and gas utility billing records. Detailed program and energy consumption data permit assessment of both program-predicted and actual household payoffs, point to investments that may occur for reasons other than energy conservation, and indicate cost-effective investments not pursued. This analysis will reveal the way decisions about conservation are made in the face of relevant information and their effectiveness in producing energy savings. The second part of the research measures the comparative importance of hidden, non-pecuniary costs of completing the HERP's initial home energy assessment. We will conduct a field experiment that systematically isolates and removes participant costs and uncertainty from the task. Also, the incentives to gather technology information will give causal evidence of the importance of information on HERP participation and completion. The third part of the research project measures behavioral impacts of providing rural consumers real-time information on their consumption and expenditures for heat. Essentially all rural Alaskan households use heating oil as primary heat source, but consumer ability to map realized costs of behavior is limited: Costs are observed only when the fuel oil tank is refilled, which may occur as little as 2-3 times a year. By deploying new heating oil metering technology developed by the Alaska Center for Energy and Power specifically for remote rural application, we assess behavioral effects of a dramatic increase in information. This study will generate the first Alaska dataset of measured residential heating oil demand. This project will significantly improve knowledge of the complex reasons why seemingly adaptive energy efficiency investments are not made. The research team will access information not previously available to researchers, and conduct experiments to create counterfactuals that observational data cannot deliver, to: better understand the motivations of adopters; recalibrate engineering models of building energy use to incorporate human behavior; measure the causal effect of pecuniary incentives in the adoption of energy savings technologies; produce a novel dataset of actual demand for heating oil in rural Alaska; determine the importance of hidden costs as a barrier to energy conservation program participation.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Castillo (1522876, Lead, TAMU) and Scott (1522836, UAF) will be conducted to better understand why, despite substantial state subsidies to Alaska households for energy conservation, few Alaskans adopt energy efficient technologies to reduce home heating costs. The research team will conduct three related studies for their investigation: 1) individual decision rules, 2) the role of cash payoffs, and 3) hidden costs of household investment in energy conservation. Logistics details under 1522876.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Nome0
2016Alaska - Unalakleet0
2017Alaska - Elim0
2017Alaska - White Mountain0
2018Alaska - Nome0
 


Project Title: LTREB Renewal Lifetime Fitness Consequences of Reproductive Strategies (Award# 1252656)

PI: Sedinger, James S (jsedinger@cabnr.unr.edu)
Phone: 0(775) 784.6556 
Institute/Department: U of Nevada, Reno, Environmental and Resource Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\BIO\DEB
Program Manager: Dr. Mary Beth (Betsy) Von Holle (mvonholl@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.ag.unr.edu/sedinger/Brant/Data.aspx
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=12...

Science Summary:
This project continues a 31-year study of Black Brant geese on the Tutakoke River in Alaska. To date, >45,000 individuals have been marked and ~2,000 previously-marked individuals are monitored annually. The length of the study provides a large sample of Brant that are now over 20 years old, allowing the researchers to examine the consequences of reproduction, senescence, and life-history trade-offs in a long-lived vertebrate. Data collected over the next five years will explore the new hypothesis that local density, rather than parental investment, influences optimal brood size. The researchers will also pursue a second surprising finding, which is that gosling success likely results from pre-fledging survival rather than from post-fledging effects. The Tutakoke River Brant study provides the principal demographic data used to manage the Black Brandt and other avian species. The researchers work closely with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and the Pacific Flyway to develop effective management plans. They also work closely with Native Alaskan residents of Chevak, Alaska, particularly to involve students from the village in the research project. Graduate and undergraduate students also gain research experience by participation in this research.

Logistics Summary:
This LTREB (Long-Term Research in Environmental Biology) project will continue a long-term study started under NSF grant 0743152 of Brant geese using uniquely tagged individuals. The goal of this effort is to assess the factors influencing demography and population dynamics. For five summers beginning in 2013, a research team of 4- 8 will work at a remote camp approximately 30 km southwest of Chevak, Alaska, on the Bering Sea coast.

CPS will provide annual staff assistance to set up the Chevak field camp, along with minimal camp and safety/communications equipment, on an as-needed basis. In addition, in 2015, CPS will provide local boat rental to help with camp put-in by river due to low snow conditions preventing camp put-in by snowmachine. In 2016, if snow conditions require, CPS will coordinate R-44 helicopter support out of Bethel and Chevak via the Department of the Interior, Office of Aviation Services (OAS). All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2013Alaska - Chevak04 / 14 / 2013 07 / 26 / 20138
2014Alaska - Chevak04 / 08 / 2014 07 / 26 / 20146
2015Alaska - Chevak05 / 16 / 2015 07 / 22 / 20155
2016Alaska - Chevak04 / 04 / 2016 07 / 25 / 20165
2017Alaska - Chevak04 / 17 / 2017 07 / 31 / 20175
 


Project Title: PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (Award# 1630463LS)

PI: Seff, Lisa (lseff@springs.k12.ny.us)
Phone: 0(631) 324.0144 
Institute/Department: Springs School ,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARE\TREC
Program Manager: Ms. Elizabeth Rom (elrom@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach\Formal Science Education: K-12 |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.polartrec.com/

Science Summary:
The Artic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) will administer and implement, "Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (PolarTREC)", an international program that brings together U.S. teachers to participate in cutting-edge field research with polar scientists in various, and often remote, locations in the Arctic and Antarctica. Through hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctica, participating teachers (pre-service and in-service) will improve teaching strategies, develop resources for their careers, and change how they teach STEM in the classroom. The program goal is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing educators and polar researchers together in professional collaboration. By integrating research and education, PolarTREC will help sustain and grow the considerable scientific and public enthusiasm for polar research and education. ARCUS will support a total of twelve teachers for Arctic field seasons in 2017 and Antarctic field seasons in 2017/2018. ARCUS will recruit, select, and match teachers and researchers, maintain a website for dissemination of information about the expeditions, provide orientation training for the teachers that includes field safety and communication training, provide travel support for the teachers to meet with scientists prior to deployments and for them to join the scientific expeditions in the field, and evaluate results of the program. Dissemination efforts via the website and public presentations are expected to reach many additional teachers, students, scientists and the public.

Logistics Summary:
PolarTREC teacher, Lisa Seff, will join Dr. Carin Ashjian's project (NSF grant 1603941) on board the R/V Sikuliaq in the Beaufort Sea exploring and identifing the mechanisms linking broad-scale atmospheric forcing, ocean physical response, prey-base condition and distribution, upper trophic level animal aggregations, and climate change along the Beaufort Shelf break. The team's overarching hypothesis is that atmospherically-forced (wind-induced) upwelling along this shelf break leads to enhanced feeding opportunities for intermediate links in the pelagic ecosystem (zooplankton, forage fish) that in turn sustain the exploitation of this environment by animals such as beluga whales, seabirds, and seals. Support for the teacher is provided through the research project funding. For more information refer to grant 1603941 in this database.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Nome0
2017Arctic Ocean and Seas - Beaufort Sea0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Nutritional Landscapes of Arctic Caribou: Observations, Experiments, and Models Provide Process-Level Understanding of Forage Traits and Trajectories (Award# 1604105)

PI: Sexton, Joseph O (jsexton@umd.edu)
Phone: 0(301) 405.8165 
Institute/Department: U of Maryland, Department of Geographical Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Terrestrial Arctic systems are the result of complex interactions between climate, vegetation, herbivores, and humans that must be studied together to understand their functional traits. While low temperatures and short-growing seasons limit plant growth, enough plant biomass exists to support herds of migratory caribou, on which Alaska Natives depend. Any changes in the plants at the base of the food web can have cascading consequences for herbivores and human consumers and their interactions. Today, the Arctic system is in the midst of change resulting in new vegetation assemblages, changes in the nutritive value of plant tissues, and ultimately in the diets of migratory caribou and the humans that depend on them. This project examines the nutritional landscape of the Central Arctic Caribou Herd as a unifying concept, describing the nutritional landscape as caribou available protein (CAP) and caribou available energy (CAE), integrative forage quantity measures that reflect biomass, species composition, plant C and N content, digestibility, and secondary compounds. The core objectives are gaining understanding of the drivers of spatial and temporal patterns in the amounts of CAP and CAE across the tundra; caribou use of this nutritional landscape; how the amounts of CAP and CAE will differ in the future under likely climate scenarios and long-term experiments, and the interactions between caribou and Native communities. The broader impacts of this study involve several groups of Alaskan stakeholders, including: harvesters of the North Slope community of Nuiqsut, the worldwide caribou community, and students at multiple stages of education. The project will embed a team member with hunters in Nuiqsut, and develop an educational scientific documentary on the caribou - Alaska Native interactions for high school students. The group plans to employ village students and undergraduates affiliated with the Alaska Native Science and Engineering Program to assist with experimental work and vegetation collection at Toolik Lake. This research is significant to ecologists from the Circumarctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment Network, dedicated to caribou conservation and sustainable management in the US, Canada, and Scandinavia, who will use the data to consider how a suite of climate change scenarios affect herd fecundity and population dynamics. The intellectual merit of this project stems from the merging of five elements to understand Arctic System function and response to climate change: (1) A landscape-scale assessment of plant species, soil and plant C and N, digestibility, and secondary compounds that will be used to calculate the amounts of CAP (kg m-2) and CAE (kJ m-2); (2) analysis of how closely caribou foraging is tied to the nutritional landscape throughout the year; (3) analysis of samples from an existing long-term winter - summer climate change experiment to provide data on how CAP and CAE will differ in the future; (4) prediction of future nutritional landscapes and caribou foraging interactions; and (5) observations of Alaska Native hunter harvesting and attributes of the system that determine their spatial and temporal patterns. These project components will enable an integrative understanding of how an important herbivore, caribou, interact with a landscape that is rapidly changing. This research: (1) examines the Arctic System from primary production to secondary consumers and the influence of climate change across multiple trophic levels; (2) applies broadly by examining the most abundant large herbivore and its food sources, both of which are distributed throughout the Arctic; and (3) integrates experimental, observational, and modeling approaches to understanding ecological systems and climate change. The integration of observation, experimental data and modeling to describe current and forecast future nutritional landscapes is intended to provide a mechanistic understanding of Arctic System function and transform the understanding of climate-vegetation-caribou-subsistence hunter interactions.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Welker (1604249, UAA, Lead), Sexton (1604105, UMD), Leffler (1602440, SD State), Liston (1602898, CSU) and Kofinas (1604160, UAF) will examine the nutritional landscape of the Central Arctic Caribou Heard as a unifying concept in Arctic System Ecology. During the spring through fall in 2017 – 2019 research teams of between three and nine participants will sample vegetation along the migration route of the Central Arctic Caribou Heard and collar caribou to track migration. Logistic details under 1604249.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Coldfoot0
2017Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Coldfoot0
2018Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2019Alaska - Coldfoot0
2019Alaska - Prudhoe Bay0
2019Alaska - Toolik0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: AON: The Arctic Great Rivers Observatory (Arctic-GRO) (Award# 1602879)

PI: Shiklomanov, Alexander (alex.shiklomanov@unh.edu)
Phone: 0(603) 862.1234 
Institute/Department: U of New Hampshire, Complex Systems Research Center 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences\Biogeochemistry | Geological Sciences\Climate Change | Geological Sciences\Hydrology | Geological Sciences\Rivers |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://www.arcticgreatrivers.org
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Just like changes in blood chemistry can be used to diagnose an individual's health, so too can changes in river water chemistry be used to evaluate the condition of a river's watershed. In the Arctic, six massive rivers capture freshwater runoff from two-thirds of the land area that drains to the Arctic Ocean. The chemistry of this runoff reflects watershed characteristics (e.g. soil composition), and carries essential nutrients to the marine environment. The overarching scientific objective of the Arctic Great Rivers Observatory (Arctic-GRO) is to make sustained observations of the chemistry of these six large rivers, which is vital for assessing changes on land that subsequently impact physical, chemical, and biological properties of the Arctic Ocean. The project involves partnerships with the Yukon River Intertribal Watershed Council, The Pilot Station Traditional Council, the Gwichya Gwich'in Renewable Resource Council, and with the University of Alaska at Kuskowkwin community college that serves the largely Yup’ik residents of the Yukon-Kuskowkwim Delta. . The six rivers included in the Arctic Great Rivers Observatory are the Yukon and Mackenzie in North American and the Ob, Yenisey, Lena, and Kolyma in Eurasia. The rivers will be sampled near their mouths, every two months for three years, using identical sample collection and preservation protocols. Approximately 40 parameters will be measured on all samples including dissolved and particulate organic carbon concentrations and isotopic compositions, concentrations of dissolved nutrients, major ions, and trace elements, and optical properties of dissolved organic matter, including UV absorbance and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices. For QA/QC purposes, every analysis will be conducted at a single laboratory. The resulting data, along with complementary data on river discharge, will be made available without restriction at the Arctic-GRO website (arcticgreatrivers.org) and through the NSF Arctic Data Center. Arctic-GRO data, which build on observatory records that extend back to 2003, provide valuable end-members for the oceanographic research community as well as for analyses of terrestrial landscape change.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Holmes (1602615, LEAD, WHRC), Spencer, (1603149, FSU), McClelland (1602680, UTexas), and Shiklomanov (1602879, UNH) will continue the Arctic-GRO river sampling project (previously under 1107774) for 2017 through 2019. Logistic details under 1602615.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Pilot Station0
2017Canada - Mackenzie Delta0
2017Russia - Kolyma River0
2017Russia - Lena River0
2017Russia - Ob River0
2017Russia - Yenisey River0
2018Alaska - Pilot Station0
2018Canada - Mackenzie Delta0
2018Russia - Kolyma River0
2018Russia - Lena River0
2018Russia - Ob River0
2018Russia - Yenisey River0
2019Alaska - Pilot Station0
2019Canada - Mackenzie Delta0
2019Russia - Kolyma River0
2019Russia - Lena River0
2019Russia - Ob River0
2019Russia - Yenisey River0
 


Project Title: The Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring Network-CALM IV(2014-2018): Long-term Observations on the Climate-Active Layer-Permafrost System (Award# 1304555)

PI: Shiklomanov, Nikolay I (shiklom@gwu.edu )
Phone: 0(202) 994.3966 
Institute/Department: George Washington University, Dept. of Geography 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Permafrost | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://page21.org/
Project: http://www.gwu.edu/~calm/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=13...
Data: http://www.permafrost.su/

Science Summary:
Global climate change is producing serious impacts on natural and human systems in permafrost regions. The Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) program is concerned, in the first instance, with observing the response of the active layer and near-surface permafrost to climate change at multi-decade time scales. CALM and its companion borehole temperature program, Thermal State of Permafrost, are closely coordinated international observation networks devoted to permafrost (together, they comprise the Global Terrestrial Network-Permafrost, or GTN-P). The present active-layer network of 260 sites represents the only coordinated and standardized program of observations designed to observe and detect decadal changes in the dynamics of seasonal thawing and freezing in high-latitude soils. Development of long-term records of active-layer thickness and dynamics, obtained using standard measurement protocols, is the essential rationale behind the CALM network. Local site conditions and seasonal variations in climate create complex interactions that determine the magnitude of seasonal soil thaw and the effects of biogeochemical processes. Long-term time series of thaw measurements at the same locations and across diverse terrain types and regions are required to identify scales of spatial variation, establish trends, and validate models. CALM continues to contribute to geocryological theory through its work on the transition layer, thaw subsidence in natural landscapes, and its incorporation of new technologies to the solution of permafrost problems. Theoretical advances, in turn, feed back into the program’s monitoring mission. CALM’s experimental observation programs have made fundamental discoveries achievable only in the context of long-term monitoring, including documentation of widespread thaw subsidence in natural landscapes. Subsidence monitoring forms an integral component of the CALM IV observation program. Although the CALM IV project is concerned only with observing stations located in the Arctic region, it is important to note that the larger CALM program is a global network incorporating observatories outside the Arctic Circle, including a rapidly developing Antarctic component (“CALM-South”). More than half of the sites in the CALM network are maintained and data reported on a voluntary basis.

Logistics Summary:
The Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) program continues work from NSF grant 1002119 and will concentrate on the response of the active layer and near-surface permafrost to climate change at multi-decadal time scales. CALM and its companion borehole temperature program, Thermal State of Permafrost, are closely coordinated international observation networks devoted to permafrost. The present active-layer network of 260 sites represents the only coordinated and standardized program of observations designed to observe and detect decadal changes in the dynamics of seasonal thawing and freezing in high-latitude soils. From 2014-2018, CALM IV will continue annual observations at a number of sites in Alaska and Russia. A number of them are supported by CPS and include Utqiagvik (Barrow), Atqasuk, Ivotuk area (4 sites), Toolik Lake area (8), Prudhoe Bay area (5), as well as Council and Kougarok on the Seward Peninsula, the Kolyma Lowlands (25), and in Lavrentia. Work at each site includes annual thaw depth, ground subsidence measurements and annual service of data loggers and instrumentation installed during CALM I, CALM II, and CALM III. At Barrow the work will be under way in mid- to late August by a field party consisting of 4 people (plus one UNAVCO support person in some years). In 2016, the team plans to also monitor seasonal thaw and ground subsidence progression during June-July. In the Toolik Lake and Prudhoe Bay areas, the work will be primarily done in mid- to late August with a field party of 5-6 people (plus one UNAVCO support person in some years). In 2016, the team plans to also monitor seasonal thaw and ground subsidence progression in June-July and measure snow depth in Utqiagvik (Barrow) in April. On the Seward Peninsula the work will be primarily done in late August-early September with a field party of 4. In the Cherskii and Lavrentiya areas, teams of up to two local research assistants will complete fieldwork July-September with annual Cherskii visits by a Moscow-based collaborator.

IAB will provide access to infrastructure and services at Toolik Field Station. CPS will provide Toolik user days, lodging, vehicle rentals, air support, satellite phones and hand-held radios; and permitting support specifically in Utqiagvik. In Russia, CPS will support via contract with the Northeast Science Station (NESS) in Cherskii and the Chukotka Science Support Group (CSSG) in Chukotka for user days, sampling support, and organization/implementation of sampling trips. UNAVCO will provide technical equipment and services. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI, including field work at any other sites not supported by CPS and any required land use permits in the Toolik area.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Alaska - Atqasuk08 / 21 / 2014 08 / 21 / 20145
2014Alaska - Council08 / 26 / 2014 08 / 26 / 20144
2014Alaska - Ivotuk08 / 19 / 2014 08 / 19 / 20145
2014Alaska - Kougarok08 / 27 / 2014 08 / 27 / 20144
2014Alaska - Nome08 / 25 / 2014 08 / 28 / 20144
2014Alaska - Prudhoe Bay08 / 07 / 2014 08 / 12 / 20144
2014Alaska - Toolik08 / 06 / 2014 08 / 17 / 20144
2014Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)08 / 17 / 2014 08 / 24 / 20145
2014Russia - Cherskii08 / 15 / 2014 09 / 15 / 20141
2014Russia - Chukotka07 / 06 / 2014 09 / 01 / 20142
2014Russia - Kolyma River08 / 15 / 2014 09 / 15 / 20141
2014Russia - Lavrentiya07 / 06 / 2014 09 / 01 / 20142
2015Alaska - Manley Hot Springs08 / 07 / 2015 08 / 08 / 20154
2015Alaska - Nome08 / 28 / 2015 09 / 01 / 20154
2015Alaska - Prudhoe Bay08 / 09 / 2015 08 / 20 / 20156
2015Alaska - Toolik08 / 08 / 2015 08 / 22 / 20156
2015Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)08 / 20 / 2015 08 / 28 / 20155
2015Russia - Cherskii08 / 01 / 2015 08 / 21 / 20151
2015Russia - Lavrentiya06 / 14 / 2015 09 / 28 / 20152
2015Russia - Lorino06 / 14 / 2015 09 / 28 / 20152
2016Alaska - Eagle07 / 01 / 2016 08 / 07 / 20162
2016Alaska - Fairbanks07 / 01 / 2016 08 / 20 / 20164
2016Alaska - Mount Fairplay07 / 01 / 2016 08 / 07 / 20162
2016Alaska - Nome08 / 24 / 2016 09 / 02 / 20164
2016Alaska - Prudhoe Bay08 / 09 / 2016 08 / 13 / 20165
2016Alaska - Toolik07 / 01 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20165
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)04 / 01 / 2016 08 / 23 / 20167
2016Russia - Cherskii08 / 25 / 2016 09 / 23 / 20161
2016Russia - Chukotka06 / 15 / 2016 09 / 15 / 20162
2016Russia - Lavrentiya06 / 15 / 2016 09 / 15 / 20162
2016Russia - Lorino06 / 15 / 2016 09 / 15 / 20162
2017Alaska - Council06 / 16 / 2017 07 / 18 / 20174
2017Alaska - Ivotuk08 / 18 / 2017 08 / 29 / 20175
2017Alaska - Kougarok08 / 18 / 2017 08 / 29 / 20175
2017Alaska - Nome08 / 18 / 2017 08 / 29 / 20175
2017Alaska - Prudhoe Bay08 / 18 / 2017 08 / 29 / 20175
2017Alaska - Toolik08 / 18 / 2017 08 / 29 / 20175
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)08 / 11 / 2017 08 / 18 / 20174
2017Russia - Cherskii0
2017Russia - Chukotka0
2017Russia - Kolyma River0
2017Russia - Lavrentiya0
2018Alaska - Council06 / 16 / 2018 07 / 18 / 20184
2018Alaska - Ivotuk08 / 18 / 2018 08 / 29 / 20185
2018Alaska - Kougarok08 / 18 / 2018 08 / 29 / 20185
2018Alaska - Nome08 / 18 / 2018 08 / 29 / 20185
2018Alaska - Prudhoe Bay08 / 18 / 2018 08 / 29 / 20185
2018Alaska - Toolik08 / 18 / 2018 08 / 29 / 20185
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)08 / 11 / 2018 08 / 18 / 20184
2018Russia - Cherskii08 / 14 / 2018 08 / 28 / 20182
2018Russia - Chukotka07 / 20 / 2018 08 / 30 / 20182
2018Russia - Kolyma River0
2018Russia - Lavrentiya07 / 20 / 2018 08 / 30 / 20182
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Is Nitrogen Fixation Widespread In The Chukchi And Beaufort Seas? (Award# 1504307)

PI: Sipler, Rachel E (sipler@vims.edu)
Phone: 0(804) 684.7486 
Institute/Department: Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences, Physical Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Cynthia Suchman ()
Discipline(s): | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.bco-dmo.org/
Data: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
The extent of summer Arctic sea ice loss is increasing and now occurs earlier in the year. As a result, it is predicted that the rate of growth of phytoplankton, the base of the marine food web that sustains subsistence marine harvests by native populations, will increase within the Arctic seas. The limited amount of available nitrogen, a required nutrient for phytoplankton, eventually will restrict the level of growth. Nitrogen gas dissolved in the ocean can be converted into a form readily utilizable by phytoplankton, but this process, called nitrogen-fixation, has been considered primarily a warm-water process. The principal investigators of this project have recently observed this process in the coastal Arctic Ocean, but there is so little data that its extent remains highly speculative. If it is widespread, it will change the way we think about future scenarios for the changing Arctic marine ecosystem, subsistence fishing, and, potentially, commercial fishing in the Arctic. The project will also contribute to workforce development. The principal investigator is an early-career, female scientist. She will use the project as a mechanism to entrain an undergraduate student into research. She will also use the project to sustain an existing educational collaboration between the Virginia Institute of Marine Sciences and Hampton University, a historically black university. It is hypothesized that microorganisms capable of fixing N2 (diazotrophs) are present in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, that they produce measurable rates of N2 fixation in near shore and offshore Arctic marine waters and that diazotroph community composition will differ between coastal sites, which are influenced by terrestrial inputs, versus open water sites. The Chukchi and Beaufort Seas will be sampled during a cruise in late summer 2016, when hydrographic and nutrient conditions are likely to favor diazotrophic populations. The impact that N2 fixation will have on Arctic ecosystems is dependent on its rate, spatial extent and the conditions that favor it. As a consequence, on each cruise the PIs propose to determine diazotroph community composition, examine their distributions based on the presence of the nitrogenase gene (nifH), measure rates of primary productivity and uptake of inorganic and organic N and C substrates using 15N and 13C tracer techniques, and to compare these to hydrographic, nutrient, and overall microbial community composition profiles made along cruise transects. The work will determine the extent of active N2 fixation within the region in the context of other key biogeochemical and microbial community parameters.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers involved in this collaborative project between Sipler (1504307, VIMS) and Zehr (1503614, UCSC) will study the rate and geographic extent of N2 fixation in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, which has implications for the growth of phytoplankton throughout the Arctic Ocean. The researchers will take water samples and hydrographic measurements throughout the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. In February 2016 the PI will travel to Barrow for an outreach aspect of the project, and then in July 2016 the PI will travel to Anchorage for an outreach aspect of the project. At the end of August, six researchers will board the R/V Sikuliaq in Nome, Alaska for a 4 week cruise in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. The researchers will return to port in Nome, AK, in early October. This project will work with another project on the cruise, PI Juranek (1504394), and share some of the costs. Eight researchers will return in late July 2017 for approximately two weeks of near shore sampling.

CPS will provide a community observer for the cruise, funds for travel to Barrow and Anchorage, and Barrow lodging and truck rental. Costs for the community observer with be covered by NSF grant 1504394 (Juranek). All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Anchorage07 / 18 / 2016 07 / 20 / 20161
2016Alaska - Nome08 / 31 / 2016 10 / 04 / 20166
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)02 / 03 / 2015 02 / 05 / 20151
2016Arctic Ocean and Seas - Chukchi Sea09 / 03 / 2016 10 / 03 / 20166
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)07 / 22 / 2017 08 / 03 / 20177
2017Arctic Ocean and Seas - Chukchi Sea07 / 22 / 2017 08 / 03 / 20177
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: AON: The Arctic Great Rivers Observatory (Arctic-GRO) (Award# 1603149)

PI: Spencer, Robert G (rgspencer@fsu.edu)
Phone: 0(530) 601.0623 
Institute/Department: Florida State University, Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences\Biogeochemistry | Geological Sciences\Climate Change | Geological Sciences\Hydrology | Geological Sciences\Rivers |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://www.arcticgreatrivers.org
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Just like changes in blood chemistry can be used to diagnose an individual's health, so too can changes in river water chemistry be used to evaluate the condition of a river's watershed. In the Arctic, six massive rivers capture freshwater runoff from two-thirds of the land area that drains to the Arctic Ocean. The chemistry of this runoff reflects watershed characteristics (e.g. soil composition), and carries essential nutrients to the marine environment. The overarching scientific objective of the Arctic Great Rivers Observatory (Arctic-GRO) is to make sustained observations of the chemistry of these six large rivers, which is vital for assessing changes on land that subsequently impact physical, chemical, and biological properties of the Arctic Ocean. The project involves partnerships with the Yukon River Intertribal Watershed Council, The Pilot Station Traditional Council, the Gwichya Gwich'in Renewable Resource Council, and with the University of Alaska at Kuskowkwin community college that serves the largely Yup’ik residents of the Yukon-Kuskowkwim Delta. . The six rivers included in the Arctic Great Rivers Observatory are the Yukon and Mackenzie in North American and the Ob, Yenisey, Lena, and Kolyma in Eurasia. The rivers will be sampled near their mouths, every two months for three years, using identical sample collection and preservation protocols. Approximately 40 parameters will be measured on all samples including dissolved and particulate organic carbon concentrations and isotopic compositions, concentrations of dissolved nutrients, major ions, and trace elements, and optical properties of dissolved organic matter, including UV absorbance and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices. For QA/QC purposes, every analysis will be conducted at a single laboratory. The resulting data, along with complementary data on river discharge, will be made available without restriction at the Arctic-GRO website (arcticgreatrivers.org) and through the NSF Arctic Data Center. Arctic-GRO data, which build on observatory records that extend back to 2003, provide valuable end-members for the oceanographic research community as well as for analyses of terrestrial landscape change.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Holmes (1602615, LEAD, WHRC), Spencer, (1603149, FSU), McClelland (1602680, UTexas), and Shiklomanov (1602879, UNH) will continue the Arctic-GRO river sampling project (previously under 1107774) for 2017 through 2019. Logistic details under 1602615.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Pilot Station0
2017Canada - Mackenzie Delta0
2017Russia - Kolyma River0
2017Russia - Lena River0
2017Russia - Ob River0
2017Russia - Yenisey River0
2018Alaska - Pilot Station0
2018Canada - Mackenzie Delta0
2018Russia - Kolyma River0
2018Russia - Lena River0
2018Russia - Ob River0
2018Russia - Yenisey River0
2019Alaska - Pilot Station0
2019Canada - Mackenzie Delta0
2019Russia - Kolyma River0
2019Russia - Lena River0
2019Russia - Ob River0
2019Russia - Yenisey River0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: The Importance of Shelf Break Upwelling to Upper Trophic Level Ecology in the Western Beaufort Sea (Award# 1603259)

PI: Stafford, Kathleen M (stafford@apl.washington.edu)
Phone: 0(206) 685.8617 
Institute/Department: U of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratory 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The edge of the shallow continental shelf (called the 'shelf break') in the Beaufort Sea is vulnerable both to direct impacts of ongoing climate change and to indirect impacts that may result from increased human activity in response to new opportunities associated with ocean warming and sea ice reduction. Beaufort Sea shelf break upwelling may be increasing in frequency in response to recent large-scale atmospheric changes, potentially increasing the importance of the shelf-break environment for a range of upper trophic level animals. This grant will support research to increase our understanding of the importance of the region to upper trophic levels such as beluga whales, seabirds, and seals, provide a mechanistic understanding of the linked atmosphere-ocean- plankton-predator system, and predict future consequences and impacts of environmental change on this system. A substantial communications program built upon long-standing, well-established relationships between the researchers and Alaska North Slope communities and subsistence organizations is planned both to coordinate the planned sampling and to convey the results of the research back to the communities. Information will be disseminated locally before and during two research cruises using a range of media including daily email reports, Facebook pages, blogs, interviews on local radio stations, and flyers. A comprehensive project report, a summary report written in straightforward English, and a poster describing results will be disseminated to the North Slope communities. Project members will also present results of the research in local lecture series or to interested local organizations. Involvement of a K-12 teacher in at least one of the cruises is planned. Both cruises will have the participation of a local community observer who will communicate directly with local communities during the cruise and share local knowledge with the science party. The Beaufort Sea shelf break experiences frequent upwelling of deep, nutrient rich basin water onto the shelf. Such upwelling is not only a short-term source of heat, salt, and nutrients, and a mechanism promoting elevated primary production (production response), but it also transports populations between ocean regions and depth strata or regimes (physical response), potentially modifying ecosystem structure and availability of zooplankton and fish prey to upper trophic level consumers. The Beaufort Sea shelf break is a domain of enhanced abundance of upper trophic level animals, presumably in response to elevated availability of their prey. Here we will explore and identify the mechanisms linking broad-scale atmospheric forcing, ocean physical response, prey-base condition and distribution, upper trophic level animal aggregations, and climate change along the Beaufort Shelf break. Our overarching hypothesis is that atmospherically-forced (wind-induced) upwelling along this shelf break leads to enhanced feeding opportunities for intermediate links in the pelagic ecosystem (zooplankton, forage fish) that in turn sustain the exploitation of this environment by animals such as beluga whales, seabirds, and seals. This hypothesis will be addressed using a combination of ship-based fieldwork, long-term moorings equipped with physical and biological sensors, and syntheses of retrospective and projected model output and longer-term data. The distributions, abundances, condition, and biology of multiple trophic levels will be described within the context of the dynamics of the physical environment to expand our understanding of trophic linkages and the importance of shelf-break upwelling to that system. Physical and biological model output and retrospective data will be synthesized with the mechanistic understanding gained during the field program to retrospectively characterize wind-driven upper trophic level ecosystem variability and predict how the ecosystem may respond to future projections of these atmospheric drivers and ice-ocean conditions.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative project between Ashjian (1603941, Lead, WHOI), Okkonen (1603120, UAF), Campbell (1603321, URI) and Stafford (1603259, UW) will focus on the Western Beaufort Sea to quantify the importance of shelf-break upwelling to upper trophic level ecology. Logistic details under 1603941.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Alaska - Nome0
2017Arctic Ocean and Seas - Beaufort Sea0
2018Alaska - Nome0
2018Arctic Ocean and Seas - Beaufort Sea0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Winter snow depth as a driver of microbial activity, nutrient cycling, tree growth and treeline advance in the Arctic (Award# 1504538)

PI: Sullivan, Patrick "Paddy" (pfsullivan@uaa.alaska.edu )
Phone: 0(907) 786.1270 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Anchorage, Department of Biological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Ecology |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/
Data: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimato...

Science Summary:
The position of the Arctic treeline is an important regulator of climate and subsistence resources. Recent research by the principal investigators (PIs) suggests the importance of winter snow depth as a control on tree growth. They now plan to experimentally isolate the importance of snow depth and soil nutrient availability for tree growth. This research will contribute to the development of the science workforce by supporting the training of three graduate students and the entrainment of numerous undergraduate students into the research activities. Outreach to the predominantly Alaskan Native community of Kotzebue will take different forms. The PIs will arrange with the local radio station, a primary means of media communication for the local region, to describe their research. They will visit the local high school to discuss the role of vegetation in climate and to share the results of their research. They will provide opportunities for outstanding students from the local high school to participate in their field research program. They will participate in the Bureau of Land Management's Campbell Creek Science Center Fireside Chat series to promote outreach to the more urban community in and around Anchorage, AK. They will enhance the existing Interactive Model of Leaf Decomposition (IMOLD), a series of animated lessons and activities about decomposition and nutrient cycling developed under a previous award, to include examples and teaching activities derived from this work at the Arctic treeline. It has long been thought that temperature exerts a direct control on growth of treeline trees and the position of the treeline. However, the PI's recent work in the Arctic with white spruce suggests that indirect effects of temperature on soil nutrient availability may be of equal or greater importance. They hypothesize that cold soils at the treeline, particularly during winter, limit microbial activity and nutrient availability to the point where trees are barely able to survive and grow. Measurements made during winter have revealed that Arctic forests maintain snowpacks that are much deeper than observed at treeline. Trees are thought to trap snow and lead to a deeper snowpack, insulating the soil from cold air and allowing for greater overwinter microbial activity and greater nutrient mineralization. Indeed, the PIs found a strong positive correlation between white spruce growth and winter snow depth. They propose to isolate the mechanisms underlying this correlation by using snowfences to manipulate winter snow depth and fertilizer to increase soil nutrient availability at three treelines that differ in soil moisture. To provide an experimental test of the importance of temperature as a direct control on treeline tree growth, they propose to incorporate experimental shoot warming into their snowfence experiment in a factorial design. They predict that both experimental snow and nutrient additions will lead to large increases in microbial activity, photosynthesis, tree growth, seed quality, seed production, seedling establishment and recruitment of new trees. They expect to observe the greatest positive responses where soils are wet and cold. Meanwhile, they predict that shoot warming will lead to negligible changes in growth.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this collaborative project between Sullivan (1504538, UAA) and Weintraub (1503939, U of Toledo) will experimentally isolate the importance of snow depth and soil nutrient availability and examine the consequences for microbial processes and tree performance. The researchers aim to link microbial ecology with large-scale landscape patterns of relevance to regional and global climates. Beginning in 2016, and for four consecutive years (through 2020), a team of 3-5 researchers will establish, and repeatedly sample, a snowfence experiment on the Agashashok River in the Noatak National Preserve, northwest Alaska. Snowfences will be installed by the researchers during the fall, and the field site will be subsequently sampled during March, May through September, November, and January each year after. In 2017, the team will visit the site in March and May through September. .

CPS will provide fixed-wing charters, truck rental, snowmachine rental (2017-2020), lodging, expediting assistance and storage in Kotzebue, camping and communication equipment, freight of CPS-provided field gear, and a medical kit. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Agashashok River09 / 01 / 2016 09 / 08 / 20163
2017Alaska - Agashashok River03 / 28 / 2017 09 / 08 / 2017