Arctic Field Projects



Project Title: Quantifying Firn Compaction and its Implications for Altimetry-based Mass Balance Estimates of the Greenland Ice Sheet (Award# NNX15AC62G)

PI: Abdalati, Waleed (waleed.abdalati@colorado.edu)
Phone: 0(301) 614.5706 
Institute/Department: National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Thomas Wagner (thomas.wagner@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Blog: http://ciresblogs.colorado.edu/firncover/

Science Summary:
The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) contains enough ice to raise sea levels by 7 meters if it were to disappear entirely. Although total loss of the ice sheet is not a concern for the foreseeable future, accurately measuring the total mass balance — accumulation minus loss —of the GrIS remains a critical scientific objective for determining the ice sheet’s present day contributions to sea level rise. Greenland's mass was in near balance in the mid-1990s, but has experienced an increasingly negative mass balance since then with a current annual mass loss of approximately 0.46 - 0.75mm of sea-level equivalent (SLE) per year. The year 2012 proved an "extreme" melt year in Greenland with a single-year loss of 1.59 mm SLE, owing in part to surface mass balance (loss from surface melting) that was three standard deviations below the long-term mean. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) altimetry is one of the primary approaches used to compute mass changes on the GrIS, in part because of its high spatial resolution and sampling capabilities when compared to other approaches such as gravimetry and radar altimetry. The Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) was used to successfully estimate mass balance for Greenland during much of the last decade. ICESat's successor ICESat-2 is scheduled to launch in 2017 and will continue ICESat's legacy of space-based lidar remote sensing of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. In addition, airborne laser altimetry has been used to estimate ice sheet mass balance and outlet glacier changes since 1991. Such an airborne lidar is fundamental to Operation IceBridge (OIB), which is dedicated to filling the elevation change measurement gap between ICESat and ICESat-2. An unavoidable source of uncertainty in altimetry-based mass balance measurements is the conversion from volume change into mass. One of the primary components of this volume change is firn compaction: the rate at which fresh snow is compressed into glacial ice on the surface of a glacier. At elevations below the equilibrium line, snow melts out entirely to glacial ice each summer, and a density of pure ice may be assumed to calculate changes in mass. However, approximately 80% of the GrIS lies within the accumulation zone, where firn compaction must be accurately measured or modeled in order to perform this volume-to-mass conversion effectively. Direct compaction measurements are spatially and temporally extremely sparse on the GrIS and nonexistent in some large regions, so models remain the primary source for compaction adjustments in mass balance measurements. Most firn compaction models were created and parameterized assuming long-term steady state climate conditions, namely that accumulation and mean temperature remain nearly constant over components of ice sheet elevation change for long time periods, an assumption that held true for much of Greenland only a few decades ago. Some of the current models include considerations for melt, percolation and refreezing, but maintain many of the same steady-state assumptions in the underlying physical characterizations of snow forming into ice. The models not only tend to disagree with each other when run under identical steady-state conditions, but also exhibit a broad range of future behaviors when forced with the transient variables of a changing climate. Each model was created and validated against varying levels of field data spanning different regions and time periods. Without a consistently measured validation dataset, it is nearly impossible to determine which compaction models are most correct when estimating firn compaction across a vast region. One of the most widely-cited firn compaction models used during ICESat-1 to calculate mass balance in Greenland estimated that the rate of firn compaction changed by as much as ± 2.5-13.5 cm yr-1 across nearly three quarters of Greenland’s accumulation zone in the six years spanning 2002-2007. This estimated change in compaction rate dwarfs the ±0.4 cm yr-1 measurement accuracy in the baseline science requirements currently proposed for NASA’s upcoming ICESat-2 mission. To successfully calculate the current and future mass balance of Greenland, accurate and timely field measurements are needed to more precisely constrain firn compaction rates across the GrIS.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this NASA project (“FirnCover”), will measure compaction rates at a range of depths to differentiate between rapid melt-induced densification and steadier grain deformation at depth in Greenland. With visits to Greenland from 2015 to 2017, a field team will gather data from sampling sites, some existing and others to be installed. Accumulation, temperature, firn stratigraphy and density profiles will be measured at each station to initialize and force compaction models under Greenland’s changing climate. In 2015 a field team of up to six will obtain and build all components of the FirnCover instruments and transmission towers. After flying to Kangerlussuaq via ANG and spending several days preparing for the work ahead, six researchers will fly to Raven Camp, and base there to revisit the existing FirnCover stations (KAN-U, Dye-2, and EKT) by snow machine, maintain the towers and instruments, and install new surface instruments atop the latest layer of snow accumulation to extend the continuous depth-profile compaction measurements. New stations will be installed near the GC-Net weather station at Saddle and NASA-SE. When this work is finished, two team members will return to Kangerlussuaq via chartered Twin Otter and depart Greenland via commercial air. The remaining party will fly via Twin Otter to the rest of the stations (Crawford Point, Summit, and NEGIS) to drill cores and install new stations. They will work at Summit Station, and after the Twin Otter support is finished, return to Kangerlussuaq via ANG in early-mid June. The researchers will depart Greenland, chiefly via ANG, several days later. In 2016, 11 researchers will return to maintain the instruments, continue measurements from the surface, repair equipment as necessary, and collect firn core samples. The team will assemble in Kangerlussuaq via a combination of Air National Guard and commercial flights in April. They will spend about a month tent-camping while visiting existing sites based from hubs at Raven Camp and Summit Station. Air transport between hubs and field sites will be accomplished largely by chartered Twin Otter. The work will end at Summit Station in mid-May, at which point the researchers will return to Kangerlussuaq via Twin Otter, carrying firn core samples if space allows. Researchers will spend several days in Kangerlussuaq processing the firn samples before departing via a combination of ANG and commercial air. In 2017, six researchers will visit the sites in mid-April to mid/late May. The team’s field season plans will be similar to 2016. They will process their firn cores at Summit Station prior to returning to Kangerlussuaq thus no freezer space is required in this year.

Via an interagency funds transfer NASA>NSF, CPS will provide Air National Guard coordination for passengers and cargo, including dedicated flights to Raven, KISS user days, in-transit Summit user days, fixed-wing support, truck rental, snow machines/sleds & camp equipment, fuel, communications equipment, and safety gear. The PI will arrange and pay for all other support directly.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Greenland - Crawford Point05 / 29 / 2015 05 / 30 / 20154
2015Greenland - DYE-205 / 06 / 2015 05 / 28 / 20156
2015Greenland - EKT05 / 06 / 2015 05 / 28 / 20156
2015Greenland - GRIP06 / 02 / 2015 06 / 02 / 20154
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 24 / 2015 06 / 09 / 20156
2015Greenland - KAN-U05 / 01 / 2015 05 / 06 / 20156
2015Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 06 / 2015 05 / 28 / 20156
2015Greenland - NEGIS06 / 01 / 2015 06 / 01 / 20154
2015Greenland - Raven04 / 30 / 2015 05 / 06 / 20156
2015Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 06 / 2015 05 / 28 / 20156
2015Greenland - Summit05 / 30 / 2015 06 / 01 / 20154
2016Greenland - Crawford Point05 / 15 / 2016 05 / 15 / 20165
2016Greenland - DYE-204 / 24 / 2016 05 / 12 / 201611
2016Greenland - EGRIP05 / 16 / 2016 05 / 16 / 20165
2016Greenland - EKT04 / 29 / 2016 05 / 12 / 201611
2016Greenland - Ilulissat06 / 07 / 2016 06 / 09 / 20162
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 18 / 2016 06 / 11 / 201612
2016Greenland - KAN-U04 / 24 / 2016 04 / 29 / 20166
2016Greenland - NASA-SE AWS04 / 29 / 2016 05 / 12 / 201611
2016Greenland - Raven04 / 19 / 2016 04 / 24 / 201611
2016Greenland - Saddle AWS04 / 29 / 2016 05 / 12 / 201611
2016Greenland - Summit05 / 13 / 2016 05 / 15 / 20165
2017Greenland - Crawford Point05 / 17 / 2017 05 / 17 / 20174
2017Greenland - DYE-204 / 25 / 2017 05 / 14 / 20176
2017Greenland - EGRIP05 / 18 / 2017 05 / 18 / 20174
2017Greenland - EKT05 / 01 / 2017 05 / 04 / 20176
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 18 / 2017 05 / 25 / 20176
2017Greenland - KAN-U04 / 26 / 2017 04 / 29 / 20176
2017Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 04 / 2017 05 / 08 / 20176
2017Greenland - Raven04 / 24 / 2017 05 / 15 / 20176
2017Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 08 / 2017 05 / 12 / 20176
2017Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2017 05 / 19 / 20174
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 18 / 2018 05 / 25 / 20186
2018Greenland - Raven04 / 18 / 2018 05 / 25 / 20186
2018Greenland - Summit04 / 18 / 2018 05 / 25 / 20186
 


Project Title: CAREER: South Greenland's Holocene Climate History Reconstructed Using Three Paleolimnological Approaches (Award# 1454734)

PI: Axford, Yarrow L (axford@northwestern.edu)
Phone: 0(847) 467.2268 
Institute/Department: Northwestern University, Earth and Planetary Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Anjuli Bamzai (abamzai@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences\Polar Environments | Meteorology and Climate\Paleoclimatology |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...
Data: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimato...

Science Summary:
This NSF CAREER project supports a multi-pronged effort at deciphering and understanding the climate history of southern Greenland over the last eleven thousand years, and an educational effort focused on public communication of science and K-12 science literacy. Paleoclimate data provide our only empirical observations of how the arctic system responds to major sustained climate change. It is especially urgent to understand how past climate change unfolded on Greenland, because mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet will drive a large fraction of future sea level rise. Existing data from south Greenland hint that climate trends there may differ from trends observed elsewhere in the Northern Hemisphere on a range of timescales, with potential consequences for future temperature change and thus for ice sheet mass balance. This research will assess the apparent divergence through the Holocene (the last 11,000 years), by developing a suite of climate reconstructions from lakes in southernmost Greenland. Climate records to be generated include quantitative temperature reconstructions based on insect (chironomid) assemblages and reconstructions of precipitation isotopes (reflecting changes in atmospheric circulation) using an emerging method based on chironomid oxygen-18. A third approach -- reconstructions of alpine glacier fluctuations using sediments from glacial threshold lakes -- will constrain local ice mass balance and help to further characterize local atmospheric climate through the Holocene, especially its influence on the ice sheet. This work will double the number of continuous, quantitative Holocene terrestrial temperature reconstructions available from Greenland beyond the ice sheet, thus contributing to community-wide efforts to understand how the arctic system responds to sustained climate change. Data will be incorporated into paleodata syntheses, in keeping with the PI's track record of participation in such efforts, and will allow for better tests of climate and ice sheet models. Independent reconstructions of Holocene precipitation isotopes will be used to assess whether changes in atmospheric circulation accompanied past climate change, and thus might accompany future climate change. By constraining summer temperatures and local glacier mass balance, and comparing results with glacial geologic studies, this work will help clarify the role of atmospheric climate at the ice sheet margin in driving ice sheet changes. This work will also advance two methods: It will validate and apply an emerging isotopic proxy with potential for widespread application, and the PI will lead international collaborative development of a new calibration dataset for the chironomid paleothermometer. This grant will train at least two Ph.D. students and at least five undergraduates in international polar research, and will advance the professional development of a pre-tenure geoscientist who has a demonstrated commitment to the broader impacts of her research. Multiple collaborations, including with glacial geologists and paleoecologists at five foreign institutions, will be advanced. A new seminar will train graduate students in sustainability-relevant STEM fields in skills for communicating science beyond academia, contributing to broad training of the future STEM workforce. This project will provide sustained professional development for K-12 teachers, who in turn will bring climate and energy science to Chicago-area classrooms, promoting innovative STEM education for students in one of the largest U.S. urban school districts (Chicago's District 299).

Logistics Summary:
With support from a CAREER grant, the PI aims to reconstruct climate history in Southern Greenland, using lake sediment and other samples collected during field work, to characterize to what extent climate trends in South Greenland may diverge from hemispheric trends on a range of timescales, with potential consequences for future temperature change—and thus for ice sheet mass balance. Researchers will travel to Greenland in 2016, 2018 and 2019 (there is no field work in 2017). A field team of 4 will access field sites via helicopter from Narsarsuaq and via truck from Kangerlussuaq. Generally, sampling sites are closer to the outer coast than to the ice sheet, and at relatively high elevation. A small packable raft will be used where possible for lake measurements and sampling. Sediment cores and other samples will be shipped back to the researchers’ home institutions for analysis. In 2016, a team of four will travel to Narsarsuaq, Greenland, via commercial air late in July, arriving via commercial air from Copenhagen. They will put in to their camp site by helicopter, and spend about 2 weeks collecting sediment cores from areas of interest. The team will reposition during this time, with helicopter support to facilitate resupply and the camp move. Prior to take out, the team will store gear in Narsarsuaq, and prepare their cores for shipment. Two researchers will depart for Kangerlussauq, where they will spend several days packing before departing with their sediment samples for the U.S. via the Air National Guard. (The other two researchers will continue until the end of August on another project.) In 2018, a team of four plan to return in late July/ early August.

CPS will provide ANG coordination for passengers and cargo, including retro of samples via ANG, KISS user days, rental truck in Narsarsuaq, intra-Greenland commercial ticketing/freight, helicopter charters, lodging, and storage space in Narsarsuaq, and camp/safety equipment from CPS inventory. In 2017, CPS will provide storage space in Narsarsuaq (during a non-field work year of the grant). All other logistics, including commercial shipping between institute and NY, will be organized by the researcher and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Ammassivik Highland Lakes08 / 09 / 2016 08 / 15 / 20164
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 16 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20162
2016Greenland - Narsaq Highland Lakes08 / 04 / 2016 08 / 09 / 20164
2016Greenland - Narsarsuaq07 / 30 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20164
2016Greenland - Tupaussat08 / 01 / 2016 08 / 04 / 20164
2017Greenland - Narsarsuaq0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 15 / 2018 08 / 15 / 20184
2018Greenland - Narsarsuaq07 / 15 / 2018 08 / 15 / 20184
2019Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 15 / 2019 08 / 15 / 20194
2019Greenland - Narsarsuaq07 / 15 / 2019 08 / 15 / 20194
 


Project Title: Greenland Magnetometer Array (Award# MagnetometerDTU)

PI: Behlke, Rico (rico.behlke@space.dtu.dk)
Phone: 45(45) 25.97.06 
Institute/Department: Technical University of Denmark, National Space Institute  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: DK\Research/Higher Ed\DTU\DNSC
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Space Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://www.space.dtu.dk/English/Research/Scientifi...

Science Summary:
The project plans to install a magnetometer at Summit Station to investigate geomagnetic variations in Central Greenland in support of two projects with complementary scientific aims: (1) Project IceBase is a high altitude geomagnetic survey to be proposed by a consortium around Goddard Space Flight Center to NASA to investigate the geothermal heat flux below the Greenland ice cap. The project aims at producing a Greenland-wide map of magnetic crust depth (Curie-depth), indicative for geothermal heat flux. The derived heat flux map is a boundary condition for ice sheet models to improve, among other things, estimates for global sea level rise due to melting of the Greenland ice sheet. Ground magnetometers are critical when correcting the survey data for natural geomagnetic time variations. Data from Summit Station, due to its location in Central Greenland, in combination with the below mentioned array, is crucial here. (2) The Greenland Magnetometer Array operated by DTU Space is a permanent array of some 15 magnetometer stations located on the Greenland East and West Coasts. The array is ideal for investigating the polar ionospheric current systems and processes related to the coupling of energy and momentum from the solar wind to the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Data is interpreted in combination with satellite data (e.g. NASA's Themis mission, ESA's Cluster mission), or with conjugate stations from Antarctica. The proposed Summit magnetometer experiment will, apart from improved geographical coverage, provide data from the electrically insulating ice cap. This data will be less affected by induced electric currents in surrounding oceans and underlying bedrock than the coastal stations, thus improving the scientific value of the array data as a whole.

Logistics Summary:
Participants in this Danish Technical University (DTU)-funded project will install and collect data from a magnetometer at Summit Station to investigate geomagnetic variations in Central Greenland. The funding period for this grant begins in 2014 and ends in 2020. This work will support two complementary scientific objectives: (1) Project IceBase is a high altitude geomagnetic survey to be proposed by a consortium around Goddard Space Flight Center to NASA to investigate the geothermal heat flux below the Greenland ice cap. The project aims at producing a Greenland-wide map of magnetic crust depth (Curie-depth), indicative for geothermal heat flux. The derived heat flux map is a boundary condition for ice sheet models to improve, among other things, estimates for global sea level rise due to melting of the Greenland ice sheet. Ground magnetometers are critical when correcting the survey data for natural geomagnetic time variations. Due to its location in Central Greenland, data from Summit, in combination with the below mentioned array, is crucial to this objective. (2) The Greenland Magnetometer Array operated by DTU Space is a permanent array of some 15 magnetometer stations located on the Greenland east and west coasts. The array is ideal for investigating the polar ionospheric current systems and processes related to the coupling of energy and momentum from the solar wind to the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Data is interpreted in combination with satellite data (e.g. NASA's Themis mission, ESA's Cluster mission), or with conjugate stations from Antarctica. In addition to improved geographical coverage, the Summit magnetometer experiment will provide data from the electrically insulating ice cap. This data will be less affected by induced electric currents in surrounding oceans and underlying bedrock than the coastal stations, thus improving the scientific value of the array data as a whole. From 2014 to 2020, project personnel may visit Summit Station to maintain or upgrade the magnetometer installation. CPS science technicians will monitor and maintain the magnetometer, electronics, and datalogger year-round. In 2014, two people will visit Summit in June on project business. The science group will not deployment to Summit during 2015, 2016 and 2017. The experiment will continue to be maintained by onsite technicians. In 2015 the Lead PI switched from Dr. Jurgen Matzka to Dr. Rico Behlke at which time the grant name was changed from MatzkaDTU to MagnetometerDTU in this database.

CPS will provide Air National Guard support for cargo and passengers between Kangerlussuaq and Summit Station, Summit user days, fuel from Summit stocks, and science tech/labor support for the project. NSF will recoup costs associated with this support directly from DTU. All other items, including KISS user days, will be arranged and paid for by the PI.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 02 / 2014 06 / 12 / 20142
2014Greenland - Summit06 / 04 / 2014 06 / 10 / 20142
2015Greenland - Summit0
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Summit0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
2018Greenland - Summit1
2019Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
2019Greenland - Summit1
2020Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
2020Greenland - Summit1
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at Summit (ICECAPS) (Award# 1304544)

PI: Bennartz, Ralf ()
Phone: 0(615) 322.2976  
Institute/Department: U of Wisconsin, Madison,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate\Atmospheric Radiation | Meteorology and Climate\Cloud Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.archive.arm.gov
Project: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/arctic/observatories/...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=13...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
In 2010, the observatory at Summit, Greenland, in the center of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), was expanded to include a comprehensive suite of cloud-atmosphere observing instruments including microwave and infrared spectrometers, cloud radar, depolarization lidar, ceilometer, precipitation sensor, sodar, and a twice-daily radiosonde program. This observing effort was termed ICECAPS (Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at Summit). Continuation of the work was approved / funded late summer 2013 to allow for continuous operation, with moderate enhancements to include new precipitation measurements. Measurements from this expanded instrument suite will be used to derive critical baseline atmospheric data products including: Atmospheric State - tropospheric temperature, moisture, and wind profiles, Cloud Macrophysics - occurrence, vertical boundaries, temperature, Cloud Microphysics - phase, water content, and characteristic particle size, and Precipitation - type and rate. Together these products, when combined with similar ongoing measurements at Summit, can be used to study processes that impact the surface energy budget and precipitation at the site, as well as addressing questions related to atmospheric stability, cloud phase composition, and the persistence of stratiform clouds. It is further anticipated that these observations will continue to be used by a broad cross-section of the scientific community to promote understanding of GIS and Arctic climate, validate satellite observations, and evaluate model simulations. Graduate students play significant roles in most aspects of this project, gaining valuable experience with polar field work, operating instruments, and processing data. In addition, this research team has developed a unique education and outreach plan to work with students from local schools using simple, proxy instrumentation to help develop their understanding of atmospheric principles and observations, and to enhance the scientific curriculum in their schools via a wide range of outreach activities.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this collaboration between Walden (1414314, WSU), Turner (1304692, U of OK), Shupe (1303879, CU) and Bennartz (1304544, U of WI) will continue work begun under NSF grant 0856773 "ICECAPS". Researchers will continue an intensive cloud experiment at Summit with fieldwork from late spring 2014 through late spring 2018. Logistic details under 1414314.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2014Greenland - Summit0
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2015Greenland - Summit0
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Summit0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2018Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Ultraviolet Radiation in the Arctic: 2012-2015 (Award# 1203250)

PI: Bernhard, Germar Hermann (bernhard@biospherical.com)
Phone: 0(619) 686.1888 
Institute/Department: Biospherical Instruments, Inc.,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. William Ambrose (wambrose@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate\Radiation | Meteorology and Climate\Surface UV Radiation |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://uv.biospherical.com
Data: http://www.ndsc.ncep.noaa.gov/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...
Data: http://www.woudc.org
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Biospherical Instruments Inc (BSI) has operated NSF’s Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitoring Network (UVSIMN) between 1988 and 2008. The network included three locations in Antarctica, two in the Arctic (Barrow, Alaska, and Summit, Greenland) and two mid-latitude sites. In 2009, the instruments at Barrow and Summit have been integrated into NSF’s Arctic Observing Network as part of the AON projects “Ultraviolet Radiation in the Arctic” and, since 2012, “Ultraviolet Radiation in the Arctic: 2012-2015.” The award is jointly overseen by Prof. John E. Frederick of the University of Chicago and Dr. Germar Bernhard of BSI and will end on 31-August 2015. To date, the network has produced one of the longest Climate Data Records (CDR) of UV radiation in existence. Measurements at Barrow span the 21-year period of 1991-2012. Measurements at Summit started in 2004 and are ideally suited to probe the free troposphere and study the effects of long-range transport of pollutants and aerosols on UV radiation. Data can also be used for validation of satellite observations, verification of models describing the transfer of radiation through the atmosphere, advancement of climate models, and addressing the SEARCH question such as whether the Arctic is moving to a new state. Data have been used by hundreds of researchers investigating the effects of stratospheric ozone depletion and other climatic factors on UV radiation at the Earth’s surface and subsequent consequences on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, and humans. Several researchers from other AON projects have used data. Recently, data were used to interpret radiosonde and LIDAR observations at Summit as part of the AON project “High Resolution, Active Remote Sensing of Cloud Microphysics at Summit, Greenland with Polarized Raman Lidar” (NSF Award 1303864) and to calibrate down-welling irradiance measurements at Summit in support of the AON project “Direct radiative forcing over central Greenland - assessment of the coupled effect of light absorbing aerosols and snow albedo variability” (NSF Award 1023227) [Wright et al., 2014]. Spectral UV data from Barrow have recently been used to interpret a massive phytoplankton bloom observed in the Chukchi Sea under first-year sea ice in 2011 [Palmer et al., 2014].

Logistics Summary:
This grant supports continued UV-visible solar irradiance observing experiments. BSI will operate several radiometers at Barrow, Alaska, and Summit, Greenland. This project is a continuation of the NSF's Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance monitoring Network (UVSIMN) and NSF grants 0907819 and 0856268. For information regarding the project's prior logistics, see records for 0907819 (2009 only), 0856268, and UVSIMN. At Summit, the instrument is primarily maintained by on-site science technicians, with occasional visits by the research team for maintenance, or tear down/set-up when the structure where the experiment is housed must be relocated. During 2013 the team will make two deployments. In June the team will visit Summit to dismantle the instrument for storage while the Green House structure is relocated. The PI will return to Summit in July to reinstall the instrument in the Green House at the new location. At Barrow, on-site technicians in the employ of Arctic Administrators LLC maintain the instruments.

At Summit Station, CPS will provide access to the Summit infrastructure, accommodations and meals in Kangerlussuaq, user days at Summit, and science technician services. The PI will not send a research team to Barrow using local CPS support in 2013 and 2014, though a visit may be arranged using grant funds. All other logistics will be coordinated by the researchers through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2013Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 25 / 2013 07 / 19 / 20133
2013Greenland - Summit06 / 26 / 2013 07 / 16 / 20133
2014Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2014Greenland - Summit0
2015Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 17 / 2015 07 / 27 / 20151
2015Greenland - Summit07 / 18 / 2015 07 / 25 / 20151
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2017Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: The Greenland GPS Network (GNET): Geodetic characterization of water vapor, climate cycles, climate change and ice mass balance (Award# 1111882)

PI: Bevis, Michael G (mbevis@osu.edu)
Phone: 0(614) 499.5966 
Institute/Department: Ohio State University, Byrd Polar Research Center, Department of Geological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS\AON
Program Manager: Dr. William Ambrose (wambrose@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://facility.unavco.org/data/data.html
Project: http://polenet.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This grant continues operation of the Greenland GPS Network (GNET) for four years. GNET has been "weighing" the Greenland ice sheet by tracking the earth's elastic response to changing surface loads. The PIs will extend the life of GNET so that it can continue to sense space-time changes in ice mass, including spatial shifts in the position of the centers of ice loss, and accelerations in mass change rates. The PIs will use GNET to map the steady vertical velocity field associated with postglacial rebound (PGR), which will provide the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), and any successor missions, with an accurate ‘PGR correction,’ thereby suppressing the largest source of uncertainty in GRACE-based estimates of ice mass changes in Greenland. The PIs also will use GNET to ‘weigh’ annual and inter-annual changes in ice mass, obtaining better spatial resolution than GRACE is capable of, using Earth’s instantaneous elastic response to surface load changes. GNET is now resolving seasonal oscillations in the vertical position of the earth's crust as well as longer-term trends. These oscillations reflect seasonal changes in the loads placed on the solid earth by both the atmosphere and the ice sheet. Researchers will remove the atmospheric pressure signal, using state-of-the-art weather models, in order to isolate the signal due to changes in the ice sheet. As part of the pressure analysis, they will produce a time series of integrated water vapor for each station in GNET, with benefits for weather and climate predictions. Broader impacts include the training of a graduate student and support of a postdoctoral researcher as co-investigator. Scientifically, GNET is addressing a problem of great interest and also considerable societal importance: the trajectory and magnitude of Greenland mass balance. With current and potential additional gaps in satellite geodesy coverage of Greenland, GNET is a cornerstone of our observations of the cryosphere. The data are openly accessible and are available in near real-time through UNAVCO.

Logistics Summary:
This effort continues GNET work begun under NSF grant 0632320. Researchers will maintain a network (GNET) of 38 continuous GPS stations in Greenland that were established as part the U.S. contribution to the International Polar Year (IPY) and the international Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET) consortium. From 2012 through 2015 field work will focus on upgrading all the modems and swapping out batteries on the occasional stations that require it. In each year, a team of two technical experts will visit Greenland to conduct maintenance on installations in various regions of Greenland using air support to travel to and between the sites, with fuel caches placed as needed to fuel the aircraft. In the latter half of August, 2012, researchers will conduct light maintenance and repair as well as wildlife hardening at 14 stations (from the 2007 generation) along the eastern coast of Greenland, from Narsarsuaq in the south up to Södalen in the north. Field efforts to accomplish this work involve two phases and airframes: Twin Otter transport to deliver cargo and establish fuel caches, conducted largely prior to the main body of the work; and the helicopter-supported maintenance/repair/hardening of the GNET monuments themselves. To the former, a Twin Otter from Akureyri, Iceland will fly to Kulusuk, there meeting CPS’ Robin Abbott. Abbott will coordinate staging and delivery of fuel drums and cargo at depot locations near the GNET sites. To the latter, a team will use an AS350-B3 helicopter to visit the stations, alternating between field camping with the helicopter and/or lodging in communities located near sites. Kulusuk will serve as the team’s main base on the SE coast. Also in 2012, last minute approval was given to include visits to 8 stations in northern Greenland that require engineering maintenance within the GPS receiver. To maximize the logistics investment, the team also will visit several stations en route to upgrade firmware. (In May of 2013, a Twin Otter positioned at Thule to support Simpson/GLISN researchers also was able to support the GNET team by putting in fuel caches at sites in northwest Greenland planned for work in 2014.) In the latter half of August, 2013, researchers will return to Greenland to conduct light maintenance, repair, and wildlife hardening at nine stations located along the northeastern coast of Greenland, from Södalen in the south to Gronne Nunatak (south of Station Nord) in the north. Fuel and equipment caches will be established via Twin Otter prior to the main body of the work; researchers will conduct maintenance/repair/hardening of the GNET monuments themselves, using helicopter support. In 2014, the team will focus on stations in Northwest and North Greenland. In the early season, fuel drums will be purchased in Copenhagen, filled at Thule, and flown to Station Nord via Royal Danish Air Force concurrent with Station Nord refueling. A Twin Otter will place the drums at required fuel cache sites in late summer. For the service visits, after arriving in Kangerlussuaq in early Aug, the team will spend several weeks making site visits, flying via helicopter up the west coast and along northern Greenland. The researchers and pilot will lodge in local hubs. When the work is complete in early September, they will depart Greenland via commercial air. In addition, researchers will visit ~14 GNET stations in SE Greenland that lost communications capabilities in spring of 2014. They will visit these sites and replace the receiver flash cards, using helicopter support to access sites. In 2015, the focus and main tasks for the GNET technicians will take place at their sites along the east coast of Greenland. They will depart from Nuuk and fly south to Narsarsuaq, stopping to check one GNET site while enroute. They will then fly north nearly as far at Station Nord, where they will replace electronics boards in 12 stations. They also will replace one faulty compact flash memory card, 18 batteries, 6 wind generators, 1 solar panel, 1 antenna redome and 18 battery jumper cables at various stations. Twelve stations are in known risk of having antenna problems and will be monitored regularly prior to the fieldwork and replaced if necessary. In 2016, researchers will not visit the sites, but the instruments will continue to run and collect data. In 2017, researchers may return, instruments will continue running, details of the field season are TBD.

CPS will provide ANG coordination, helicopter and Twin Otter charters, fuel procurements, camping equipment, lodging in town and village sites, commercial air tickets within/to Greenland, communications and safety gear, and freight shipment costs within Greenland. UNAVCO will provide GPS receivers and technical support as the field team performs maintanence throughout Greenland, as well as ongoing support to permanent sites and data storage. DTU will provide logistics expertise for efficient helicopter and Twin Otter planning and will coordinate and pay for accommodations at some village sites, as well as arrange and pay for all permitting requirements. All other logistics will be paid by the researchers from the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2012Greenland - Astrup Kystland09 / 04 / 2012 09 / 04 / 20122
2012Greenland - Blaso08 / 20 / 2012 08 / 20 / 20122
2012Greenland - Constable Point08 / 18 / 2012 08 / 18 / 20122
2012Greenland - Daneborg08 / 20 / 2012 08 / 20 / 20122
2012Greenland - Danmarkshavn08 / 20 / 2012 08 / 20 / 20122
2012Greenland - Docker Smith Glacier09 / 03 / 2012 09 / 03 / 20122
2012Greenland - Harder Gletscher08 / 30 / 2012 08 / 30 / 20122
2012Greenland - Helheim Glacier08 / 22 / 2012 08 / 22 / 20122
2012Greenland - Hjornefjeldet08 / 20 / 2012 08 / 20 / 20122
2012Greenland - Ilulissat09 / 08 / 2012 09 / 08 / 20122
2012Greenland - Isortoq08 / 21 / 2012 08 / 21 / 20122
2012Greenland - Jorgen Bronlund Fjord08 / 28 / 2012 08 / 28 / 20122
2012Greenland - Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier08 / 23 / 2012 08 / 23 / 20122
2012Greenland - Kap Agassiz09 / 01 / 2012 09 / 01 / 20122
2012Greenland - Kap Morris Jessup08 / 29 / 2012 08 / 29 / 20122
2012Greenland - Kap Schoubye08 / 31 / 2012 08 / 31 / 20122
2012Greenland - Koge Bugt08 / 21 / 2012 08 / 21 / 20122
2012Greenland - Kullorsuaq09 / 04 / 2012 09 / 04 / 20122
2012Greenland - Kulusuk08 / 21 / 2012 08 / 21 / 20122
2012Greenland - L Bistrup Brae08 / 20 / 2012 08 / 20 / 20122
2012Greenland - Lynaes Peninsula08 / 21 / 2012 08 / 21 / 20122
2012Greenland - Mestersvig08 / 19 / 2012 08 / 19 / 20122
2012Greenland - Mikis Fjord08 / 24 / 2012 08 / 24 / 20122
2012Greenland - Narsarsuaq08 / 18 / 2012 08 / 19 / 20122
2012Greenland - Niviarsiat Nunatak North (NNVN)08 / 18 / 2012 08 / 18 / 20122
2012Greenland - Norske Oer08 / 20 / 2012 08 / 20 / 20122
2012Greenland - Nuuk08 / 15 / 2012 09 / 10 / 20122
2012Greenland - Pilagpik08 / 18 / 2012 08 / 23 / 20122
2012Greenland - Qaanaaq09 / 02 / 2012 09 / 02 / 20122
2012Greenland - Sermip Nunatak08 / 18 / 2012 08 / 18 / 20122
2012Greenland - Sodalen08 / 13 / 2012 08 / 23 / 20122
2012Greenland - Station Nord08 / 20 / 2012 08 / 26 / 20122
2012Greenland - Steenstrup Nordre Brae08 / 24 / 2012 08 / 24 / 20122
2012Greenland - Tasiilaq08 / 22 / 2012 08 / 22 / 20122
2012Greenland - Thule08 / 28 / 2012 09 / 01 / 20122
2012Greenland - Trefoldigheden Oer08 / 21 / 2012 08 / 21 / 20122
2012Greenland - Upernavik09 / 06 / 2012 09 / 06 / 20122
2012Greenland - Upper Timmiarmiut Glacier08 / 20 / 2012 08 / 20 / 20122
2013Greenland - Daneborg08 / 08 / 2013 08 / 08 / 20132
2013Greenland - Danmarkshavn08 / 08 / 2013 08 / 13 / 20132
2013Greenland - Daugaard-Jensens Glacier08 / 07 / 2013 08 / 07 / 20132
2013Greenland - Gamma O08 / 09 / 2013 08 / 09 / 20132
2013Greenland - Gronne Nunatak08 / 09 / 2013 08 / 09 / 20132
2013Greenland - Helheim Glacier08 / 05 / 2013 08 / 05 / 20132
2013Greenland - Hjornefjeldet08 / 04 / 2013 08 / 04 / 20132
2013Greenland - Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier08 / 06 / 2013 08 / 06 / 20132
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 06 / 2013 05 / 07 / 20131
2013Greenland - Kulusuk08 / 04 / 2013 08 / 05 / 20132
2013Greenland - L Bistrup Brae08 / 08 / 2013 08 / 08 / 20132
2013Greenland - Lynaes Peninsula08 / 04 / 2013 08 / 04 / 20132
2013Greenland - Mestersvig08 / 07 / 2013 08 / 07 / 20132
2013Greenland - Mikis Fjord08 / 05 / 2013 08 / 05 / 20132
2013Greenland - Narsarsuaq08 / 02 / 2013 08 / 04 / 20132
2013Greenland - Niviarsiat Nunatak North (NNVN)08 / 02 / 2013 08 / 02 / 20132
2013Greenland - Nuuk07 / 31 / 2013 08 / 22 / 20132
2013Greenland - Qaanaaq05 / 10 / 2013 05 / 13 / 20131
2013Greenland - Sermip Nunatak08 / 02 / 2013 08 / 02 / 20132
2013Greenland - Sodalen08 / 05 / 2013 08 / 06 / 20132
2013Greenland - Steenstrup Nordre Brae08 / 05 / 2013 08 / 05 / 20132
2013Greenland - Strindberg Land08 / 07 / 2013 08 / 08 / 20132
2013Greenland - Tasiilaq08 / 04 / 2013 08 / 04 / 20132
2013Greenland - Thule05 / 07 / 2013 05 / 15 / 20131
2013Greenland - Timmiarmiut08 / 03 / 2013 08 / 03 / 20132
2013Greenland - Trefoldigheden Oer08 / 04 / 2013 08 / 04 / 20132
2013Greenland - Ymer Nunatak08 / 10 / 2013 08 / 10 / 20132
2014Greenland - Astrup Kystland08 / 10 / 2014 08 / 10 / 20142
2014Greenland - Docker Smith Glacier08 / 10 / 2014 08 / 10 / 20142
2014Greenland - Jewell Fjord08 / 15 / 2014 08 / 15 / 20142
2014Greenland - Joe Oer08 / 13 / 2014 08 / 13 / 20142
2014Greenland - KAGA Jakobshavn08 / 08 / 2014 08 / 08 / 20142
2014Greenland - Kap Agassiz08 / 13 / 2014 08 / 13 / 20142
2014Greenland - Kap Morris Jessup08 / 15 / 2014 08 / 15 / 20142
2014Greenland - Kap Schoubye08 / 13 / 2014 08 / 13 / 20142
2014Greenland - Leffingwell Nunatak08 / 16 / 2014 08 / 16 / 20142
2014Greenland - Marie Glacier08 / 11 / 2014 08 / 11 / 20142
2014Greenland - Qaarsut08 / 08 / 2014 08 / 08 / 20142
2014Greenland - Rinks Isbrae08 / 09 / 2014 08 / 09 / 20142
2014Greenland - Sermip Nunatak08 / 09 / 2014 08 / 09 / 20142
2014Greenland - Thule08 / 11 / 2014 08 / 15 / 20142
2014Greenland - Upernavik08 / 09 / 2014 08 / 10 / 20142
2015Greenland - Constable Point08 / 17 / 2015 08 / 18 / 20152
2015Greenland - Daneborg08 / 22 / 2015 08 / 23 / 20152
2015Greenland - Danmarkshavn08 / 25 / 2015 08 / 25 / 20152
2015Greenland - Daugaard-Jensens Glacier08 / 18 / 2015 08 / 19 / 20152
2015Greenland - Gronne Nunatak08 / 25 / 2015 08 / 25 / 20152
2015Greenland - Hamberg Gletscher08 / 20 / 2015 08 / 21 / 20152
2015Greenland - Helheim Glacier08 / 12 / 2015 08 / 13 / 20152
2015Greenland - Hjornefjeldet08 / 07 / 2015 08 / 08 / 20152
2015Greenland - Isortoq08 / 10 / 2015 08 / 11 / 20152
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 03 / 2015 08 / 17 / 20152
2015Greenland - Koge Bugt08 / 09 / 2015 08 / 10 / 20152
2015Greenland - Kulusuk08 / 11 / 2015 08 / 12 / 20152
2015Greenland - L Bistrup Brae08 / 23 / 2015 08 / 24 / 20152
2015Greenland - Lynaes Peninsula08 / 08 / 2015 08 / 09 / 20152
2015Greenland - Mestersvig08 / 19 / 2015 08 / 20 / 20152
2015Greenland - Mikis Fjord08 / 15 / 2015 08 / 15 / 20152
2015Greenland - Narsarsuaq08 / 05 / 2015 08 / 06 / 20152
2015Greenland - Niviarsiat Nunatak North (NNVN)08 / 06 / 2015 08 / 06 / 20152
2015Greenland - Nuuk08 / 03 / 2015 08 / 26 / 20152
2015Greenland - Pilagpik08 / 14 / 2015 08 / 15 / 20152
2015Greenland - Sermip Nunatak08 / 05 / 2015 08 / 05 / 20152
2015Greenland - Sodalen08 / 15 / 2015 08 / 16 / 20152
2015Greenland - Steenstrup Nordre Brae08 / 13 / 2015 08 / 14 / 20152
2015Greenland - Timmiarmiut08 / 07 / 2015 08 / 07 / 20152
2015Greenland - Trefoldigheden Oer08 / 08 / 2015 08 / 08 / 20152
2015Greenland - Upper Timmiarmiut Glacier08 / 06 / 2015 08 / 07 / 20152
2015Greenland - Vestfjord Gletscher08 / 17 / 2015 08 / 17 / 20152
2015Greenland - Walterhausen Glacier08 / 21 / 2015 08 / 22 / 20152
2015Greenland - Ymer Nunatak08 / 24 / 2015 08 / 25 / 20152
2016Greenland - Constable Point0
2016Greenland - Daneborg0
2016Greenland - Danmarkshavn0
2016Greenland - Daugaard-Jensens Glacier0
2016Greenland - Gronne Nunatak0
2016Greenland - Hamberg Gletscher0
2016Greenland - Helheim Glacier0
2016Greenland - Hjornefjeldet0
2016Greenland - Isortoq0
2016Greenland - Koge Bugt0
2016Greenland - Kulusuk0
2016Greenland - L Bistrup Brae0
2016Greenland - Lynaes Peninsula0
2016Greenland - Mestersvig0
2016Greenland - Mikis Fjord0
2016Greenland - Narsarsuaq0
2016Greenland - Niviarsiat Nunatak North (NNVN)0
2016Greenland - Nuuk0
2016Greenland - Pilagpik0
2016Greenland - Sermip Nunatak0
2016Greenland - Sodalen0
2016Greenland - Steenstrup Nordre Brae0
2016Greenland - Timmiarmiut0
2016Greenland - Trefoldigheden Oer0
2016Greenland - Upper Timmiarmiut Glacier0
2016Greenland - Vestfjord Gletscher0
2016Greenland - Walterhausen Glacier0
2016Greenland - Ymer Nunatak0
2017Greenland - Constable Point0
2017Greenland - Danmarkshavn0
2017Greenland - Kulusuk0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: GreenTrACS: a Greenland Traverse for Accumulation and Climate Studies (Award# 1417640)

PI: Birkel, Sean (sean.birkel@umit.maine.edu)
Phone: 0(207) 581.1484 
Institute/Department: U of Maine, Climate Change Institute 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Glaciology | Cryosphere\Ice Geochemistry | Cryosphere\Ice Penetrating Radar | Cryosphere\Ice Sheet Mass Balance |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://cgiss.boisestate.edu/data_downloads.php
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
The investigators plan a traverse in the Western Greenland percolation zone over two field seasons to develop continuous in-situ snow accumulation and firn density records using ground-based radar and shallow firn cores. The research objectives include: (1) determining the patterns, in time and space, of snow accumulation in Western Greenland over the past 20-40 years; (2) evaluating surface melt refreeze and englacial meltwater storage in the Western Greenland percolation zone over the past 20-40 years; and (3) quantifying the accumulation and surface melt biases of the most recent climate reanalysis models and their regional climate model counterparts. This project intends to advance knowledge and understanding by providing in-situ validation observations for both the mass gain (snow accumulation) and mass loss (surface melt) components of Western Greenland surface mass balance. Previous studies have shown that the western edge of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been losing mass at an accelerating rate since 2005, due mostly to decreasing surface mass balance. However, surface mass balance trends derived from regional climate models differ by a factor of ~2.5 in this region. Western Greenland firn core accumulation records, required for model validation, generally end in 1996-1998, before the most recent period of accelerated mass loss. The investigators will develop continuous records of Western Greenland snow accumulation over the last 20-40 years using ground-penetrating radar validated by frequent snow pits and firn cores (25-30 m) analyzed for chemistry. They will also use a multi-offset radar method to calculate firn density continuously along the traverse, providing a means to assess past surface melt, refreeze and current meltwater storage in glacier aquifers, as well as critical density-profile data for air- and spaceborne remote sensing work. Meltwater refreeze shows the largest variability in regional climate models among surface mass balance components, and thus validation observations are critically needed. The traverse route will crisscross the percolation zone, near-parallel to the steepest accumulation and surface melt gradients, which will increase the value of the dataset for model validation. The traverse will overlap previous traverse routes, IceBridge airborne radar flight paths, and reoccupy previously sampled sites to update firn core accumulation records by 18-20 years. In addition, the project will collect cores from new sites in data-poor regions at lower elevations, where both accumulation and surface melt increase and regional climate model validation is most needed. Surface mass balance validation of several climate reanalysis models will lead to more accurate assessments of current and future Greenland Ice Sheet mass balance trends, which is critical for accurately predicting future sea-level rise.

Logistics Summary:
This project, Greenland Traverse for Accumulation and Climate Studies (GreenTrACS), is a collaboration between Osterberg and Hawley (1417678, Dartmouth, LEAD), Birkel (1417640, U of Maine), and Marshall (1417921, Boise State). See 1417678 for logistic details.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2016Greenland - Raven0
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Reconstruction of climate at the Norse Settlements of Greenland over the last two millennia using organic biomarkers in lake sediments (Award# 1602973)

PI: Bradley, Raymond S (rbradley@geo.umass.edu)
Phone: 0(413) 545.2120 
Institute/Department: U of Massachusetts, Amherst, Department of Geosciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Anjuli Bamzai (abamzai@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...

Science Summary:
The climate in southern Greenland is a key area for reconstructions of the North Atlantic Oscillation, a major pattern of northern hemisphere climate, and is also linked to Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation changes, an important oceanic process controlling north Atlantic climate, which recent studies suggest has been weaker over recent decades than at any time in the last 1000 years. This is also the region where Norse settlements were abandoned by the early-15th century; many questions still remain about the causative factors. Although climate change is often cited as the reason for settlement failure, this explanation rests on a very poorly constrained scientific foundation and other explanations have also been proposed. Inferences about climatic conditions in the region often have been derived from far distant sources, generally at high elevations on the Greenland Ice Sheet, where climatic conditions are completely different. This project will produce records with multidecadal (15-25 year) resolution from the study region, spanning the last 1500-2000 years. This will be accomplished using new organic geochemical techniques and will contribute to the calibration and understanding of these methodologies. This project will partially support a productive young scientist (Prof. Isla Castaneda) during the formative years of her career. It will also provide support for the training of a graduate student. The principal investigators (PIs) will contribute to a University of Massachusetts summer program designed to engage 12 to 18 year old girls, most from under-represented or low income groups, in STEM fields. The PIs and the supported graduate student will participate in university-sponsored middle and high school teacher training programs. Finally, undergraduate honors students often participate in the activities of co-PI's lab. She expects that a number of honors theses and senior projects will result from the research associated with this project. All of this contributes to development of the nation's STEM workforce. The project will continue an established international collaboration with French scientists. The disappearance of the Norse communities in Greenland and its potential linkage to climate change have significant human interest upon which the PIs propose to capitalize. Their outreach activities include composing articles for popular science magazines and development of a project web site. It is also anticipated that the PI will continue his productive interactions with the local media, both print and electronic. This project will generate new high resolution, quantitative records of temperature and hydrology for the past 2,000 years from lakes in coastal regions of southern and southwestern Greenland, an area that has important links to the broader climate dynamics of the North Atlantic. It also will shed light on climatic fluctuations during the period of Norse settlement in the region. Novel organic geochemical techniques will be used for past temperature reconstruction (branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers) and for estimates of changes in evaporation (leaf wax deuterium isotopes) over time.

Logistics Summary:
This project will generate new high resolution, geochemical records of temperature and hydrology for the past 2,000 years from lakes in coastal regions of southern and southwestern Greenland, to shed light on climatic fluctuations during the period of Norse settlement and disappearance in the region. Research will include a sediment trap time series in southern lakes to collect organic biomarkers for temperature calibration and to apply the calibrations to material in previously collected cores from numerous lakes around southwestern Greenland. Cores will be provided at no cost to the project from collaborators. In summer of 2016 and 2017, three researchers will travel to Greenland to deploy and recover interval sediment traps from area lakes, and taking other environmental samples. In 2016 they will be travelling from Iceland to Narsarsuuaq, then by local transportation to their targeted lakes to perform this field work. In 2017, the field sites near Narsarsuaq will be revisited to recover instruments and samples, and further fieldwork in the Ivittuut area may be carried out.

All logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Narsarsuaq07 / 11 / 2016 07 / 27 / 20163
2017Greenland - Ivittuut07 / 19 / 2017 07 / 29 / 20173
2017Greenland - Narsarsuaq07 / 11 / 2017 07 / 18 / 20173
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Arctic Sensitivity to Climate Perturbations and a Millenial Perspective on Current Warming Derived from Shrinking Ice Caps (Award# 1204005)

PI: Briner, Jason P (jbriner@buffalo.edu)
Phone: 0(716) 645.4326 
Institute/Department: U at Buffalo, Department of Geology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. William Ambrose (wambrose@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Climate Change | Cryosphere\Paleoclimate |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.earthchem.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...
Data: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimato...

Science Summary:
The goal of this grant is to provide a millennial context for current warming and to better constrain the nature of abrupt climate changes over the past 5000 years in the North Atlantic sector of the Arctic. This goal will be addressed with the powerful datasets derived from radiocarbon-dated vegetation preserved beneath ice caps for centuries to millennia, but now being exposed annually by current ice-margin retreat across northeastern Canada and West Greenland. These chronologies define the pattern and timing of abrupt summer coolings in the recent past and place current warming in a millennial context. 14C dating of vegetation will be complemented by measuring in situ 14C inventories in recently exposed rock surfaces, providing essential temporal constraints on the duration of ice-covered and ice-free conditions throughout the Holocene. Combined, these two datasets will provide the most secure evidence for the character of current summer warming by explicitly dating when the region was last as warm as present. Comparing our climate reconstructions with on-going studies in NW Europe will help to separate the roles of unforced variability from hemispherically symmetric forcing as causes for abrupt climate change. Research activities under this award will be made accessible to indigenous peoples by translating the goals and eventual results into Inuktitut, through posters that describe the research, and by offering public lectures in Iqaluit, the capital of Nunavut, and at Qikiqtarjuaq, where INSTAAR has long had a presence. This research program will train a PhD and MSc student, and provides opportunities for undergraduate students to become involved with research, building on successful traditions from previous years.

Logistics Summary:
With this collaborative project between Miller (1204096, CU, LEAD) and Briner (1204005, SUNY at Buffalo), researchers hope to answer a number of questions regarding warming within the context of climate change records from the Holocene. The researchers will use information obtained from a number of ice caps (themselves rapidly receding due to a warming climate) along northern Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada; and around small ice caps along West Greenland. Field campaigns will take place in Canada and Greenland. Logistic details under 1204096.

Scope details under 1204096.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2013Canada - Allen Island0
2013Canada - Pangnirtung, Baffin Island0
2013Canada - Qikiqtarjuaq0
2013Greenland - Disko Island0
2013Greenland - Ilulissat0
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2013Greenland - Uummannaq0
2014Canada - Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island0
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2014Greenland - Maniitsoq0
2016Greenland - Ilulissat0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Testing Arctic Ice Sheet Sensitivity to Abrupt Climate Change (Award# 1417783)

PI: Briner, Jason P (jbriner@buffalo.edu)
Phone: 0(716) 645.4326 
Institute/Department: U at Buffalo, Department of Geology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Anjuli Bamzai (abamzai@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Climate Change | Cryosphere\Paleoclimate |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.earthchem.org/
Data: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatol...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
A team of investigators will investigate the response of the Laurentide and Greenland Ice Sheets to two short term cooling events (several decades to a few centuries in duration) that occurred 9.3 and 8.2 thousand years ago. Assessing the sensitivity of ice sheets to short term climate variability is at the forefront of the scientific community's and the public's interest because short term ice sheet change will drive 21st century sea level rise. Thus a central question of the proposed work is whether ice sheets react abruptly to climate forcings, or are multi-millennial-scale trends in climate required to elicit a large-scale ice sheet response? The investigators plan an intensive field-based research program capitalizing on their newly published work reconstructing ice sheet change using high-precision beryllium-10 dating to test the hypothesis that prominent moraine systems marking former ice extents in West Greenland and Baffin Island record the synchronous advance of the Greenland and Laurentide ice sheets driven by the abrupt cooling events 9.3 and 8.2 thousand years ago. Pilot data reveal that portions of the ice sheet margin that are in contact with the surrounding ocean are able to respond rapidly to a short-lived climate perturbation. To test whether these documented changes were restricted to solely the most sensitive marine-terminating ice sheet sectors, or whether ice sheets are capable of a larger scale response to centennial-scale climate change, well-constrained chronologies of ice sheet change are needed from other regions. The investigators' research objectives are to 1) establish how land-terminating regions of ice sheets, which are more representative of broader ice sheet margins, respond to abrupt climate change, 2) further evaluate the role that oceanic forcing plays in modulating ice sheet response to short-lived climate perturbations, and 3) reconstruct the early Holocene behavior of mountain glacier systems (a proxy for summertime temperature) to evaluate what climatic conditions influenced the ice sheets. The investigators will work to make results easily accessible to the public. The work is led by an early career investigator and will support two graduate and several undergraduate students.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative geological study regarding ice-sheet change on Baffin Island, Canada and in Western Greenland is comprised of: Young (1417675 LEAD, Columbia), Miller (1418040, CU) and Briner (1417783, U of Buffalo). Researchers will conduct rock and lake-sediment sampling to perform high-precision 10Be and 14C dating to determine how these regions responded to abrupt cooling events. Logistic details under 1417675.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Canada - Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island0
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2016Greenland - Nuuk0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Ice sheet sensitivity in a changing Arctic system - using Geologic data and modeling to test the stable Greenland Ice Sheet hypothesis (Award# 1504267)

PI: Briner, Jason P (jbriner@buffalo.edu)
Phone: 0(716) 645.4326 
Institute/Department: U at Buffalo, Department of Geology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
There is enough water in the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) that, were it to melt, it would raise sea level in most coastal cities significantly with huge consequences for society. In the face of accelerated ice sheet contribution to sea level rise, it remains uncertain how the GrIS will adjust to a warming Arctic, declining sea ice and related changing precipitation patterns. This is a concern, given that future sea level rise is strongly dependent on the GrIS response to arctic change. The scientific community is currently undecided between a model of a dynamic GrIS that becomes greatly reduced during warm periods and a model where it is relatively stable, even through periods warmer than today. This project addresses the idea that increased arctic precipitation offsets GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperature. The researchers will test this by contributing significant new information on arctic system change and related GrIS dynamics during past and ongoing warm periods, and employing an ice sheet modeling effort synthesizing all new data aimed at both past and future GrIS simulations. The researchers explicitly combine multiple scientific disciplines to provide a better understanding of how key arctic system components such as precipitation, temperature, sea-ice cover and GrIS mass balance are interconnected. The results will be of fundamental relevance to the fates of the arctic system, the GrIS and global sea level rise. The project will train six graduate students and one post-doctoral researcher. The cross-cutting research program is paralleled by the scope of the outreach plan, to develop a variety of deliverables, including development of an iBook and public outreach events. In addition the team will participate in public outreach events in Buffalo and New York City, where the public and scientists interact in a casual setting. Finally, this work has synergies with ongoing missions at NASA and other programs within the NSF. Due to recent advances in numerical ice sheet models and new sub-ice topography of Greenland, combined with finely-tuned field approaches and geochronologic techniques, the time is ripe for a coordinated, cross-disciplinary effort focusing on cryosphere variability in a warming Arctic; the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and sea ice constitute the largest, and most critical components of the arctic cryosphere. The hypothesis that increased arctic precipitation can counterbalance GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperatures stems from recent findings suggesting that it may be more stable than expected during interglacials. The researchers will generate new GrIS margin reconstructions during and since the mid-Holocene Thermal Maximum (9,000 to 5,000 years ago), with a powerful approach that combines lake sediment stratigraphy with new sub-ice topography and novel high-sensitivity cosmogenic isotope methods; develop new Holocene climate reconstructions of moisture, temperature and sea ice conditions from lake and ocean sediments and an advanced synthesis of existing arctic ice core and other paleoclimate data; and employ state-of-the-art numerical ice sheet modeling fueled by ice margin and climate reconstructions to test a range of climatic and dynamic controls on GrIS change. If the idea is supported, then it would suggest a relatively stable GrIS during warm periods. If, however, this project provides evidence that the GrIS retreated considerably during the warmer-than-present mid-Holocene and in turn, that the GrIS has reacted more sensitively to temperature than to precipitation change, the results would support a tightly coupled ice sheet size-temperature link and in turn, a much greater near-term GrIS contribution to sea level rise. Either result will be of fundamental relevance to the fates of the arctic system, the GrIS and global sea level rise.

Logistics Summary:
The collaboration of Briner (1504267, U of Buffalo), Steig (1503281, UW), Morlighem (1504230, UCI), Young (1503959, LDEO), and Johnson (1504457, U of Montana) will address the null hypothesis that increased Arctic precipitation offsets GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperature. The PIs will integrate new reconstructions of past ice sheet margin change during and since the mid-Holocene Thermal Maximum, new reconstructions of Holocene precipitation, temperature and sea-ice cover from ice cores, lake and ocean sediments, and an ice sheet modeling effort synthesizing all new data aimed at both past and future GrIS simulations. During each of three consecutive field seasons beginning in 2016, fieldwork will focus on a different location in Greenland: outside of Kangerlussuaq (2016), Nuuk (2017), and Paamiut (2018). Approximately five field team members will deploy to six different sampling locations (JB1-4 and NY1-2) supported by helicopter and/or vehicle access. A camp will be established at each sampling location for approximately ~ 4days/each and camp moves will be completed by helicopter. For the 2016 and 2017 seasons, researchers on this collaboration will combine field efforts with work advancing the science goals of a collaboration led by Young (NSF grant 1417675), for which Briner is on. In July 2016, six people total (both projects) will assemble in Kangerlussuaq, four via the Air National Guard logistics chain, and two via commercial air from Ilulissat. The group will prepare and then put-in by helicopter to the first of six camp sites in the Søndre-Strømfjord region. After working for four to five days, the base camp will move to the next site, again using helicopter support, establishing the basic logistics effort for the five to six week field campaign. Helicopter-supported camp moves will facilitate personnel change-outs as well as ground stops for more sampling. Once during the field season, the team will return to Kangerlussuaq for a more thorough camp resupply effort. The final camp put-in will be accessed by driving to Point 660, from which the team will then proceed to their last sampling site on foot. When the work is finished, the team will return to Kangerlussuaq. Some will depart via the ANG, while others depart on commercial flights. For the 2017 field season, the Briner and Young teams will again work together, this time outside of Nuuk. A team of four researchers will travel to Nuuk via Kangerlussuaq to a site at the terminus of the Kangiata Nunaata Sermia (SMS) Glacier, approximately 100 km east of Nuuk. Helicopters will be utilized to reach field sites and conduct sampling. Six field sites will be visited and are labeled JBCamp-2 1-4, Long Lake and Target Lake.

CPS will provide cargo and passenger transport via the Air National Guard, passenger and cargo transport via commercial air flights from Kanger<>Nuuk, KISS user days in Kangerlussuaq, lodging in Nuuk, camping and safety equipment, truck rental in Nuuk, and AirGL helicopter support. All other logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - JB107 / 13 / 2016 07 / 18 / 20166
2016Greenland - JB207 / 18 / 2016 07 / 22 / 20165
2016Greenland - JB307 / 22 / 2016 07 / 28 / 20163
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 10 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20167
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-107 / 24 / 2017 07 / 30 / 20173
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-207 / 30 / 2017 08 / 05 / 20173
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-308 / 05 / 2017 08 / 08 / 20173
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-408 / 08 / 2017 08 / 13 / 20172
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-5 (Long Lake)08 / 13 / 2017 08 / 18 / 20172
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-6 (Target Lake)08 / 18 / 2017 08 / 25 / 20172
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 21 / 2017 08 / 28 / 20174
2017Greenland - Nuuk07 / 22 / 2017 08 / 26 / 20174
2018Greenland - Paamiut5
 


Project Title: High Arctic Institute: Thule and Kangerlussuaq, Greenland Field Project (Award# Peregrine)

PI: Burnham, Kurt Kristopher (kburnham@higharctic.org)
Phone: 0(309) 526.3355 
Institute/Department: High Arctic Institute,  
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Foundation\High Arctic Institute
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.higharctic.org

Science Summary:
The High Arctic Institute (HAI) continues Peregrine Falcon and Gyrfalcon research started in the early 1970’s by the Greenland Peregrine Falcon Survey. This research began in response to declining Peregrine populations across the globe as a result of the pesticide DDT. In 1974 research efforts transferred to The Peregrine Fund. In 1997 The Peregrine Fund established the High Arctic Institute at Thule, Greenland and in 2007 the Peregrine Fund was absorbed into the HAI. The HAI monitors Gyrfalcon and Peregrine Falcon populations breeding in the Thule and Kangerlussuaq areas. The HAI’s goal in Greenland is the understanding and conservation of Gyrfalcon and Peregrine Falcon populations and their environments, including prey species and habitat.

Logistics Summary:
The High Arctic Institute (HAI) is a non-profit conservation, research, and education organization that focuses on the study and conservation of birds in Greenland. Founded in 2006, the HAI takes over research initially begun in Greenland in 1972 on Peregrine Falcons and Gyrfalcons. While still conducting long-term studies and monitoring on both species of falcons, research scope has expanded to now include more than 25 different species. Currently the HAI focuses its field work in the Thule area, in northwest Greenland. This High Arctic region is home to tens of millions of birds and is one of the most unique and pristine habitats left in the world, with many of the species that occur in the area at the very northern limit of their range. Current research projects focus on the likely effects of climate change on these species and their response, including changes in nesting chronology, breeding ranges, and density. In 2016, two researchers will visit Thule during the months of July and August. They will base their work out of Thule Air Base (TAB) where they will take day trips via a combination of boat, truck, and foot to field sites. In 2017, three researchers will visit Thule during the months of July and August. They will base their work out of Thule Air Base (TAB) where they will take day trips via a combination of boat, truck, and foot to field sites. Researchers will return in 2018. Details are TBD.

CPS will provide project manager assistance, lodging in building 353, safety and communications equipment, and access to cold storage in Thule. NSF will recoup costs associated with this support directly from HAI. All other support with be organized and paid for by HAI.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2000Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 10 / 2000 08 / 20 / 20008
2001Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 23 / 2001 08 / 18 / 200111
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 09 / 2002 08 / 17 / 200210
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 02 / 2003 08 / 16 / 200313
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 17 / 2004 07 / 29 / 20045
2004Greenland - Thule07 / 12 / 2004 4
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 11 / 2005 2
2005Greenland - Thule07 / 12 / 2005 2
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 05 / 2006 06 / 14 / 20064
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 07 / 2008 07 / 09 / 20084
2008Greenland - Thule07 / 09 / 2008 08 / 21 / 20084
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 01 / 2009 08 / 08 / 20095
2009Greenland - Thule07 / 01 / 2009 08 / 08 / 20095
2010Greenland - Thule07 / 01 / 2010 07 / 30 / 20106
2011Greenland - Thule06 / 30 / 2011 08 / 12 / 20115
2012Greenland - Thule06 / 28 / 2012 08 / 10 / 20126
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 09 / 2013 08 / 21 / 20134
2013Greenland - Thule07 / 16 / 2013 08 / 02 / 20134
2014Greenland - Thule06 / 26 / 2014 08 / 08 / 20146
2015Greenland - Thule1
2016Greenland - Thule07 / 06 / 2016 08 / 10 / 20162
2017Greenland - Thule06 / 29 / 2017 08 / 11 / 20173
2018Greenland - Thule06 / 29 / 2018 08 / 11 / 20183
 


Project Title: NOAA Summit Clean Air Program (Award# NOAASummit)

PI: Butler, James H (James.H.Butler@noaa.gov)
Phone: 0(303) 497.6898 
Institute/Department: National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, Global Monitoring Division 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\DOC\NOAA
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aero/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/hats/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ozwv/
Media: http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2005/s2393.htm

Science Summary:
Researchers at NOAA’s Earth System Research Lab (ESRL) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) conduct continuous measurements of atmospheric composition at Summit Station to better understand changes occurring in the Arctic and Earth system. Continuous measurements include: 1. Halocarbon and other Atmospheric Trace Gases (HATS) Flasks: weekly to biweekly air sampling collection to measure trace gases that are important components of global halocarbon chemistry. These measurements have been ongoing since 2004. 2. Carbon Cycle Greenhouse Gas (CCGG) Flasks: weekly air sampling experiment to analyze levels of trace gases that are part of the global carbon cycle. These measurements were taken during winter of 1997-1998, 2000-2001, 2001-2002, and have been on-going since the 2003-2004 winter period. 3. In-situ Aerosol Sampling Suite: continual measurements of aerosol optical properties to determine aerosol radiative effects. These measurements were initiated in 2003 with an updated suite of instruments in 2009. 4. Surface ozone measurements: continual tropospheric air sampling efforts for ozone levels. These measurements were taken from 2000 to 2002, and from 2003 on. 5. Balloon-borne ozonesondes: measurements of year-round ozone atmospheric profiles. These measurements were first conducted during the late-winter of 2005. 6. In-situ Monitoring with the Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species (CATS): a three-channel gas chromatograph performs hourly measurements of ozone depleting gases identified in the Montreal Protocol and amendments including nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, CFC-12, CFC-11, CFC-113, chloroform, methyl chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride. These measurements began in 2007. 7. Surface Meteorology: continuous measurements of surface meteorological properties to support both science and flight operations. These measurements have been continuous since summer 2005. 8. Surface Solar Radiation: continuous measurements of broadband solar and thermal radiation. These measurements began in 2013 with additional instruments added in 2016.

Logistics Summary:
For this NOAA program, on-site science technicians maintain a suite of year-round measurements on behalf of NOAA researchers. These measurements began in the mid 1990s and are ongoing (part of GEOSummit since 2003). NOAA representatives visit Summit Station annually to install / maintain instruments, train science technicians, and conduct measurements. Starting in 2005, NOAA began staffing science technician rotations as Summit Station during the winter phases. Beginning in 2008 NOAA increased staffing to be year-round. Monitoring projects on site include: carbon cycle gas sampling flasks, black carbon measurement, halocarbons and trace species flask sampling, meteorology suite, stratospheric ozonesondes, aerosol measurements, surface ozone measurements, and an in-situ gas chromatograph for greenhouse gas measurements. NOAA will continue to collaborate with Georgia Tech on activities related to the aerosol instrument suite that was previously installed and maintained by the Bergin project (NSF grant #1023227). NOAA program highlights at Summit Station over the last few years include: - During summer 2007 a four channel gas chromatograph was added to the suite of NOAA instruments. - During summer 2008, in addition to ongoing work, researchers extended the ozonesonde experiment by launching about 20 additional balloons in April and again in July for an intensive field campaign. - In February 2009, a NOAA staff member flew to Summit Station via the Twin Otter on a crew turnover flight to repair an instrument, departing the station on the return flight approximately one week later. - During August 2009, the NOAA field coordinator attended an on-site planning meeting. - In 2010, in addition to ongoing measurements, CPS staff relocated the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory (TAWO) and instrument tower (where the NOAA instruments are mounted) to approximately 1 km south of Summit Station. - During 2011 and 2012 the NOAA field coordinator made a routine visit to Summit Station for instrument maintenance. - During 2013 the TAWO building was lifted and the TAWO tower was extended. The on-site science technicians coordinated with the Boulder-based NOAA team to support the instrumentation during the transition. - Also during 2013, the NOAA ESRL GMD deputy director traveled to Summit Station in late June for a site visit. During 2014, one NOAA researcher will travel to Summit in June for maintenance and upgrade activities. NOAA will continue to hire and deploy science technicians for all the three staffing phases. During 2015, three researchers will travel to Summit in June, July, and August for maintenance and upgrade activities. These include upgrading the meteorological sensor suite, assisting with the science impacts from the TAWO facility raise project, and performing a quality control visit to evaluate the setup of the aerosol measuring suite of instrumentation. In 2016, NOAA researchers will travel to Summit to relocate the meteorological suite of instruments from the TAWO tower to the 50m tower, install broadband solar radiometers to inter-compare with existing solar measurements from Summit station, reinstall instrument inlets on the TAWO inlet mast, and potentially reconfigure the TAWO interior layout of instruments to optimize the available footprint. Additionally, NOAA is planning to modify the CATS GC to eliminate methane containing P5 carrier gas to directly address concerns about elevated methane levels within the facility. In 2017 a field team of two will demobilize a portion of the NOAA project activities including the ozonesonde system and materials, the CATS GC, and the solar radiation suite (contingent on the timing of calibrated radiometers being returned by the Steffen/NASAAWS project). The field team will also recover components of the meteorological suite from the failed 50m tower and re-install met instruments on the TAWO tower which was relocated 80m south TAWO during June 2017. The science technician position provided via inter-agency transfer will be ended on or about 28 August 2017. Researchers may return in 2018, details are TBD.

CPS will coordinate personnel and cargo transport to and from Summit, provide access to Summit Station infrastructure, Summit user days, Kangerlussuaq user days, and science technician support with tasking shared between the NOAA and CPS year-round technicians. The PI will arrange and pay for all other logistics through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
1997Greenland - Summit0
1998Greenland - Summit0
2000Greenland - Summit0
2001Greenland - Summit0
2002Greenland - Summit0
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 28 / 2003 08 / 16 / 20032
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 29 / 2003 08 / 14 / 20032
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 13 / 2004 06 / 26 / 20041
2004Greenland - Summit06 / 14 / 2004 06 / 24 / 20041
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 09 / 2005 12 / 31 / 20054
2005Greenland - Summit02 / 11 / 2005 12 / 31 / 20054
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2006 12 / 31 / 20063
2006Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2006 12 / 31 / 20063
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2007 07 / 27 / 20073
2007Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2007 07 / 26 / 20073
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 04 / 2008 11 / 13 / 20086
2008Greenland - Summit02 / 15 / 2008 11 / 13 / 20086
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 05 / 2009 10 / 30 / 20094
2009Greenland - Summit02 / 09 / 2009 08 / 21 / 20093
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 02 / 2010 12 / 31 / 20108
2010Greenland - Summit02 / 02 / 2010 12 / 31 / 20108
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2011 11 / 08 / 20116
2011Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2011 12 / 31 / 20116
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2012 08 / 22 / 20125
2012Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2012 12 / 31 / 20126
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 21 / 2013 08 / 21 / 20135
2013Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2013 12 / 31 / 20137
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 02 / 2014 06 / 30 / 20143
2014Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2014 12 / 31 / 20144
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 29 / 2015 08 / 22 / 20154
2015Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2015 10 / 16 / 20155
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 23 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20163
2016Greenland - Summit06 / 25 / 2016 08 / 17 / 20163
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 19 / 2017 08 / 01 / 20172
2017Greenland - Summit07 / 21 / 2017 07 / 30 / 20172
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq2
2018Greenland - Summit2
 


Project Title: Collection and Analysis of GEOSummit Aerosols (Award# 1638402)

PI: Cahill, Thomas (tacahill@ucdavis.edu)
Phone: 0(530) 752.4674 
Institute/Department: U of California, Davis, Department of Physics 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Fine particles directly scatter and absorb sunlight, and depending on their size and composition can either heat or cool the Earth. They come from both natural sources like volcanoes, dust storms, and forest fires, and from man-made sources like industry, power plants and vehicles. Since a signature of their origin is imbedded in their composition, they can be tracked back to sources even thousands of miles away using meteorological models. Understanding the composition and sources of these fine particles is critical to developing better models of global climate change, but requires many years of observation. One of the best places to measure these fine particles in the atmosphere is at the Greenland Summit research station because the site is not near populated areas or the ocean which are sources of these particles. This renewal of an Arctic Observing Network project will extend sampling of these fine particles at the Greenland Summit site another 5 years. The results will be of value to global climate modelers and to atmospheric scientists. Undergraduate students will be involved in sample analysis. This program is unique in that the Greenland Summit site is the only high elevation Arctic site and thus responds to aerosols in the free troposphere, the region of the atmosphere that dominates long range transport. Since 2003, aerosols have been collected continuously in 8 size modes, 15 µm to 0.09 µm, on slowly rotating drums that allow for 12 hr. time resolution and an excellent match to the various transport patterns that bring aerosols into the Arctic. Since there is very little mass to analyze, the large synchrotron x-ray source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Advanced Light Source has been used to make the compositional analyses, yielding the lowest values of many aerosol species ever measured in the ambient atmosphere. The new program has several enhancements. Optical back scattering will allow measurement of the global albedo, which is important since aerosols are roughly responsible for 2/3 of the total uncertainty in global climate models. A new method has been added for measuring aerosol organic matter that will allow mass closure. In this protocol, the sum of all species equals the total mass present in each of the 8 size modes so that all aerosol mass can be accounted for in determination of the optical properties. The higher energy beams at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light Source will now also be included, allowing the program to access heavier elements to better identify industrial sources. These data will be compared with other high elevation sites like the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii to better track long-range transport of aerosols in the Northern hemisphere. A further benefit of these data is that they allow a measurement of how airborne particles get imbedded in the snow pack and eventually the ice cores collected at the Summit site. Thus, these measurements help explain the dust present over the past millennia, during both warm periods and ice ages.

Logistics Summary:
This grant funds a five-year continuation (2016-2020) of baseline measurements, some of which have been ongoing since 2003 as part of the Greenland Environmental Observatory at Summit Station. This project focuses on continuing the record of year-round aerosol collection and analysis (previously funded under NSF grant 0856845, McConnell, Desert Research Institute, lead PI). The PI will extend fine particle sampling and enhance the existing continuous record of aerosols with instruments currently running at Summit Station, Greenland. No planned researcher deployments to Summit Station will occur in 2017. The PI will oversee shipment of necessary replacement parts for a Davis Rotating-drum Unit for Monitoring (or DRUM) apparatus and utilize on-site support from the Summit science technicians to maintain the instruments.

CPS will provide Air National Guard coordination for cargo, power for the DRUM sampler, and Summit science tech support. All other logistics will be organized by the researcher and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Summit0
2018Greenland - Summit0
2019Greenland - Summit0
2020Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Rockwell Kent and Early 1930’s Greenland: A Comparative View of Environmental, Social and Cultural Change in Contemporary Greenland (Award# 1524176)

PI: Defibaugh, Denis (dldpph@rit.edu)
Phone: 0(585) 475.7525 
Institute/Department: Rochester Institute of Technology,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Social and Human Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://scholarworks.rit.edu/
Data: http://www.arkiv.gl/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://www.groenlandica.gl/web/arena

Science Summary:
This project combines visual, historical, and anthropological methodologies to approach social, cultural and environmental change in four Greenlandic communities. The project centers around the work of Rockwell Kent, an American artist and writer, who resided in Greenland in the early 1930s and produced photographs, art, and literature about his time in the country. Kent’s rare historic lantern slides, not viewed in Greenland since their production, will be displayed and discussed with contemporary community members in the four locations where they were originally taken, Illorsuit, Sisimiut, Nuuk, and Uummannaq. Community members will be interviewed about Kent and changes that have occurred in these communities since the 1930s. In keeping with Arctic Social Sciences Program initiatives, the project provides comparative study, research partnerships, and educational and interactive collaboration with community residents. Workshops will be held with students in each community, during which pupils will be taught photographic techniques to produce their own images. PI Denis Defibaugh, RIT Professor of Photography, in collaboration with Co-PIs Jette Rygaard, Lecturer in Literature and Media at Ilisimatusarfik (University of Greenland), Axel Jeremiassen, PhD student at Ilisimatusarfik, and Susan Vanek, PhD student in anthropology at Binghamton University will produce an ethnographic study with still photographs and video incorporating both oral histories and archival materials. The research will provide insight into how Inuit communities in Greenland define themselves during a period of rapid social, cultural, and environmental change incurred by modernization efforts, political transitions, economic shifts, and the construction of regional and national identities. The project will further the development of community-based participatory research methodologies and will have a crucial student research training and capacity-building aspect in the form of collaboration with Ilisimatusarfik/University of Greenland.

Logistics Summary:
This project centers around the work of Rockwell Kent, an American artist and writer, who resided in Greenland in the early 1930s and produced photographs, art, and literature about his time in the country. Kent’s rare historic lantern slides, not viewed in Greenland since their production, will be displayed and discussed with contemporary community members in the four locations where they were originally taken, Illorsuit, Sisimiut, Nuuk, and Uummannaq. During 2016, 2017 and spring of 2018, a field team of 1-4 will conduct numerous workshops and semi-structured interviews, both about Kent and about changes that have occurred in these communities since Kent last visited in the 1930s.

CPS will provide ANG coordination for some of the participants, intra-Greenland travel between the communities, and lodging in Nuuk, Sisimiut, and Uummannaq. All other logistics, including lodging in Illorsuit and some longer term options in Nuuk, will be provided and arranged by the researchers from the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Illorsuit05 / 25 / 2016 10 / 17 / 20165
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq03 / 08 / 2016 08 / 15 / 20165
2016Greenland - Nuuk04 / 21 / 2016 11 / 10 / 20164
2016Greenland - Sisimiut06 / 03 / 2016 10 / 21 / 20165
2016Greenland - Uummannaq05 / 20 / 2016 10 / 17 / 20165
2017Greenland - Illorsuit03 / 08 / 2017 03 / 21 / 20171
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 04 / 2017 08 / 17 / 20172
2017Greenland - Nuuk02 / 02 / 2017 06 / 08 / 20171
2017Greenland - Sisimiut05 / 16 / 2017 05 / 26 / 20173
2017Greenland - Uummannaq02 / 27 / 2017 04 / 03 / 20171
2018Greenland - Illorsuit05 / 15 / 2018 06 / 04 / 20182
2018Greenland - Nuuk05 / 15 / 2018 06 / 04 / 20182
2018Greenland - Sisimiut05 / 15 / 2018 06 / 04 / 20182
2018Greenland - Uummannaq05 / 15 / 2018 06 / 04 / 20182
 


Project Title: Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN) Operations (Award# 1304011)

PI: Detrick, Robert S (detrick@iris.edu )
Phone: 0(202) 682.2220 
Institute/Department: Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Cryosphere\Glaciology | Cryosphere\Ice Sheet Dynamics | Geological Sciences\Climate | Geological Sciences\Seismology | Instrument Development |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://ds.iris.edu/ds/nodes/dmc/
Project: http://www.iris.edu/aed2/index.phtml?code=GLISNNUU...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=13...

Science Summary:
Greenland and the Arctic are changing rapidly, as dramatically manifested in the loss of ice from the Greenland Ice Sheet and rapid variations in the dynamic behavior of its outlet glaciers. Ice lost from Greenland contributes directly to changes in sea level, and influences climate indirectly through perturbations to ocean circulation and Earth's albedo. Investigations of the causes and consequences of changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet increasingly highlight the links between the solid Earth and the ice, ocean, and atmosphere systems. The Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN) is a broadband, multi-use seismological network, enhanced by selected geodetic observations, designed with the capability to allow researchers to understand the changes currently occurring in the Arctic, and with the operational characteristics necessary to enable response to those changes as understanding improves. GLISN was established through an international collaboration, with 10 nations coordinating their efforts to develop the current 32-station observing network during the last four years. In the U.S., the GLISN development effort has been undertaken on behalf of the seismological community by the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), a community-governed consortium, with funding from an NSF MRI award; IRIS has also provided leadership for the International GLISN project. All data from the network are freely and openly available, with complete metadata, via the IRIS Data Management Center and additional data centers in Europe. Of the 32 GLISN stations, 26 have commitments of long-term operational support from international partners. This proposal requests support for continued operations of six key stations of the network, as well as data quality control and data-management for the network. It also requests support for improvements to the telemetry capability at remote stations to maximize the scientific utility of the data, reduce data latency, and reduce logistics costs. Continued leadership by IRIS in the management and coordination of the International GLISN effort will ensure continued return of high-quality data from the full 32-station network.

Logistics Summary:
This project continues the International partnership started with funding under NSF grant 0922983 that created a seismic and geodetic real time Arctic observing network to monitor glacier earthquakes in Greenland. Named the Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN), this capability was established through the collaboration between 10 nations for a new broadband seismic capability. Under this grant, researchers continue the operations of the remaining 6 key stations of the GLISN network (DBG, DY2G, ICESG, NEEM, NUUK, SOEG), to continue telemetry support for a seventh remote station (NOR), as well as data quality control and data-management for 5 years. From 2014-2018, researchers will make annual trips to each of the remote sites to collect data, provide upgrades, perform preventive maintenance and repairs, and upgrade telemetry systems. They will set up remote camps for some of the annual visits. Colleagues from the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) will maintain sites at Thule, Narsarsuaq, Tasiilaq, Ittoqqortoormiit, Station Nord, Isortoq, and in 2017, Nuuk and Daneborg, arranging all of their own logistics. In 2016 a team of four will conduct the work during a month-long deployment. In late July, two researchers will meet in Iceland and fly on to Nuuk, where they will maintain the nearby station. They will then depart for Kangerlussuaq, where they will prepare for the installation of a station near DYE-2. Two additional researchers will arrive several days later, and all four will deploy to the installation site via LC-130. When that work is completed, they will all return to Kangerlussuaq via Twin Otter. One will depart Greenland. The other three will continue north to visit stations near Ilulissat and the NEEM ice camp before crossing the island to visit east coast sites. As the work allows, the team will drop from three to two. They will redeploy via Iceland. In 2017, a team of three (two researchers and one bear guard) will fly via Twin Otter from Akureyri, Iceland visiting one of their east coast seismometer sites at Sodalen (SOEG). They will then return to AEY where they will install skis on the Twin Otter and meet up with their third science team member. The following day they will fly back to Greenland to visit their ice sites: DY2G, ICESG, and NEEM with some overnight stops also in Kangerlussuaq, Ilulissat and possibly EGRIP. They will not visit their Nuuk (NUUK) and Daneborg (DBG) sites where instruments continue to run well. GEUS collaborators will download the data for the project. An additional, unplanned visit will take place in September of 2017 because in June the town of Nuugaatsiaq, Greenland experienced a destructive tsunami wave that severed power to the NUUG GLISN seismic station. Since that event, the GLISN team has been working with their Danish and Swiss colleagues, who have historically maintained the site, and the Government of Greenland to gain approval to visit the site to restore power and add autonomous telemetry capability. The station previously ran on main grid power and relied on TeleGreenland for real-time telemetry, which was lost as a result of the tsunami. With the abandonment of the Nuugaatsiaq village, it is important to restore this long-standing GLISN station due to proximity to the tsunamigenic source and potential for additional seismic activity. Two personnel will travel from Kangerlussuaq to the NUUG GLISN seismic station allowing approximately 48 hours at the site. They will be accompanied in the field by a bear guard from Uummannaq.

CPS will provide ANG flight coordination for cargo to/from Greenland and Camp Raven, air charters to access remote sites, transport of CPS gear to Akureyri, lodging, and camping/communications/safety gear. IRIS/PASSCAL will provide instrument development and management of installations. UNAVCO will provide consultation and remote data recovery support for the three on-ice GPS stations. The investigators will arrange and pay for all other logistics from the grant. For the September 2017 deployment, CPS will provide ANG cargo coordination to Greenland, onward shipping via Air GL commercial air flights from Kangerlussuaq to Qaarsut, and potential retro cargo back to CONUS on ANG flight of opportunity. CPS will also provide air charters to access remote NUUG site, AirGL airline tickets, lodging, and camping/communications/safety gear. IRIS/PASSCAL will provide instrument development and management of installation. ETH from Zurich will provide equipment and one person (seismological engineer) to assist with field work support. The investigators will arrange and pay for all other logistics from the grant including return commercial shipping of cargo from Greenland, if necessary.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - Daneborg08 / 18 / 2014 08 / 23 / 20142
2014Greenland - DYE-208 / 09 / 2014 08 / 10 / 20142
2014Greenland - GLISN ICE-S08 / 11 / 2014 08 / 12 / 20142
2014Greenland - NEEM08 / 13 / 2014 08 / 15 / 20142
2014Greenland - Sodalen08 / 17 / 2014 08 / 18 / 20142
2015Greenland - Daneborg08 / 15 / 2015 08 / 20 / 20151
2015Greenland - DYE-205 / 16 / 2015 05 / 19 / 20153
2015Greenland - GLISN ICE-S05 / 08 / 2015 05 / 13 / 20153
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 24 / 2015 05 / 30 / 20154
2015Greenland - NEEM04 / 29 / 2015 05 / 05 / 20152
2015Greenland - Nuuk05 / 22 / 2015 05 / 30 / 20151
2016Greenland - Daneborg08 / 23 / 2016 08 / 24 / 20162
2016Greenland - DYE-208 / 06 / 2016 08 / 10 / 20164
2016Greenland - GLISN ICE-S08 / 11 / 2016 08 / 12 / 20163
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 01 / 2016 08 / 12 / 20164
2016Greenland - NEEM08 / 14 / 2016 08 / 16 / 20163
2016Greenland - Nuuk07 / 30 / 2016 08 / 01 / 20162
2016Greenland - Sodalen08 / 18 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20164
2017Greenland - Daneborg0
2017Greenland - DYE-208 / 06 / 2017 08 / 07 / 20173
2017Greenland - GLISN ICE-S08 / 08 / 2017 08 / 09 / 20173
2017Greenland - Ilulissat08 / 09 / 2017 08 / 10 / 20173
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 07 / 2017 09 / 12 / 20174
2017Greenland - NEEM08 / 10 / 2017 08 / 11 / 20173
2017Greenland - NUUG09 / 08 / 2017 09 / 10 / 20173
2017Greenland - Nuuk0
2017Greenland - Sodalen08 / 03 / 2017 08 / 04 / 20173
2017Greenland - Uummannaq09 / 07 / 2017 09 / 11 / 20173
2017Iceland - Akureyri07 / 29 / 2017 08 / 16 / 20173
2018Greenland - Daneborg08 / 07 / 2018 08 / 14 / 20181
2018Greenland - DYE-205 / 18 / 2018 05 / 23 / 20183
2018Greenland - GLISN ICE-S05 / 18 / 2018 05 / 23 / 20183
2018Greenland - NEEM05 / 08 / 2018 05 / 15 / 20182
2018Greenland - Nuuk06 / 11 / 2018 06 / 13 / 20181
2018Greenland - Sodalen07 / 29 / 2018 08 / 01 / 20182
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Science Coordination Office for Summit Station and the Greenland Traverse (Award# 1042410)

PI: Dibb, Jack E. (jack.dibb@unh.edu)
Phone: 0(603) 862.3063 
Institute/Department: U of New Hampshire, Glacier Research Group 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL
Program Manager: Ms. Renee Crain (rcrain@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Data Management | Education and Outreach | Legacy Projects | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
The Science Coordination Office (SCO) serves the scientific community, NSF/Division of Polar Sciences (PLR), and the arctic logistics contractor by coordinating input and providing an organized advisory mechanism for PLR regarding decisions impacting Summit Station. SCO makes recommendations to CPS about ways to accommodate or mitigate conflicting requests from different science teams, and suggests ways investigators might accomplish science objectives with smaller logistical impacts. SCO advocates on behalf of the community, suggesting science-based priorities for capital investments by PLR at Summit that will maintain and enhance the value of the site for research while striving to keep the station financially sustainable. This renewal grant includes two new SCO members to represent the broader research community and diversify generations of researchers. It also adds functionality to the existing SCO by increasing SCO guidance and oversight to include research projects on the Greenland Inland Traverse and future research sites on the Greenland Ice Sheet that may host investigations similar to work done at Summit Station. This award supports activities that expand communication: significant updates to the current GEOSummit webpage (e.g. a virtual tour, Summit bibliography, and Summit GIS); a new Summit Listserv and town-hall-style meetings at the Fall AGU meeting; increased efforts at informal direct contact; and semi-annual teleconferences involving the scientific community. The SCO role in long-range and annual planning is to focus on the economic and environmental sustainability of the station in parallel with the preservation of core station scientific activities. These objectives are captured in a developing Long-range Plan for Summit Station.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration—Dibb (UNH, 1042410, LEAD), Burkhart (UC Merced, 1042531), and Hawley (Dartmouth, 1042358)—will continue support for the Summit Science Coordination Office (SCO) begun under NSF grant 0455623. The SCO was established to coordinate measurements between investigators; to optimize the sharing of facilities and personnel on-site; to provide scientific requirements to NSF, its support contractor and European partners as the facility is developed; and to stimulate sharing of data among science projects. From 2011 to 2016, SCO members will make regular trips to Summit, often combined with already-planned fieldwork in support of other grants. CPS will work closely with the SCO to develop and implement plans for Summit and the Greenland Traverse (GrIT) that meet the evolving needs of the science community. Activities in 2015 will include a continued survey of ice sheet movement in the near Summit area with a goal of determining the spatial pattern of horizontal strain that would act on multi-kilometer length of cable. This was a NSF requested study, now referred to as the Summit Strain Net study, in 2014 to better understand the implications of a number of factors in the long range plan for Summit Station. Those survey points which can be checked via foot will be; those that can’t will be accessed via snow machine. Additionally the Science Coordination Office plans to send one member for a site visit during the last flight period of the 2015 summer. In August 2016, one SCO member and one research assistant will travel to Greenland for an annual site visit, which will be made in collaboration with the Philip Lubin field team. In addition, the StrainNet survey will be completed during the same visit to avoid a separate deployment..

CPS will provide travel to/from and access to infrastructure and services at Summit Station. The PIs will arrange and pay for all other expenses through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2011Greenland - Summit0
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 10 / 2012 08 / 17 / 20121
2012Greenland - Summit08 / 14 / 2012 08 / 16 / 20121
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 14 / 2013 08 / 21 / 20131
2013Greenland - Summit08 / 15 / 2013 08 / 18 / 20131
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 13 / 2014 08 / 22 / 20141
2014Greenland - Summit08 / 15 / 2014 08 / 21 / 20141
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 29 / 2015 08 / 22 / 20153
2015Greenland - Summit06 / 01 / 2015 08 / 20 / 20153
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 05 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20162
2016Greenland - Summit08 / 07 / 2016 08 / 17 / 20162
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Direction and Mechanisms of Seasonal Change in Arctic Microbial Communities (Award# 1203857)

PI: Epstein, Slava S (slava@neu.edu)
Phone: 0(617) 640.1095 
Institute/Department: Northeastern University, Department of Biology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology\Microbial Ecology | Biology\Microbiology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://jcvi.org/metarep/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This project focuses on the characteristics and mechanisms of microbial succession in the high Arctic. Empirical observations suggest that seasonal change could be viewed as consisting of two phases, with simpler communities gradually replaced by more complex assemblages. The researchers hypothesize that life histories of the early colonizers include metabolic versatility and ability to expand quickly, which leads to communities characterized more by interspecies chemical warfare than intricate species integration. They also hypothesize that at later stages, species develop multiple synergies, their communities become more complex, and integrated by a signaling and regulatory network. A corollary of these traits is that the first phase is populated with species that are relatively easy to cultivate in pure culture, whereas species dominating at later stages may appear "uncultivable" in pure culture due to their dependencies on other species. Researchers will test these hypotheses in a study of a microbial community in the Thule Area in Northern Greenland. This environment offers a range of communities from simple to more complex with tractable (short) seasonal succession and constitutes a pristine and endangered community. Intellectual merit of this study is two-fold. The first is about bringing together in one study culture- dependent and culture-independent approaches, enabling us to relate microbial diversity and function in the most general sense. The enabling technology is important for general microbial ecology because it identifies functions expressed by the community with specific microbial players, and deciphers the roles of individual species, spatially and temporally. It has the potential to transform the study of arctic and other environmental microorganisms by informing us what key species are present, what functions they perform, and how the structure-function relationship changes over time. Second is the application of this platform to the ecology of arctic microorganisms, whereby they will test specific hypotheses related to the direction and aspects of microbial seasonal succession, aiming at their mechanistic explanation. Regardless of whether the hypotheses stand, they will assess the importance of community-level microbial interactions that are based on production of bioactive compounds, how these interactions change over the course of seasonal succession, and whether trajectory of the microbial seasonal succession can be manipulated in a predictable fashion. This approach may become useful in human and animal microbiome research helping establish roles of species implicated in a range of diseases; in bioremediation efforts by explaining roles of individual species in biotransformation of pollutants; and drug discovery since bioactive compounds are often produced in a community setting but not in isolation. These cultivation approaches are already used in biotechnology efforts, and are licensed to a biotech startup company. The project will provide opportunities for undergraduate and graduate training in a multidisciplinary setting.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Epstein (1203857, Northeastern, lead) and Nelson (1203831, J. Craig Venter) focuses on the characteristics and mechanisms of microbial growth succession in the High Arctic. Starting in 2013, a field team of 2- 4 (with rotations) will deploy to Thule, Greenland for approximately 60 days each year to collect samples for study at the home institutes. The researchers will collect samples during several sessions, each lasting several weeks, from spring through fall. They will reach sample locations via truck, and process them in the Thule laboratory. In 2013, researchers will make sampling excursions in May, July/August and December, with a trip routed through Ilulissat for reconaissance/sampling during July. Samples—both live and frozen—will be prepared and stored for Air National Guard shipment to Scotia, New York at several points in the season. In 2014, researchers will make sampling excursions May – August and in October. Samples, both live and frozen, will be prepared and stored for both Air National Guard shipment to Scotia, New York as well as via Air Mobility Command (AMC) cargo and as hand carry at several points in the season. The 2015 season will be deferred to 2016. In 2016, field team members will visit Thule on a staggered schedule, with up to four people at a time, from late June to mid-August. Members will travel to and from the station on Embassy and Air Mobility Command flights. Researchers will base from Thule and make day trips via truck to local areas for sampling. They will work with samples in the Thule labs, processing some for shipment to the home institute. Prior to departing, the researchers will ensure all project cargo is packed and ready for retrograde shipment. There will be no field deploment in 2017 but samples continued to be stored in Thule for the projects. Samples may be shipped back to the US by CPS in 2017.

CPS will provide Air National Guard (ANG) coordination for cargo (including samples) NY><Kangerlussuaq, AMC ticketing and cargo Thule><BWI, Embassy travel, lodging at TSAR in Thule with access to Thule infrastructure/services, en-route lodging in Kangerlussuaq as needed, and safety/communications equipment. In 2017 CPS will provide storage for samples and may be shipping samples back to US for the project. All other costs associated with this project will be paid by the PI through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2013Greenland - Ilulissat07 / 18 / 2013 07 / 22 / 20131
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 20 / 2013 08 / 22 / 20131
2013Greenland - Thule05 / 09 / 2013 10 / 04 / 20133
2014Greenland - Thule05 / 29 / 2014 10 / 10 / 20147
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 29 / 2016 07 / 29 / 20163
2016Greenland - Thule06 / 30 / 2016 08 / 10 / 20166
2017Greenland - Thule0
 


Project Title: Belmont Forum Bioeconomic Analysis for Arctic Marine Resource Governance and Policy (Award# 1534055)

PI: Fernandez, Linda M (lmfernandez@vcu.edu)
Phone: 0(804) 828.6917 
Institute/Department: Virginia Commonwealth University, Center for Environmental Studies 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Data Management | Social and Human Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://ces.vcu.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Project: http://www.sdu.dk/en/Om_SDU/Institutter_centre/c_a...

Science Summary:
This award provides support to U.S. researchers participating in a project competitively selected by a 14-country initiative on global change research through the Belmont Forum. The Belmont Forum is a high level group of the world's major and emerging funders of global environmental change research and international science councils. It aims to accelerate delivery of the international environmental research most urgently needed to remove critical barriers to sustainability by aligning and mobilizing international resources. Each partner country provides funding for their researchers within a consortium to alleviate the need for funds to cross international borders. This approach facilitates effective leveraging of national resources to support excellent research on topics of global relevance best tackled through a multinational approach, recognizing that global challenges need global solutions. Working together in this Collaborative Research Action, the partner agencies have provided support for research projects that utilize existing Arctic observing systems, datasets and models to evaluate key sustainability challenges and opportunities in the Arctic region, to innovate new sustainability science theory and approaches to these challenges and opportunities, and support decision-making towards a sustainable Arctic environment. This award provides support for the U.S. researchers to cooperate in consortia that consist of partners from at least three of the participating countries and that bring together natural scientists, social scientists and end users (e.g., policy makers, regulators, NGOs, communities and industry). The efforts of the Bioeconomic Analysis for Arctic Marine Resource Governance and Policy (BAAMRGP) collaborative research team will address the need for integrated, cross-sectoral ecosystem-based ocean management in the Arctic through the valuation and optimization of Arctic marine resources across multiple levels of governance. The approach will consider not only fisheries and subsistence species, but species with indirect or non-use implications, overall biodiversity and productivity, as well as the relationship between the marine ecosystem and humans, including health, commerce, and management. The researchers from the US, Iceland, Russia, Greenland, Canada, Denmark, Norway, and New Zealand will leverage existing data sets and expertise in game theory, bioeconomic valuation and modeling, and fisheries assessment to develop game models in cooperation with a variety of stakeholders, including indigenous peoples of the north. The effort will also consider different scenarios introduced by amendments to existing conventions under the Polar Code. A PhD student will receive training in interdisciplinary science and gain international research experience during the course of this project.

Logistics Summary:
This project will develop, through innovative bio economic analyses and application of game theoretic tools, and integrated marine resource management tools for decision-making designed for the unique Arctic environment. Data will come largely from existing sources. Field work is limited to short trips for interviews and to collect data in Barrow, Alaska; Thule, Greenland; Murmansk, Russia; and Tromso, Norway.

All logistics will be organized by the researcher and paid through this and other grants.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Norway - Tromso1
2015Russia - Murmansk1
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)1
2016Greenland - Thule1
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: The Greenland Firn Aquifer Impacts on Ice Sheet Hydrology: Characterizing Volume, Flow, and Discharge (Award# 1417987)

PI: Forster, Richard (Rick) R (rick.forster@geog.utah.edu)
Phone: 0(801) 581.3611 
Institute/Department: U of Utah, Department of Geography 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://neptune.gsfc.nasa.gov/csb/index.php?section...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
This project will follow up on the serendipitous recent discovery that liquid water is present year-round within the firn layer of the southern Greenland Ice Sheet. This discovery complicates understanding of the relationship of surface melting on the ice sheet to sea level rise by revealing another pathway for meltwater to take. Even the most fundamental questions about the firn aquifer remain unanswered. This project will address three essential research questions: 1. What are the pathways and connections of the firn aquifer with the broader Greenland hydrologic system and what is the aquifer's effect on sea level rise? 2. What is the mass/volume of the liquid water stored in the Greenland firn aquifer? 3. What are the rates and patterns of water flow in the aquifer? These questions will be addressed using standard groundwater sampling techniques, seismic sounding, nuclear magnetic resonance, and ice core measurements. This research will advance knowledge of the Greenland firn aquifer guided by two end member hypotheses that present possible pathways for this stored water to exit the aquifer. 1: The aquifer is connected to a well-developed englacial hydrologic network, including crevasses and moulins, that drain some portion of the aquifer at a relatively constant rate (seasonally) to the bed, similar to surface melt in western Greenland. or 2: The aquifer is primarily storing water in available firn pore space and will not release water until the pore space is completely saturated and/or a threshold is met leading to a release event. It is likely that some proportion of each mechanism is relevant depending upon location on the ice sheet. The field studies along with local and regional modeling studies focused along an elevation gradient of an ice flow line into Helheim Glacier are aimed at determining the relative contribution of each pathway. This knowledge is required to accurately measure and predict the Greenland ice sheet’s present and future contribution to sea level rise. Additionally this research verifies ground hydrology and seismic techniques for measuring englacial water volume and flow providing new multi-disciplinary techniques for future research.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Forster (1417987, U of Utah) and Schmerr (1417993, Univ of Maryland) builds on earlier work funded by NSF grant 1311655. The research will advance knowledge of the Greenland firn aquifer and help further understanding of the Greenland ice sheet’s potential impact on sea level rise. Researchers will analyze information collected using standard groundwater sampling techniques, seismic sounding, nuclear magnetic resonance, ice core measurements, and computer modeling. From 2015 to 2016, researchers will visit the island to work along the southeastern edge of the Greenland Ice Sheet near Kulusuk. Gear will be transported to Kulusuk on LC-130 and then via helicopter from Kulusuk to the ice sheet. Transport on the ice sheet will be via snowmobile. The first field campaign, in April 2015, will involve eight team members in an effort lasting about 25 days. After putting in to their field site and establishing a tent camp, the team will drill four firn cores along an elevation gradient through the firn aquifer. The boreholes will be instrumented with thermistor strings and pressure transducers and left in place to make measurements until spring of 2016. The researchers will also measure water volume with a Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) platform, perform radar monitoring, and obtain seismic imaging of the water table. Later, in July/August, a team of five will return to continue MRS, radar, and seismic sampling. Thermistors will be serviced as needed. The final field campaign will take place in 2016. In late July/early August, four to five field team members will continue radar monitoring and service the thermistor strings as needed. The instruments will stay in place through the summer of 2017, with no particpant travel to Greenland. The instruments will the be removed with the assistance of a colleague that will be in Greenland on a different project (details TBD).

CPS will provide Air National Guard coordination for transport of people and cargo, including dedicated C-130 flights between Kangerlussuaq and Kulusuk; KISS user days; lodging in Kulusuk; helo support out of Kulusuk; fuel; snowmachines; and camp/safety gear. IDDO will provide a drill system and one driller (2015 only). UNAVCO will provide GPS support. IRIS/PASSCAL will provide training and instrumentation. All other logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Greenland - Forster Camp 104 / 10 / 2015 08 / 14 / 20158
2015Greenland - Forster Camp 204 / 06 / 2015 08 / 14 / 20158
2015Greenland - Forster Camp 304 / 15 / 2015 08 / 14 / 20158
2015Greenland - Forster Camp 404 / 18 / 2015 08 / 14 / 20158
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq03 / 27 / 2015 03 / 29 / 20156
2015Greenland - Kulusuk03 / 29 / 2015 08 / 14 / 20158
2016Greenland - Forster Camp 107 / 20 / 2016 08 / 10 / 20166
2016Greenland - Forster Camp 207 / 20 / 2016 08 / 10 / 20166
2016Greenland - Forster Camp 307 / 20 / 2016 08 / 10 / 20166
2016Greenland - Forster Camp 407 / 20 / 2016 08 / 10 / 20166
2016Greenland - Kulusuk07 / 16 / 2016 08 / 14 / 20166
2017Greenland - Forster Camp 10
2017Greenland - Forster Camp 20
2017Greenland - Forster Camp 30
2017Greenland - Forster Camp 40
 


Project Title: Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) (Award# 0424589)

PI: Gogineni, Sivaprasad (gogineni@cresis.ku.edu)
Phone: 0(785) 864-734  
Institute/Department: U of Kansas, CReSIS 
IPY Project? YES
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ANT\AG
Program Manager: Dr. Henrietta Edmonds (hedmonds@nsf.gov )


Project Web Site(s):

Science Summary:


Logistics Summary:


CPS will provide ANG coordination for people and cargo as fits the field schedule, KISS user days, warehouse staging space, truck and trailer rentals, fuel, camping/communication/safety equipment, assistance with site familiarization/ set-up, and deployment of an on-site project manager to assist as required. All other logistics will be arranged by the PI and paid for from the grant.



Project Title: Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) (Award# 0424589)

PI: Gogineni, Sivaprasad (gogineni@cresis.ku.edu)
Phone: 0(785) 864-734  
Institute/Department: U of Kansas, CReSIS 
IPY Project? YES
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ANT\AG
Program Manager: Dr. Julie Palais (jpalais@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Education and Outreach | Legacy Projects |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.cresis.ku.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS), a Science and Technology Center led by the University of Kansas, will conduct and foster multi-disciplinary research that will result in technology and models necessary to achieve a better understanding of the mass balance of the polar ice sheets (e.g., Greenland and Antarctica) and their contributions to sea level rise. CReSIS will also work to inspire and educate the next generation of scientists and engineers and benefits society by increasing diversity in science and engineering and by transferring knowledge to industry, the public, policy makers and the scientific community. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has identified ice sheet mass balance as one of the largest unknown factors in sea-level change, and the range of possible mass balance scenarios developed by IPCC does not account for the rapid changes to ice sheets that have been observed by glaciologists. The problems associated with determining ice sheet mass balance and creating predictive models of ice sheet dynamics are scientifically and technologically complex, and the best way of solving these problems is through a Science and Technology Center focusing the efforts of a sizeable group of scientists and engineers for a significant period of time on this topic of global scale and high societal relevance. Because of the immense size and complexity of these ice sheets, data from satellite and airborne platforms, combined with ground-based, in-situ measurements and observations, are needed to accurately assess their mass balance state. Technological innovations are needed and will be made in three areas, including sensors, platforms, and cyberinfrastructure. New analytical models and algorithms must be developed to interpret the data and improve understanding of glacial dynamics. Scientists and engineers will work closely in the areas of technological innovation, data collection, and data analysis. Five partner institutions and two NASA centers will play critical roles in the new S&T Center. The Byrd Polar Research Center (BPRC) will contribute to development of in-situ observation techniques for characterizing snow, field activities, satellite observations, and modeling. Pennsylvania State University (PSU) will participate in technology development for seismic measurements, field activities, and modeling. The University of Maine (UM) will lead the development and application of numerical ice-sheet models of varying complexity. Major research universities will all be involved in developing and teaching new interdisciplinary courses to support the Center's education mission. The Center of Excellence in Remote Sensing Education and Research (CERSER) at Elizabeth City State University (ECSU, Elizabeth City, NC) will contribute its expertise in analyzing satellite data and generating high-level data products. Haskell Indian Nations University (Haskell, Lawrence, KS) will participate in the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology to perform spatial analyses and data product generation. Both ECSU and Haskell will bring to the Center their extensive experience in mentoring and educating underrepresented students. All partner institutions will be involved in the analysis and interpretation of observational and numerical data sets. CReSIS developed an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) integrated with a dual low-frequency radar sounder to measure ice thickness of fast flowing glaciers. The integrated system was successfully field-tested in Antarctica during the 2013-2014 field seasons. One of the main reasons for developing the radar-equipped UAS is to collect data over closely spaced lines, as close as 5 m, in the cross-track direction to synthesize a 2-D aperture to reduce surface clutter that masks weak bed echoes from the ice-bed interface. The surface of fast-flowing glaciers is very rough and off-vertical signals scattered by the rough ice-surface, referred to as surface clutter, can often mask weak bed echoes. We need a large 2-D aperture to reduce surface clutter both in the along-track and cross-track directions. The primary goals of the field program are to collect data over a rough-surface glacier to demonstrate the scientific utility of radar-equipped UAS for sounding the most challenging glaciers in Greenland, and to test the ultra-wideband radar with large antenna-array of 24 elements being developed as a part of NSF MRI project for operation BT-67 and to demonstrate its scientific utility in sounding and imaging polar ice.

Logistics Summary:
The goal of this multidisciplinary, multi-institutional effort is to characterize the base of Greenland’s ice sheet and the englacial environment in two areas: the region where the supraglacial lakes form and drain to the bed through moulins and the region where Jakobshavn Glacier tributaries come together to form the main ice stream channel. As lead institution, the University of Kansas (KU) will provide overall direction and management. The Ohio State University (Co-PI Kenneth Jezek, institutional lead), Pennsylvania State University (Co-PI Richard Alley, institutional lead), University of Maine (Terence Hughes, institutional lead), Elizabeth City State University (Linda Hayden, institutional lead) and Haskell Indian Nations University (Carol Bowen, institutional lead) are key research partners as well. The research, which is planned for 2007 and onward, involves four basic efforts: airborne and surface-based radar surveys at various scales, seismic surveys, 150-meter ice core samples, and GPS deployments. The researchers plan to work from Ilulissat (for the aerial work) and at two field sites, one near Swiss Camp and another at a glacier tributary near Crawford Point (for the ground-based research). Field work during 2007 will have two foci. For the first, a team of five led by Sridhar Anandakrishnan (Penn State) will conduct ground-based reconnaissance work in May to prepare for a full experiment in 2009, a seismic effort to image the base of the Jakobshavn Glacier. After put in via Twin Otter to a field site on the upper part of the glacier, the team will establish a camp, and, working from that base, spend 3 – 4 weeks conducting a skidoo-based traverse to make measurements using radar, GPS, and explosives. They will return to Kangerlussuaq via Twin Otter at the end of the field effort. The other 2007 effort, led by Ellen Mosley-Thompson (Ohio State), will place researchers in Greenland’s Jakobshavn Drainage Basin in May. There, a team of five will camp for about three weeks near Crawford Point where several 10-meter cores will be collected in conjunction with speedograph profiles for calibration. Detailed pit studies are also planned. Put-in and take-out will be supported via Twin Otter aircraft. During 2008 the CReSIS team will work on two projects: an airborne radar survey aboard an instrumented Twin Otter; and a land-based survey. For the airborne work, a team of 9-10 (6 CReSIS and 3-4 NASA members) will base from Ilulissat to conduct an airborne survey of the Jakobshavn Glacier via Twin Otter. After arriving in Kangerlussuaq via the ANG logistics chain, the team will travel via commercial air to Ilulissat to begin survey work in mid June. They will complete efforts in late July. For the surface work, in late July, three researchers will conduct a surface-based radar survey, using the NEEM deep drilling infrastructure as a base for approximately 3 weeks. In addition, CReSIS researchers in Ilulissat will collaborate with engineers developing information networking infrastructure at both poles called POLARGRID (072305, Geoffrey Fox, Indiana State). Lead PI Gogineni will helm this effort. CReSIS fields two projects again in 2009: Twin Otter-based airborne radar surveys of the Jakobshavn region based from Ilulissat and of the Helheim and Kangerdlussuaq regions based from Kulusuk; and a seismic experiment. A team of six will begin the airborne survey work in late March. Basing from Ilulissat, they will conduct nearly two weeks of survey work before four researchers reposition to Kulusuk in western Greenland and continue the airborne surveys, and two depart Greenland. Survey work in the vicintiy of Helheim and Kangerdlussuaq Glaciers will continue for more than two weeks. The team will then move the CReSIS base to Kangerlussuaq, spending about five days there removing the instruments from the Twin Otter before flying off the island. The seismic work will require two deployments of ~10 days each, one in mid-May and the other in late July / early August. For the May trip, three researchers will select a site about 80 miles from Ilulissat, at approximately 68.72°N, -49.50°W. There, they will place instruments to record seismic activity associated with a draining lake. Four seismic systems will be installed in a cross pattern with legs approximately 5 km long. The team will need about two days to install all the systems, making day trips from Kangerlussuaq. In late July, the three will return to Greenland to remove these systems. For this work, the team will base from Ilulissat and revisit the sites via helicopter day trips from there. 2010 efforts involve two Greenlandic deployments supporting seismic work. The team will base out of Ilulissat for 10 days in May and again for about 1 week in August. For the May trip, three researchers will install ~20 small GPS receivers. The first site will be sited on rock; the remaining will be on the ice. These installations will form a line from the rock to the supraglacial lakes, and then will ring around the lakes. The team will have three days of close support: the helicopter will remain with them while they spend about 30 minutes installing each instrument before moving to the next site. They also will spend about three days working in the field on day trips from Ilulissat; the helicopter will drop them off in the morning and pick them up in the late afternoon. The day trips will allow the team to perform an active seismic experiment to examine the nature of the base of the glacier in the area around the lake. The team will return in August to remove all the GPS receivers. These will be returned to New York via Kangerlussuaq. In 2011, there will be a spring and summer deployment. The team will return to Greenland in March to collect airborne remote sensing observations required to understand and model rapidly changing outlet glaciers in southern Greenland. Four researchers will conduct Twin Otter-based airborne radar surveys based from the Ilulissat, Kulusuk, and Nuuk regions for local-scale radar sounding, internal layer mapping, and imaging of the southern outlet glaciers. This work precedes the ANG Greenland flying season, so three members of the team will fly commercially to Greenland while one flies with the Twin Otter from Calgary, Canada, to Ilulissat in northeastern Greenland. Survey work will be conducted in the Ilulissat region for approximately one week. From Ilulissat, the team researchers will reposition to Kulusuk in western Greenland and continue the airborne surveys for approximately two weeks. The team will then reposition to Nuuk and conduct airborne surveys in the region for approximately one week, before moving with the Twin Otter to Kangerlussuaq. They will spend about five days there removing the instruments from the Twin Otter before flying off the island via commercial aircraft that be arranged by the PI/project and paid from the grant. All arragnements for the Twin Otter will be made by AMD. CReSIS researchers will return to Greenland for a second campaign involving an unattended aerial vehicle in the summer of 2011. For the second phase, CReSIS researchers will return to Greenland in mid July for a ~four week field effort. CReSIS will send eight researchers and two unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs)—the Meridian UAV (including ground station and MCoRDS (Multi-channel Coherent Radar Depth Sounder) ice-penetrating radar system) and the smaller-scale Yak-54 UAV—plus various related tools, test equipment, and supplies, to the NEEM research station in Greenland via the 109th Air National Guard (ANG). Eight researchers and the mission cargo will travel on the ANG 109th from Scotia, NY to Kangerlussuaq and from Kangerlussuaq to NEEM. The UAVs will be used to conduct aerial flight tests and surveys of ice sheets at and around NEEM mid July to mid August. The 8 researchers and mission cargo will then return on the ANG 109th from NEEM to Kangerlussuaq and from Kangerluss

CPS will provide ANG coordination for people and cargo as fits the field schedule, KISS user days, warehouse staging space, truck and trailer rentals, fuel, camping/communication/safety equipment, assistance with site familiarization/ set-up, and deployment of an on-site project manager to assist as required. All other logistics will be arranged by the PI and paid for from the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2007Greenland - Crawford Point05 / 11 / 2007 05 / 24 / 20075
2007Greenland - Jakobshavn Glacier05 / 09 / 2007 06 / 07 / 200711
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 03 / 2007 06 / 12 / 200711
2007Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 09 / 2007 06 / 06 / 20075
2008Greenland - Ilulissat06 / 24 / 2008 08 / 24 / 20085
2008Greenland - Jakobshavn Glacier06 / 24 / 2008 08 / 24 / 20085
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 23 / 2008 08 / 24 / 20088
2008Greenland - NEEM07 / 27 / 2008 08 / 24 / 20084
2009Greenland - Ilulissat03 / 24 / 2009 08 / 02 / 200910
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq03 / 24 / 2009 08 / 06 / 200912
2009Greenland - Kulusuk04 / 07 / 2009 04 / 28 / 20094
2009Greenland - NEEM06 / 05 / 20091
2010Greenland - Ilulissat05 / 11 / 2010 08 / 21 / 20103
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 10 / 2010 08 / 22 / 20103
2011Greenland - Ilulissat03 / 18 / 2011 04 / 01 / 20115
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq03 / 29 / 2011 08 / 12 / 201112
2011Greenland - Kulusuk04 / 01 / 2011 04 / 23 / 20114
2011Greenland - NEEM07 / 17 / 2011 08 / 12 / 20117
2011Greenland - Nuuk04 / 23 / 2011 05 / 02 / 20114
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 04 / 2012 07 / 12 / 20125
2012Greenland - NEEM06 / 07 / 2012 07 / 11 / 20125
2012Greenland - NEGIS06 / 14 / 2012 07 / 10 / 20124
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq03 / 08 / 2016 04 / 25 / 20166
 


Project Title: MRI: Development of a High-power, Large Antenna Array and Ultrawideband Radar for a Basler for Sounding and Imaging of Fast-flowing Glaciers and Mapping Internal Layers (Award# 1229716)

PI: Hale, Richard D (rhale@ku.edu)
Phone: 0(785) 864.2949 
Institute/Department: U of Kansas, CReSIS 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ANT\MRI
Program Manager: Dr. Julie Palais (jpalais@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Glaciology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://data.cresis.ku.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=12...

Science Summary:
This MRI award supports the development of radar instrumentation for fine-resolution measurements on polar ice sheets to enable a wide range of scientific investigations. Specifically, a high-power, ultra- wideband, large-antenna multi-channel coherent radar, and an active target/multistatic receiver (ATMR) will be developed. The ultra-wideband radar will operate over the frequency range of 150-600 MHz with a large cross-track array of 24-36 elements. The large cross-track array is required to sound ice in ice-sheet margins and fast-flowing glaciers with very rough surfaces. Radar sounding of ice in these areas is extremely challenging because of surface clutter - off-vertical backscattered signals produced by the rough ice surface - and this can mask weak echoes from the ice bed. The cross-track array is required to reduce this surface clutter to measure ice thickness and characterize conditions at the ice bed, to include whether or not ice is frozen to the bed or sliding on a film of water. The presence of water lubricates the ice bed and that results in ice moving much faster. The ATMR is used to calibrate radars and measure ice loss to estimate conditions at the bed. Existing models can simulate long-term and large-scale evolution of ice sheets, but they are incapable of simulating and predicting short-term and rapid fluctuations observed with satellite sensors. This is mainly because the physics of the underlying processes causing short-term fluctuations are poorly understood and represented in these models. Also the lack of critical information on boundary conditions at the required resolution has been a serious impediment to developing next-generation ice sheet models for simulating observed changes and predicting future response in a warming climate. Bed topography, estimated from ice thickness and surface elevation measurements, and basal conditions are required to predict the response of polar ice sheets in a warming climate using improved ice-sheet models currently in development. Modeling experiments or simulations will be performed to determine the optimum resolution required to characterize fast flowing glaciers and margins. The instrumentation will be designed to meet these requirements. Additionally, the ultrawideband radar will facilitate the process of selecting optimum site for deep core drilling by enabling fine-resolution imaging of the ice-bed interface and mapping internal layers from the surface to the bed, so the choice of ice core drill sites will be more precisely determined. The intellectual merit of this MRI project is the development and deployment of new ultra-wideband radar technology that will contribute to our understanding of key ice sheet processes in rapidly changing outlet glacier regions, ensure successful site selection for a deep-ice core with a climate record of more than a million years, and enable successful mapping of hydrological networks within and under the ice. The broader impacts of this project involve: application of the developed technology to other geophysical studies, including measurements over sea ice and permafrost and measurements of soil moisture, vegetation, and snow thickness over land; involvement of undergraduate and graduate students; partnerships with industry; and three international collaborations. The project will contribute significantly to the training of next generation of scientists by integrating graduate and undergraduate students with the technology and instrumentation development, field observations, and scientific analysis. Broad international partnerships provide unique opportunities for U.S. faculty, staff and students to participate in truly globalized research. This project also includes an industry partnership with Google Inc., which is providing matching support for an airborne camera system and student training in the use of the camera. Images collected along with the corresponding radar results of ice-bed topography will be made available to the public through Google Earth and Google Maps.

Logistics Summary:
This Major Research Instrumentation Project award supports the development of radar instrumentation for fine-resolution measurements on polar ice sheets to enable a wide range of scientific investigations. Specifically, grantees will develop a high-power, ultra-wide-band, large-antenna multi-channel coherent radar, and an active target/multistatic receiver (ATMR). Researchers will conduct field tests in 2015 and 2016. In 2015, CReSIS will deploy a team of five to fly airborne radar surveys utilizing the AWI (Alfred Wegener Institute) Basler aircraft out of Kangerlussuaq. The team will travel to Kangerlussuaq via C-17 in early September, depart via commercial air, and base at the KISS for this work. In 2016, CReSIS will deploy a team of two to fly airborne radar surveys utilizing the AWI (Alfred Wegener Institute) Basler aircraft out of Kangerlussuaq and two other Greenland communities. The team will travel to Kangerlussuaq via commercial air on or near April 11, then ferry to Ilulissat via AWI aircraft on or near April 22, then ferry to Qaanaaq via commercial air on or near April 25, then depart via commercial air on or near May 3. During their time in Kangerlussuaq, CReSIS personnel will base at the KISS for this work.

CPS will provide ANG coordination for cargo and participants, KISS user days, truck rentals, and communication / safety equipment. All other logistics will be arranged by the PI and paid for from the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq09 / 01 / 2015 09 / 17 / 20155
2016Greenland - Ilulissat04 / 25 / 2016 04 / 27 / 20162
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 11 / 2016 04 / 25 / 20162
2016Greenland - Qaanaaq04 / 27 / 2016 05 / 04 / 20162
 


Project Title: Comparative Island Ecodynamics in the North Atlantic (Award# 1449616)

PI: Hambrecht, George N (ghambrecht@gmail.com)
Phone: 0(646) 641.9053 
Institute/Department: City University of New York, Hunter College, Department of Anthropology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Social and Human Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.nabohome.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
This project seeks to improve scientific understanding of the complex interactions of human governance, climate change, human environmental impact, and world system effects on the diverging fates of two closely related Scandinavian communities in Greenland and Iceland. While the Icelanders survived centuries of adverse climate, volcanic eruptions, large-scale soil erosion, epidemic disease, and harsh world-system economic impacts to develop a modern society now ranking high in international assessments of quality of life, their relatives in Norse Greenland suffered complete extinction by the mid-15th century CE. Why did one northern community achieve sustainability on the millennial scale, while its near neighbor underwent genuine social-environmental system (SES) collapse despite centuries of successful adaptation and what we now recognize as comparatively resilient economic management? How can the lessons of these thousand year cases of long term human ecodynamics and their radically different outcomes be more effectively understood and interpreted for the wider effort to mobilize the past to serve modern efforts to secure a genuinely sustainable future? What lessons of survival and extinction can be learned and taught for both local northern community heritage and for global education for sustainability? These questions are not only relevant to Norse in the 14th -15th centuries but have the potential to inform research that can provide insights into social decisions that are key to the long-term sustainability of human and environmental systems on earth. The project combines the data and expertise of history, human bioarchaeology, zooarchaeology, archaeobotany, geoarchaeology, artifact distribution, stable isotopic analysis, geochronology, environmental modeling, and K-12 and college education professionals. It brings together teams of scientists, educators, and local residents from across the region and create genuinely transdisciplinary and genuinely transformative approaches to shared problems of human survival and sustainable adaptation in the north.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this grant continue archaeological excavations by international researchers begun in Southern Greenland under NSF grant 1202692 (McGovern). The work seeks to improve scientific understanding of the complex interactions of human governance, climate change, human environmental impact, and world system effects on the diverging fates of two closely related Scandinavian communities, one in Greenland (which suffered extinction in the mid-15th century) and one in Iceland (which did not). The Archaeological Institute of Iceland (FSI) and the Danish National Museum will manage field programs in Iceland and Greenland with close cooperation from the Greenland National Museum and Archives (NKA). In the summers of 2015 and 2016, excavations will follow North Atlantic Biocultural Organization (NABO) practices. International fieldwork in Iceland will occur as a series of efforts in inter-related, long-term research areas in north and west Iceland, including: Svalbaro, Siglunes, Hofstaoir, Skutustaoir, Eyjafjord area and Gufuskalar. For the 2016 field work in Greenland, 10 researchers will visit Narsarsuaq, traveling via a combination of commercial air and Air National Guard (ANG). They will establish a tent camp near excavation sites and remain for field work (on a staggered schedule) through August.

CPS support is for travel in Greenland only. In 2015, CPS will provide camping and communications equipment, and the cost of shipping between Kanger and Narsarsuaq. In 2016, CPS will provide ANG coordination for U.S. participants and cargo/samples, KISS user days, commercial airfare and freight in Greenland, and camp support gear from CPS inventory. All other logistics will be organized by the researcher and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 25 / 2015 08 / 22 / 201510
2015Greenland - Narsarsuaq06 / 27 / 2015 08 / 20 / 201510
2015Iceland - Reykjavik07 / 11 / 2015 07 / 30 / 20153
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 26 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20161
2016Greenland - Narsarsuaq06 / 21 / 2016 08 / 30 / 20168
2016Iceland - Reykjavik07 / 11 / 2016 07 / 30 / 20163
 


Project Title: FTS-IR (Infra-Red Fourier Transform Spectrometer) Observations as part of the NDSC (Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change) (Award# NCARFTSIR)

PI: Hannigan, James (jamesw@ucar.edu)
Phone: 0(303) 497.1853 
Institute/Department: National Center for Atmospheric Research, Atmospheric Chemistry Division 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NCAR
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.ndsc.ncep.noaa.gov/

Science Summary:
The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) solar-viewing Infra-Red Fourier Transform spectrometer is deployed at Thule, Greenland as part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). It provides total columns of approximately 20 atmospheric trace gases important to understanding the mechanisms of climate change and Arctic ozone loss. It also can retrieve information on the vertical distribution of a subset of those gases at a moderate vertical resolution. The instrument operates autonomously on a daily basis from late February to late October. The NDACC is a global network of high-quality remote-sounding research stations for observing and understanding the physical and chemical state of the atmosphere and its change through time. Data are also key components to satellite validation efforts and are archived for use by researchers worldwide. The NDACC is a major component of the international upper atmosphere research effort and has been endorsed by national and international scientific agencies, including the International Ozone Commission, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

Logistics Summary:
The NCAR FTS-IR spectrometer is deployed at Thule, Greenland. Site visits are required at least yearly to maintain and upgrade the instruments. CPS assists the project in making AMC travel and hotel arrangements, and occasionally in the provision of liquid nitrogen or use of a truck.

In 2015, CPS will provide Air National Guard (ANG) coordination for cargo NY><Thule, AMC ticketing Thule><BWI, lodging arrangements at North Star Inn (project paid), and CPS vehicle use when available. NSF will recoup the costs of AMC travel via an interagency funds transfer NASA>NSF. All other costs associated with this project will be paid by the PI through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2000Greenland - Thule1
2001Greenland - Thule1
2002Greenland - Thule1
2003Greenland - Thule1
2004Greenland - Thule03 / 04 / 2004 10 / 08 / 20042
2005Greenland - Thule03 / 01 / 2005 05 / 31 / 20051
2006Greenland - Thule03 / 01 / 2006 03 / 10 / 20061
2007Greenland - Thule03 / 01 / 2007 03 / 21 / 20082
2008Greenland - Thule02 / 28 / 2008 08 / 08 / 20081
2009Greenland - Thule03 / 01 / 2009 03 / 07 / 20091
2010Greenland - Thule03 / 11 / 2010 08 / 06 / 20102
2011Greenland - Thule03 / 03 / 2011 04 / 15 / 20112
2012Greenland - Thule02 / 23 / 2012 03 / 02 / 20121
2013Greenland - Thule02 / 28 / 2013 04 / 05 / 20132
2014Greenland - Thule02 / 27 / 2014 10 / 03 / 20142
2015Greenland - Thule04 / 30 / 2015 05 / 15 / 20153
2016Greenland - Thule03 / 03 / 2016 10 / 14 / 20161
2017Greenland - Thule02 / 16 / 2017 09 / 15 / 20172
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: In Situ Borehole Measurements To Partition The Velocity Of The Greenland Ice Sheet Into Ice Deformation And Basal Sliding Components (Award# 1203418)

PI: Harper, Joel T (Joel@mso.umt.edu)
Phone: 0(406) 243.5867 
Institute/Department: U of Montana, Department of Geosciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Sliding of an ice mass along its basal boundary is a fundamental component of motion where bed conditions are wet. Estimates of basal sliding generally result from an inverse analysis of observed surface motion using a model assuming Glen's generalized constitutive law for isotropic ice. Evidence suggests that this law does not adequately represent ice deformation, due to a variety of issues including ice thermal variations, preferred fabric, and chemical impurities in the ice. The PIs will use an innovative experimental design to improve our understanding of the ice deformation and sliding. A grid of 9 boreholes, each approximately 750 m in depth and extending to the bed, will be drilled through the Greenland Ice Sheet and instrumented with more than 675 sensors to observe ice temperature, ice deformation, and basal sliding. Analysis of the resulting data set will yield the full 3D velocity field and full stress and strain rate tensors for a 420x106 m3 block of ice. The results will be used to assess and improve the constitutive law and will provide a data set for testing inversion methodologies. The Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets contain enough water to cause massive inundation of heavily populated coastal regions and associated infrastructure, if they were to degrade significantly through melting or delivery of icebergs to the coastal ocean. Our ability to predict future sea level rise is hampered by an inability to accurately model glacier dynamics that connect these ice sheets to the ocean. This project will provide data sets and consequent insight into processes that will lead to improved models of glacier dynamics.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Harper (1203418, U of MT, Lead) and Humphrey (1203451, U of WY) continues work begun under NSF grant 0909495, and centers on a detailed study of ice deformation in Western Greenland near Pt 660 and Kangerlussuaq. Researchers will drill and instrument a grid of 9 boreholes, each ~750 m and extending to the bed. Sensors will be installed in the boreholes for measuring ice temperature, deformation and basal sliding, and will make other supporting measurements such as surface velocity and basal water pressure. From 2014 through 2017, a field team of ~8 will spend time each summer on the ice sheet east of Kangerlussuaq. In July 2014, a team of five will travel by commercial air to Kangerlussuaq to prepare for the field work. Activities will include staging fuel, camp supplies, and science equipment/gear at Point 660 near the edge of the ice sheet. When all cargo is positioned and the remainder of the team arrives via ANG in Kanger and positions at Point 660, a helicopter ferried from Nuuk will shuttle all researchers and the camp to the field site. Drilling and instrument installation will continue until early August, when the team will be taken out via helicopter. After storing project gear in Kangerlussuaq, they will depart Greenland via commercial air. In late September, four team members will return to Greenland via commercial air from Copenhagen. They will fly by helicopter to their field study site, GL-14-S1 and spend 5-6 hours downloading data and reconfiguring instruments for over-winter operations. When this work is completed, the researchers will depart, again via commercial air. 2015 features plans for three deployments. In late April, four team members will return to Greenland via commercial air from Copenhagen. They will fly by helicopter to their field study site, GL-14-S1, and spend 5-6 hours downloading data and checking their instruments prior to summer season. When this work is completed, the researchers will depart via commercial air. At the end of June, five researchers will travel via the 109th Air Guard, and three will fly on a commercial flight, to Kangerlussuaq to prepare for their upcoming field work. When all cargo is positioned at Pt 660, the team of eight will also camp there prior to the arrival of a Bell 212 helicopter ferried from Ilulissat, which will shuttle all researchers and the camp gear to the field site. Drilling and instrument installation will continue until the end of July, when the team will be taken out via helicopter to Pt 660, and shuttled back to Kangerlussuaq again. After completing shipping preparations and storing project gear in Kangerlussuaq, the researchers will depart Greenland via the 109th Air Guard. Finally, in late September, four researchers will return to Greenland via commercial air from Copenhagen. They will fly by helicopter to their field study site and spend 5-6 hours downloading data and reconfiguring instruments for over-winter operations. When this work is completed, the researchers will depart, again via commercial air. In 2016 the team will make two deployments. In late April, four team members will travel to Greenland via an ANG 109th Air Guard flight. They will fly by Sikorsky helicopter to their field study site, GL-14-S1, and spend 5-6 hours downloading data and checking their instruments to ensure readiness for the summer melt season. When this work is completed, the researchers will depart via commercial air. In mid-August, a team of six will assemble in Kangerlussuaq, five travelling via the 109th, and one travelling via commercial air. The researchers will spend a day or so in Kangerlussuaq, using the NSF-leased warehouse spaces to prepare for their field work. They will put in to their field site by helicopter and will depart Greenland the same way that they arrived. Under NSF Supplement #1660567, six researchers will return to the GL-14-S1 field site in 2017 for their final year of field work traveling via Commercial Air and Air National Guard. An NPR reporter will join the team in the field, traveling via Commercial Air. The team will remove all of the instruments, including the UNAVCO equipment, at the end of the visit.

In 2014-2016, CPS will provide Air National Guard (ANG) coordination for passengers and cargo between NY and Kangerlussuaq, KISS user days, rental truck (HiLux), helicopter charters, access to warehouse space, over-winter container storage, fuel, camp gear and equipment allocations, communication & safety gear. UNAVCO will provide GPS equipment. All other logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant. In 2017, CPS will provide Air National Guard coordination for passengers and cargo between NY and Kangerlussuaq, assistance with obtaining the gate key (for access to Pt. 660), camp gear and equipment allocations, assistance with lodging and truck rentals, and safety/comms gear. UNAVCO will provide GPS equipment. All other logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant to include commercial air travel to and from Greenland, helicopter support, truck rental, lodging and meals.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - GL-14-S107 / 05 / 2014 08 / 06 / 20148
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 05 / 2014 09 / 26 / 20148
2014Greenland - Point 66007 / 05 / 2014 08 / 06 / 20148
2015Greenland - GL-14-S104 / 22 / 2015 07 / 23 / 20158
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 21 / 2015 07 / 27 / 20158
2015Greenland - Point 66007 / 01 / 2015 07 / 24 / 20158
2016Greenland - GL-14-S104 / 20 / 2016 08 / 17 / 20166
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 19 / 2016 08 / 20 / 20166
2016Greenland - Point 66004 / 21 / 2016 08 / 18 / 20166
2017Greenland - GL-14-S107 / 21 / 2017 07 / 25 / 20177
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 18 / 2017 07 / 28 / 20177
 


Project Title: Atmospheric Hydrocarbons at GEOSummit, Greenland, as Tracers for Climate Change, Air Pollution Transport, and Oxidation Chemistry in the Arctic (Award# 1108391)

PI: Helmig, Detlev (detlev.helmig@colorado.edu)
Phone: 0(303) 492.2509 
Institute/Department: U of Colorado, Boulder, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
The PI will collect four years of continuous measurements of atmospheric methane, and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC: ethane, ethyne, propane, iso-butane, n-butane, iso-pentane, n-pentane, benzene, toluene) at the Greenland Environmental Observatory at Summit (GEOSummit). The project utilizes an existing monitoring system that has previously been operated at Summit . This gas chromatography instrument is specifically tailored towards operation at this remote arctic site as it is fully automated and remotely controllable. A second analytical channel will be added to include monitoring of the important climate gas methane with the same instrument. This project will deliver four years of continuous atmospheric concentration data of methane, with approximately two-hour time resolution, and nine C2-C7 NMHC at low parts per trillion sensitivity at Summit. These data will expand upon the previous 2008-2010 NMHC measurements from Summit, and will provide an overall eight year record for these gases (with a two year gap). These measurements will complement the NMHC monitoring within the NOAA-INSTAAR global flask sampling program, which has provided bi-weekly NMHC data for five arctic sites for the past seven years. The much higher resolution in-situ data from this study will add value to the interpretation of the NMHC flask records. By applying chemical transport modeling, the in-situ data will allow researchers to decipher air pollution transport into the Arctic and contributions from different emission source region contributions at lower latitudes. The methane and NMHC monitoring will make a pivotal contribution to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) program, as it will provide the only high time resolution in-situ NMHC site in the Arctic.

Logistics Summary:
This study contributes to the Arctic Observing Network (AON) and entails continuous monitoring of atmospheric methane and non-methane (C2-C7) hydrocarbons at Summit Station, Greenland. An existing monitoring system that was operated at Summit Station for two seasons from 2008 through 2010 and then moved to Toolik Field Station (both under NSF grant #0713943), returned to Greenland in the spring of 2012. The instrumentation operates year-round, with remote monitoring by the PI and in-situ attendance by CPS science technical staff. During 2012, a team of two researchers spent a week at the station in April to install the monitoring system, and one researcher returned to Summit for maintenance activities prior to station close-out in August 2012. Similarly, for the 2013 field season the research team made two trips to Summit Station, April and August During 2014, one researcher traveled to Summit Station in February with the CPS staff turnover crew to support critical instrument maintenance (routing commercially through Iceland and utilizing the already scheduled Twin Otter charter flights to / from Summit Station). During the main summer research season, participants from the research team will travel to Summit in mid-May, and again in mid-August, for additional instrument maintenance activities. Travel to / from Summit will be via the Air National Guard logistics chain through Scotia, NY, and Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. During 2015 and 2016, one researcher will again travel to Summit Station in April/May to perform instrument maintenance activities. A subsequent trip in August will accomplish the same purpose. The instrumentation will run continuously into 2017 (via an NSF no-cost extension), At that time the system will be shut down if the PI cannot independently provide funds to sustain support through the winter months. The NSF has agreed to allow the system to remain until summer 2018 to provide the PI an opportunity to secure additional funding. A site visit by one project personnel is planned for August to perform maintenance and oversee winterization of the system. In addition, a VOC audit has been approved by the NSF to take place during August and will require one additional personnel to travel with compressed air standards for approximately 5 days at Summit. The science team will lead the effort to remediate a cylinder of nitric oxide (NO) remaining from a prior grant year.

CPS will provide ANG support for passengers and cargo, compressed hydrogen and cylinder rental, user days at the KISS facility in Kangerlussuaq, user days and access to Summit Station infrastructure, rack space in TAWO, use of the existing TAWO tower, and science technical support through August 2017. The PI will arrange and pay for all other costs through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 20 / 2012 08 / 22 / 20122
2012Greenland - Summit04 / 23 / 2012 08 / 20 / 20122
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 19 / 2013 08 / 21 / 20132
2013Greenland - Summit04 / 24 / 2013 08 / 18 / 20132
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 12 / 2014 08 / 22 / 20141
2014Greenland - Summit02 / 20 / 2014 08 / 21 / 20141
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 24 / 2015 08 / 22 / 20152
2015Greenland - Summit04 / 28 / 2015 08 / 20 / 20152
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 25 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20162
2016Greenland - Summit04 / 26 / 2016 08 / 17 / 20162
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 17 / 2017 08 / 28 / 20172
2017Greenland - Summit08 / 18 / 2017 08 / 26 / 20172
 


Project Title: IRES: Research Training in Climate Change Microbiology in Greenland and Denmark (Award# 1460152)

PI: Holben, William E (bill.holben@mso.umt.edu)
Phone: 0(406) 243.6163 
Institute/Department: U of Montana, Division of Biological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\IRES
Program Manager: Dr. Mangala Sharma (msharma@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology\Microbial Ecology | Biology\Microbiology | Education and Outreach |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://hs.umt.edu/oreos/student-opportunities.php
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
Over a three-year period, this International Research Experience for Students (IRES) program will engage two U.S. undergraduate and two U.S. graduate students annually, for a total of twelve participants, at research sites in Greenland and Denmark to study Arctic microbiology and biogeochemistry under multiple climate change scenarios. Following required training and research preparation at the University of Montana, students travel to Copenhagen for orientation and introduction to international mentors before they depart for three weeks of field work in Greenland. Throughout, students are co-mentored by William Holben, the U.S. principal investigator (PI), and a team of experts associated with the Greenlandic Center for Permafrost Studies (CENPERM), a center that is administered by the University of Copenhagen and the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. Each student's research training will include experience with planning and implementing field strategies for permafrost, ice sheet, and hot spring and glacier sampling in a way that promotes student ownership of individual projects, while facilitating the integration of multiple data sets obtained throughout the duration of this IRES activity. Results are expected to contribute to what is known about thawing permafrost and accelerated microbial decomposition of large amounts of organic matter stored in Arctic ecosystems. Following each season of fieldwork and sample processing in Greenland, participants return to Copenhagen to prepare collected samples for metagenomic DNA and mRNA sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. These will be studied for patterns of microbial community change that reflect differing and changing environmental parameters. Upon returning to Montana students will continue the computational and bioinformatic aspects of their studies. Results should provide new insights into microbial community structure and activities on sheet ice and glaciers, as well as microbial biogeochemical cycling contributions to greenhouse gas emissions from permafrost soils. Over the course of this IRES program, the U.S. and CENPERM partners expect to deepen their collaboration through international teamwork, research training, and cultural interaction, as they mentor and engage a cadre of diverse students, including Native Americans, to become the next generation of climate change experts. For broader impact, all participating U.S. students will benefit from early career experience with the kind of long-term relationship, professional network and research collaboration that is increasingly necessary to address complex global ecological issues.

Logistics Summary:
This NSF funded International Research Experiences for Students (IRES) project seeks to create an IRES program to provide University of Montana undergraduate and graduate students with an international research and educational experience in the microbial ecology of climate change in an interdisciplinary research and learning environment in Greenland and Denmark. The PI is collaborating with the University of Aarhus, Roskilde Campus to mentor the students. In mid-July 2016, 2017 and 2018 a field team of four will deploy to Zackenberg Station, Greenland for approximately 2 weeks for sample collection in support of the research activities. Following sample collection in Greenland, the students will spend some time at Aarhus University further analyzing those samples with the tools of molecular microbial ecology with foreign mentors in the Department of Environmental Science.

In 2017 and 2018 CPS support is limited to the inclusion of their field team on the GoG SAR report only. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Zackenberg07 / 26 / 2016 08 / 10 / 20164
2017Greenland - Zackenberg07 / 18 / 2017 08 / 02 / 20174
2018Greenland - Zackenberg07 / 18 / 2018 08 / 02 / 20184
 


Project Title: Seal-Tag Hydrographic Observations in Ice-Ocean Fjords, Greenland (Award# 1304137)

PI: Holland, David M (dmh4@nyu.edu)
Phone: 0(212) 998.3245 
Institute/Department: New York University,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=13...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The overarching objective of this project is to implement cost-efficient, year-round, long-term subsurface oceanographic observations along the periphery of the Greenland Ice Sheet, as it is widely believed that the warming of such waters plays a critical role in the rapid retreat of outlet glaciers. Such oceanographic data, combined with appropriate glaciological observations, and assimilated into a fully coupled climate model ultimately offers a pathway to producing credible, robust projections of global sea-level change due to ice sheet mass loss at the periphery, arguably the most relevant location for future, major change. In this project, researchers will plan a marine-mammal sensor-tagging approach that will allow for such sustained observations. This grant is motivated by a successful pilot project involving ringed seals in two Greenland fjords this past summer. The pilot proved the viability of the technique, which makes use of ringed seals who spend the majority of their time in such fjords and who may be appropriately equipped with integrated, location-tracking, CTD, and satellite communication instrumentation. The observations begun in the pilot and which researchers seek to fully implement through this grant will be archived in national data bases, on the project's website, and made widely available to others in near real-time. This project will include observations of ocean temperatures and salinities along the periphery of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Researchers plan to use ringed seals as the primary data collector, a species which has been established to remain close to the fjord area, and that will provide a relatively coherent spatial and temporal view of our study areas, year round. The seals moult annually so the tags are to be renewed each year, thereby leading to sustained observations. This approach, and associated logistical operations, could eventually be expanded by others to all major outlet fjords in Greenland. For this project, the focus is only on the Ilulissat and Sermilik ice-ocean fjords because of both the rapid change they have experienced and the logistical advantage of having towns located nearby.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this five year project will conduct hydrographic research involving tagging seals with integrated, location-tracking, CTD, and satellite communication instrumentation in two locations in Greenland: the Jakobshavn and Sermilik Fjords. Work began in 2014. A field team of three to six will travel each summer from Ilulissat and Tasiilaq to the field locations via helicopter. Local Greenlandic hunters will undertake the actual capture and release of the seals, and will protect the well-being of the animals. In 2014, a team of three will fly commercially to Ilulissat in early June. Researchers will visit the main Jakobshavn seal colony, travelling there and back via helicopter. In addition to working with locals to capture, tag, and study the seals, the team will collect CTD measurements from a boat; they will compare the boat-supported data with that which they get from the instrumented seals. They will depart Greenland via commercial air. In August, the field team will return via commercial air and continue the work in Tasiilaq, tent camping for one week near the seals. Researchers will return to Ilulissat in late spring/early summer of each year to continue work at the Holland JAV site. At the end of July /August, the team will return and continue work based out of Tasiilaq at the Holland AGM site. In 2016, a team of seven will fly commercially from Iceland to Ilulissat in June and will visit the main Jakobshavn seal colony, travelling there and back via helicopter. In addition to working with locals to capture, tag, and study the seals, the team will collect CTD measurements from a boat; they will compare the boat-supported data with that which they get from the instrumented seals. They will also install radomes on a rock outcrop next to the glacier calving front in order to record glacier motion continuously. This data will be integrated with the ocean temperature data from the tagged seals to better explain how ocean temperatures affect glacier motion. The team will depart Greenland on 24 June via commercial air. In August, a field team of six will return via commercial air and continue the same work in Tasiilaq, positioning GPS on Helheim Glacier to measure glacier speed response to ocean temperature changes, as detected by the seals. In 2017 a team of six will fly commercially from Iceland to Tasiilaq. Researchers will visit the main Helheim seal colony, traveling there and back via helicopter. In addition to working with locals to capture, tag, and study the seals, the team will collect CTD measurements from a boat; they will compare the boat-supported data with data from the instrumented seals. They will also install radomes on a rock outcrop next to the glacier calving front in order to record glacier motion continuously. This data will be integrated with the ocean temperature data from the seal tags to better explain how ocean temperatures affect glacier motion. The team will depart Tasiilaq via commercial air. Mid-August, the field team of six will return via commercial air and continue the same work in Ilulissat, positioning GPS on Jakobshavn Glacier to measure glacier speed response to ocean temperature changes, as detected by the seals. In addition to the research team, four people working with NOVA PBS will travel to the glacier via helicopter (NYU supported).

CPS will provide ANG airlift for cargo, commercial freight and storage in Greenland, helicopter charters in both Ilulissat and Tasiilaq, Iridium devices for data transfer and field communications, camping equipment (including tents, sleeping bags for the NOVA team in 2017 only) and safety gear. In 2016, UNAVCO will provide two radomes for the Helheim Glacier study while PASSCAL will provide equipment for seismic studies at the Ilulissat and Tasiilaq sites. All other logistics, including travel for the NOVA team in 2017, will be arranged and paid for by the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - Holland AGM08 / 05 / 2014 08 / 05 / 20143
2014Greenland - Holland JAV06 / 09 / 2014 06 / 09 / 20143
2014Greenland - Ilulissat06 / 07 / 2014 06 / 27 / 20143
2014Greenland - Tasiilaq08 / 04 / 2014 08 / 25 / 20145
2015Greenland - Holland AGM07 / 30 / 2015 07 / 31 / 20152
2015Greenland - Holland JAV06 / 01 / 2015 06 / 03 / 20153
2015Greenland - Ilulissat05 / 29 / 2015 06 / 20 / 20155
2015Greenland - Tasiilaq07 / 29 / 2015 08 / 17 / 20155
2016Greenland - Holland AGM07 / 30 / 2016 07 / 30 / 20166
2016Greenland - Holland JAV06 / 04 / 2016 06 / 04 / 20167
2016Greenland - Ilulissat06 / 01 / 2016 06 / 24 / 20167
2016Greenland - Tasiilaq07 / 27 / 2016 08 / 24 / 20166
2017Greenland - Holland AGM07 / 31 / 2017 08 / 05 / 20175
2017Greenland - Holland JAV08 / 20 / 2017 08 / 24 / 20179
2017Greenland - Ilulissat08 / 17 / 2017 09 / 02 / 20179
2017Greenland - Tasiilaq07 / 29 / 2017 08 / 15 / 20175
2018Greenland - Holland AGM08 / 05 / 2018 08 / 05 / 20183
2018Greenland - Holland JAV06 / 09 / 2018 06 / 09 / 20183
2018Greenland - Ilulissat06 / 07 / 2018 06 / 27 / 20186
2018Greenland - Tasiilaq08 / 04 / 2018 08 / 25 / 20186
 


Project Title: Arctic Observing Networks: Collaborative Research: ITEX AON - understanding the relationships between vegetation change, plant phenology, and ecosystem function in a warming Arctic (Award# 1504224)

PI: Hollister, Robert D (hollistr@gvsu.edu)
Phone: 0(616) 331.8582 
Institute/Department: Grand Valley State University, Biology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Ecology |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://faculty.fiu.edu/~oberbaue/AON-ITEX.html
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The goal of this program is to document and understand arctic terrestrial change by maintaining and extracting value from the temporally-critical datasets of the International Tundra Experiment Arctic Observatory Network (ITEX-AON), which has been active in Alaska and Greenland since 2007. ITEX was chartered in 1990 to quantify the effects of inter-annual environmental variability and increased temperature on tundra plant phenology, growth, species composition and ecosystem function using sustained experimental techniques and background monitoring. The ITEX network has provided exceptional value by detecting changes in tundra plant and ecosystem responses to experimental warming and to background change across sites that span the major ecosystems of the Arctic. Unlike most monitoring programs that focus primarily on documenting change and rely on correlation to determine causal factors, ITEX can attribute cause for observed change because of the imbedded experimental approach, which is especially critical as the Arctic System is changing rapidly and in complex ways. This project will provide urgently needed data critical to understanding the impact of multi-scale vegetation change on ecosystem function, namely land-atmosphere carbon and water fluxes and energy balance. Observed changes in the Arctic over the past half century include substantial vegetation change and greening, permafrost warming, and surface hydrological change. Building on the US ITEX program started in 1994, the ITEX-AON (since 2007) has continued and expanded on a wide latitudinal transect consisting of five sites in Alaska and Greenland, collecting core ITEX data with methods designed to address specific needs outlined in the 2003 Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) Implementation Report. Core datasets include manual observations of phenology, vegetation structure and composition, and ecosystem function (carbon flux & nutrient cycling) on long-term ITEX control and experimental warming plots, repeat measurement of vegetation plots on the 1 km2 ARCSS grids, and a multifactor warming/moisture experiment in Greenland. In 2009, the ITEX-AON sampling scheme was expanded to include a larger spatial component to amplify the utility of the measurements collected. This included the addition of phenocams, automated mobile sensor platforms and medium-scale aerial imagery. The automated platforms measure a suite of vegetation surface properties with minimal effort across focal transects spanning strong moisture and microtopographic gradients at a near-daily frequency. These measurements capture the fine-scale changes in vegetation over the growing season that are missed by lower frequency manual measurements and provide a bridge between manual measurements and aerial imagery. Medium-scale aerial imagery, using Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), is acquired throughout the growing season for scaling of manual and automated measurements; satellite imagery is referenced to medium-scale aerial imagery to aid scaling of responses to the regional level. In this phase, collection of core data sets will continue with some streamlining to allow for collection of new data sets aimed at reinforcing the proven value of the program and its utility to adapt to and support future research needs.

Logistics Summary:
The goal of this collaboration between Oberbauer (1504381, FIU, LEAD), Hollister (1504224, GVSU), Welker (1504141, UAA) and Tweedie (1504345, UTEP) is to document and understand arctic terrestrial change by maintaining and extracting value from the temporally-critical data sets of the International Tundra eXperiment Arctic Observatory Network (ITEX-AON), which has been active in Alaska and Greenland since 2007. This project is a continuation of the expired Oberbauer 1432982 ITEX project, and with this new phase of the project collection of core dat sets will continue with some streamlining to allow for collection of new data sets aimed and reinforcing the proven value of the program and its utility to adapt to and support future research needs. Logistic details under 1504381.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Atqasuk0
2016Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2016Greenland - Thule0
2017Alaska - Atqasuk0
2017Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2017Greenland - Thule0
2018Alaska - Atqasuk0
2018Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2018Greenland - Thule0
 


Project Title: Towards an Operational System for Estimating Greenland Ice Sheet Thickness Change from Altimetry (Award# NNX14AH90G)

PI: Howat, Ian M (ihowat@gmail.com)
Phone: 0(614) 292.6641 
Institute/Department: Ohio State University, Byrd Polar Research Center 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Thomas Wagner (thomas.wagner@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):

Science Summary:
NASA and other agencies are invested in obtaining measurements of Greenland Ice Sheet surface elevation with the objective of constraining the ice sheet’s contribution to present and future sea level rise. Air and space-based altimetry provides the only direct means for observing changes in ice thickness at high spatial resolution. A major limitation of repeat altimetry measurements, however, is that variations in the density of surface accumulation and the firn layer must be constrained in order to extract ice thickness and mass change. As thinning initiated at the margin of the ice sheet propagates inland this limitation is becoming more problematic for two reasons: first, as thinning propagates and diffuses, the rate of thinning decreases relative to variations in accumulation and compaction, becoming more difficult to observe. Second, substantial thinning is now occurring in the wet snow and percolation zones of the ice sheet where variations in density are particularly unconstrained and models perform poorly. Additionally, recent warming and historically extreme melt events may be substantially changing the density of the firn, effecting altimeter measurements. Researchers on this project aim to develop and test deploy in situ sensor packages that will aid the deconvolution of surface change observations. Each sensor package will consist of a device for measuring deep-firn compaction, a snow pillow for measuring accumulation mass, and an echo sounder for measuring accumulation thickness. The sensors will broadcast their data daily via iridium uplink and will be designed to withstand at least 2 years of accumulation, depending on location, reducing the revisit time. The sensor data will be used to calibrate meteorological reanalysis model output that will drive a surface accumulation and firn compaction model. The goal of this project will be to provide a foundation for a more extensive operational system in concert with the launch of ICESat-2 planned for 2018.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers involved in this project will perform ice thickness studies in Greenland. They will develop and test deploy an instrument suite as in situ sensor packages that will aid the deconvolution of surface change observations. Each sensor package will consist of a device for measuring deep-firn compaction, a snow pillow for measuring accumulation mass, and an echo sounder for measuring accumulation thickness. The sensor data will be used to calibrate meteorological reanalysis model output that will drive a surface accumulation and firn compaction model. In 2015 and 2016, a field team of 4 will conduct a test phase, deploying three sensors above Jakobshavn Isbrae via Twin Otters based out of Ilulissat. In 2016, two researchers will travel from Ilulissat to Summit for a half day's work making measurements of snow/firn density and grain size utilizing a microwave radiometer. They will travel via Twin Otter and return to Ilulissat on the same day. Additionally, the project will ship a snow water equivalency (SWE) instrument to Summit to be installed by CPS technicians near the 50-meter tower to run for an initial one year test period. In 2017 one team member will travel to Greenland via the Air National Guard for one day of field work, basing out of Kangerlussuaq. The team member will visit three established sites (CRAGS lower, mid, upper) on the Jakobshavn Glacier. Snow-Water equivalent measurements will continue to be taken at Summit Station. Researchers may return in 2018, details are TBD.

Via an interagency funds transfer NASA>NSF, CPS will provide Air National Guard coordination for cargo, KISS user days in Kangerlussuaq, Twin Otter support, comms/safety gear, technician/CPS support for maintenance of the SWE instrument, and space and power for the data acquisition/transmission system in the Mobile Science Facility . All other logistics and support will be paid by the PI.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Greenland - CRAGS 1 Howat04 / 28 / 2015 04 / 28 / 20153
2015Greenland - Ilulissat04 / 25 / 2015 05 / 02 / 20153
2015Greenland - J1 Howat04 / 26 / 2015 04 / 26 / 20152
2015Greenland - J1S Howat04 / 27 / 2015 04 / 27 / 20153
2015Greenland - J3 Howat04 / 29 / 2015 04 / 29 / 20153
2015Greenland - J4 Howat04 / 30 / 2015 04 / 30 / 20153
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 24 / 2015 05 / 05 / 20153
2016Greenland - Ilulissat04 / 26 / 2016 05 / 03 / 20164
2016Greenland - J1 Howat04 / 27 / 2016 04 / 27 / 20164
2016Greenland - J1S Howat04 / 30 / 2016 04 / 30 / 20164
2016Greenland - J3 Howat04 / 28 / 2016 04 / 28 / 20164
2016Greenland - J4 Howat04 / 29 / 2016 04 / 29 / 20164
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 25 / 2016 05 / 05 / 20164
2016Greenland - Summit05 / 01 / 2015 05 / 01 / 20164
2017Greenland - CRAGSL05 / 02 / 2017 05 / 02 / 20171
2017Greenland - CRAGSM05 / 02 / 2017 05 / 02 / 20171
2017Greenland - CRAGSU05 / 02 / 2017 05 / 02 / 20171
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 01 / 2017 05 / 05 / 20171
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: In Situ Borehole Measurements To Partition The Velocity Of The Greenland Ice Sheet Into Ice Deformation And Basal Sliding Components (Award# 1203451)

PI: Humphrey, Neil F (neil@uwyo.edu)
Phone: 0(307) 766.2728 
Institute/Department: U of Wyoming, Department of Geology and Geophysics 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Sliding of an ice mass along its basal boundary is a fundamental component of motion where bed conditions are wet. Estimates of basal sliding generally result from an inverse analysis of observed surface motion using a model assuming Glen's generalized constitutive law for isotropic ice. Evidence suggests that this law does not adequately represent ice deformation, due to a variety of issues including ice thermal variations, preferred fabric, and chemical impurities in the ice. The PIs will use an innovative experimental design to improve our understanding of the ice deformation and sliding. A grid of 9 boreholes, each approximately 750 m in depth and extending to the bed, will be drilled through the Greenland Ice Sheet and instrumented with more than 675 sensors to observe ice temperature, ice deformation, and basal sliding. Analysis of the resulting data set will yield the full 3D velocity field and full stress and strain rate tensors for a 420x106 m3 block of ice. The results will be used to assess and improve the constitutive law and will provide a data set for testing inversion methodologies. The Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets contain enough water to cause massive inundation of heavily populated coastal regions and associated infrastructure, if they were to degrade significantly through melting or delivery of icebergs to the coastal ocean. Our ability to predict future sea level rise is hampered by an inability to accurately model glacier dynamics that connect these ice sheets to the ocean. This project will provide data sets and consequent insight into processes that will lead to improved models of glacier dynamics.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Harper (1203418, U of MT, Lead) and Humphrey (1203451, U of WY) is an continuation of work begun under NSF grant 0909495 and will conduct a detailed study of ice deformation in Western Greenland. Researchers will drill and instrument a grid of 9 boreholes, each ~750 m and extending to the bed. Sensors will be installed in the boreholes for measuring ice temperature and ice deformation and basal sliding, and will make other supporting measurements such as surface velocity and basal water pressure. See 1203418 for logistic details.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - GL-14-S10
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2014Greenland - Point 6600
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2015Greenland - Point 6600
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2016Greenland - Point 6600
2017Greenland - GL-14-S10
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Point 6600
 


Project Title: Dissertation Research: The influence of plant-plant interactions on pollination and plant reproduction near poleward range margins (Award# 1601526)

PI: Irwin, Rebecca E (rebecca.e.irwin@dartmouth.edu)
Phone: 0(603) 646.3688 
Institute/Department: Dartmouth College, Department of Biological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\BIO\DEB
Program Manager: Dr. George Malanson (gmalanso@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://knb.ecoinformatics.org/

Science Summary:
Climate change may alleviate stressful environmental conditions, such as cold temperatures and a shorter growing season, that directly hinder flowering plants in northern regions. In addition, climate change may alter interactions between plants and other organisms. Will competition with neighbors affect whether plants respond to increasing temperatures? Observations and experiments on shrubs and pollinators at different distances from a glacier will answer this question. The scientific workforce will be strengthened through support for the education and training of a doctoral student and participation of undergraduates. Science communication will be enhanced through citizen scientist participation and outreach to middle-school and high-school students. The stress-gradient hypothesis, which posits that plant-plant interactions transition from being competitive to facilitative with increasing stress, will be extended to include pollinator networks. The low-shrub tundra of Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, which is near the poleward range edge of many plants, including our focal species, Vaccinium uliginosum (Ericaceae) encompasses a gradient of 3 degrees C, which mirrors the expected temperature increase in West Greenland over the next 70 years. Using a vegetation removal experiment, how co-occurring plants affect the reproduction of Vaccinium will be determined. Plant traits associated with pollinator attraction and pollinator visitation will be observed, and pollen supplementation treatments will assess pollen limitation. Fruit set and seed production will be measured to assess pollinator-mediated mechanisms in the stress gradient hypothesis. The outcome will improve understanding of the processes of increasing shrub cover in Arctic tundra.

Logistics Summary:
This dissertation research will explore how climate-driven changes in plant-plant interactions may influence plant reproduction near the poleward range This grant supports dissertation research. The co-PI (a PhD student) will explore how climate-driven changes in plant to plant interactions may influence plant reproduction near the northern edge of their range by altering local physical and chemical conditions and pollination mutualisms (i.e., pollination interactions that benefit both species.). The grant supports one year of field work in Greenland in 2016. A research team of two will visit Kangerlussuaq, Greenland to conduct studies in the low-shrub tundra of Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, which is near the poleward range edge of many plants, including a focal species, Vaccinium uliginosum (Ericaceae). The Co-PI will arrive in late May by commercial air and base from the KISS. Initially, she will set up experiments around Kangerlussuaq proper and make a day trip to collect plant and other samples in the study area, which encompasses a high-stress zone adjacent to the Greenland Ice Sheet, and a low-stress zone 40 km from the ice sheet. In June, the second researcher will arrive in Kangerlussuaq via ANG, and the pair will transition to spending most of its time tent-camping in the study area. They will overnight in Kangerlussuaq for resupply and laboratory work in the KISS, where they also will lodge. The researchers will depart Greenland in August via commercial air. Starting in late June, PolarTREC teacher, Anne Schoeffler (1525880AS) will join this team for about three weeks in the field.

CPS will provide ANG coordination for pax/cargo between NY and Kanger; a rental truck; camping, communications, and safety equipment from inventory; and will assist in reserving lab/freezer space at KISS. All other items, including any commercial travel, KISS lodging, and food, will be arranged by the PI and paid for from the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 23 / 2016 08 / 04 / 20163
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Ice sheet sensitivity in a changing Arctic system - using Geologic data and modeling to test the stable Greenland Ice Sheet hypothesis (Award# 1504457)

PI: Johnson, Jesse V (jesse.v.johnson@gmail.com)
Phone: 0(406) 243-2356 
Institute/Department: U of Montana, Department of Computer Science 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
There is enough water in the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) that, were it to melt, it would raise sea level in most coastal cities significantly with huge consequences for society. In the face of accelerated ice sheet contribution to sea level rise, it remains uncertain how the GrIS will adjust to a warming Arctic, declining sea ice and related changing precipitation patterns. This is a concern, given that future sea level rise is strongly dependent on the GrIS response to arctic change. The scientific community is currently undecided between a model of a dynamic GrIS that becomes greatly reduced during warm periods and a model where it is relatively stable, even through periods warmer than today. This proposal addresses the idea that increased arctic precipitation offsets GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperature. The researchers will test this by contributing significant new information on arctic system change and related GrIS dynamics during past and ongoing warm periods, and employing an ice sheet modeling effort synthesizing all new data aimed at both past and future GrIS simulations. The researchers explicitly combine multiple scientific disciplines to provide a better understanding of how key arctic system components such as precipitation, temperature, sea-ice cover and GrIS mass balance are interconnected. The results will be of fundamental relevance to the fates of the arctic system, the GrIS and global sea level rise. This project will train six graduate students and one post-doctoral researcher. The cross-cutting research program is paralleled by the scope of the outreach plan, to develop a variety of deliverables, including development of an iBook and public outreach events. In addition the team will participate in public outreach events in Buffalo and New York City, where the public and scientists interact in a casual setting. Finally, this work has synergies with ongoing missions at NASA and other programs within the NSF. Due to recent advances in numerical ice sheet models and new sub-ice topography of Greenland, combined with finely-tuned field approaches and geochronologic techniques, the time is ripe for a coordinated, cross-disciplinary effort focusing on cryosphere variability in a warming Arctic; the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and sea ice constitute the largest, and most critical components of the arctic cryosphere. The hypothesis that increased arctic precipitation can counterbalance GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperatures stems from recent findings suggesting that it may be more stable than expected during interglacials. The researchers will: generate new GrIS margin reconstructions during and since the mid-Holocene Thermal Maximum (9,000 to 5,000 years ago), with a powerful approach that combines lake sediment stratigraphy with new sub-ice topography and novel high-sensitivity cosmogenic isotope methods; develop new Holocene climate reconstructions of moisture, temperature and sea ice conditions from lake and ocean sediments and an advanced synthesis of existing arctic ice core and other paleoclimate data; and employ state-of-the-art numerical ice sheet modeling fueled by ice margin and climate reconstructions to test a range of climatic and dynamic controls on GrIS change. If the idea is supported, then it would suggest a relatively stable GrIS during warm periods. If, however, this project provides evidence that the GrIS retreated considerably during the warmer-than-present mid-Holocene and in turn, that the GrIS has reacted more sensitively to temperature than to precipitation change, the results would support a tightly coupled ice sheet size-temperature link and in turn, a much greater near-term GrIS contribution to sea level rise. Either result will be of fundamental relevance to the fates of the arctic system, the GrIS and global sea level rise.

Logistics Summary:
The large collaboration consisting of: Briner (1504267, U of Buffalo), Steig (1503281, UW), Morlighem (1504230, UCI), Young (1503959, LDEO), and Johnson (1504457, U of Montana) addresses the null hypothesis that increased Arctic precipitation offsets GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperature. Logistic details under 1504267.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Nuuk0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2018Greenland - Nuuk0
2018Greenland - Paamiut0
 


Project Title: The Sondrestrom Facility - Enabling Fundamental Research of the Coupled Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere System (Award# 1445376)

PI: Kendall, Elizabeth Anna (elizabeth.kendall@sri.com)
Phone:  
Institute/Department: SRI International, Ionospheric and Space Physics Group 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\AGS
Program Manager: Mr. John Meriwether (jmeriwet@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach | Space Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://isr.sri.com/index.html
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
This award continues support for management, operations, and scientific activities at the Sondrestrom Geospace research facility located near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. The activities include technical support of the incoherent scatter radar (ISR), Rayleigh lidar system, and two all-sky imagers, as well as provide observational service and data to the national and international geospace science communities, including education and outreach efforts relevant to facility operations and science. Facility staff will advance instrumentation to promote scientific discovery, ensure data are of high research quality, and maintain expertise in the related sciences conducted at the facility to help foster new ideas in geospace research. Over the years, the number of complementary instruments at the site has risen dramatically and the capabilities of the radar itself have been considerably enhanced. As a result, the research supported by the facility has diversified and evolved to meet the changing needs of the community of scientific users. Non-geospace activities, such as solid earth research, stratospheric research, and environmental research are supported as part of broader community outreach. The IS radar will be operated for 1800 hours per year in response to the evolving needs of the research community, providing flexibility in radar operations to capture space weather events, and make data available for retrospective analysis. To take advantage of these extensive observations, facility staff will focus on collaborative studies with other existing and planned high-latitude radars. The facility's data handling and processing tools are readily available in a timely manner. The facility staff will also maintain relationships with the Greenland Home Rule Government and Danish Polar center to ensure effective management and operation of the Sondrestrom Geospace facility.

Logistics Summary:
This grant is a continuation of 0836152 (Stromme) for the operation of instruments and scientific studies at the Sondrestrom Radar Facility in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland with researcher visits on a yearly basis.

CPS support is limited to arranging personnel/cargo travel on board the Air National Guard. All other logistics are arranged by the investigators through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 27 / 2015 12 / 18 / 201512
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2016 12 / 31 / 20167
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2017 12 / 31 / 20174
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
 


Project Title: Danish Automatic Weather Station (Award# DKAWS)

PI: Kern-Hansen, Claus (CKH@dmi.dk )
Phone: 45(391) 57580 
Institute/Department: Danish Meteorological Institute,  
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: DK\Federal\MT\DMI
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.dmi.dk/en/vejr/
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/

Science Summary:
The Danish Meteorological Institute operates an Autonomous Weather Station (AWS) at Summit. This AWS is part of a network that provides forecasting and warning services as well as continuous monitoring of weather, sea state, climate, and related environmental conditions in the atmosphere, over land and in the sea.

Logistics Summary:
When required for AWS maintenance, the principal investigator and sometimes another team member will spend two to three days annually tent-camping at Summit Station. At Summit Station, he/they will remove snow from around the AWS as well as inspect and provide maintenance to the station. In 2007, the team dug out and elevated the weather station by 1 meter.

CPS will provide ANG transport between Kangerlussuaq and Summit Station and Summit user days. The PI will arrange and pay for all other logistics, including KISS user days.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
1997Greenland - Summit1
1998Greenland - Summit1
1999Greenland - Summit1
2000Greenland - Summit07 / 17 / 2001 07 / 19 / 20011
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 08 / 2002 06 / 14 / 20022
2002Greenland - Summit06 / 10 / 2002 06 / 13 / 20022
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 28 / 2003 08 / 02 / 20033
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 29 / 2003 08 / 01 / 20032
2004Greenland - Summit0
2005Greenland - Summit1
2006Greenland - Summit08 / 20 / 2006 08 / 21 / 20062
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 19 / 2007 06 / 21 / 20072
2008Greenland - Summit0
2009Greenland - Summit0
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 23 / 2010 06 / 30 / 20102
2010Greenland - Summit06 / 25 / 2010 06 / 28 / 20102
2011Greenland - Summit0
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 05 / 2012 06 / 13 / 20122
2012Greenland - Summit06 / 06 / 2012 06 / 11 / 20122
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 30 / 2013 06 / 05 / 20132
2013Greenland - Summit05 / 31 / 2013 06 / 04 / 20132
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 10 / 2014 07 / 17 / 20142
2014Greenland - Summit07 / 11 / 2014 07 / 16 / 20142
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 30 / 2015 06 / 07 / 20152
2015Greenland - Summit06 / 03 / 2015 06 / 09 / 20152
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq2
2017Greenland - Summit2
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq2
2018Greenland - Summit2
 


Project Title: NASA Operation IceBridge (OIB) (Award# NASAIceBridge)

PI: Kurtz, Nathan T (nathan.t.kurtz@nasa.gov)
Phone: 0(301) 614.5013 
Institute/Department: National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Thomas Wagner (thomas.wagner@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Earth Science | Geological Sciences\Glaciology | Meteorology and Climate | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/data/icebridge/campaign_data_summ...
Blog: http://polarfield.com/blog/operation-icebridge-bir...
Project: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/icebridge/index....
Project: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2016/operatio...

Science Summary:
Operation IceBridge (OIB), a NASA mission that began in 2009, is the largest airborne survey of Earth's polar ice ever flown. Using instruments to map Arctic and Antarctic areas once a year, it will yield an unprecedented three-dimensional view of Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets, ice shelves and sea ice, documenting the behavior of the rapidly changing features of Greenland's and Antarctica's ice. Objectives: 1) Make airborne laser altimetry measurements over the ice sheets and sea ice to fill in the data gap between the end of the lifetime of ICESat-1 in 2009 and the launch of ICESat-2 planned for 2018. 2) Link measurements made by ICESat, ICESat-2, and CryoSat-2 to allow their comparison and the production of a long-term, ice sheet altimetry record. 3) Use airborne altimetry and radar to monitor key, rapidly changing areas of ice, including sea ice, ice sheets and glaciers, in the Arctic and Antarctic to maintain a long term observation record, improve understanding of glacial dynamics, and augment predictive models of sea level rise and sea ice cover. 4) In conjunction with altimetry measurements, collect other remotely sensed data to improve predictive models of sea level rise and sea ice cover, especially the following: · Ice sheet and sea ice thickness, structure and extent; · Bed topography underlying land-based ice; · Bathymetry beneath floating ice shelves; · Snow accumulation and firn structure; and · Other geophysical constraints that will improve estimates of the geothermal and oceanic heat flux

Logistics Summary:
Researchers working on NASA's Operation IceBridge will employ specially instrumented aircraft to monitor the most sensitive and critical areas of sea ice, ice sheets and glaciers during the gap in satellite coverage caused by the failure of ICESat-1, in 2009, and the launch of ICESat-2, planned for late 2015. The first IceBridge flights were conducted in March/May 2009 over Greenland, and in October/November 2009 over Antarctica; they have continued yearly in the boreal spring (for the Arctic) and boreal fall (for Antarctica). In 2012, NASA will fly about 300 hours and more than 40 ICESat missions over and around Greenland in 2012. In 2012 PolarTREC teacher, Tim Spuck (0956825TS), will join the team. In 2013, PolarTREC teacher, Mark Buesing (0956825MMB) will join the team. And in 2014 PolarTREC teacher Russell Hood (1345146RH) will join. In 2016, IceBridge will conduct three campaigns to measure the impact of the melt season on Arctic sea and land ice. The first one will take place in Thule, Greenland for about a month mid April to mid May. The second one will take place in late July and will be based out of Barrow, Alaska, focusing on the sea ice cover in the Beaufort Sea. The third, planned for late August to early September, will be based in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, and repeat land ice missions that IceBridge completed in May, to measure how fast ice thins during the upcoming melt season. The Barrow campaign will last about two weeks, while the Kangerlussuaq deployment will go on for three weeks. In 2017 this National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Office of Naval Research (ONR) -funded effort provides a research-based field course at Thule Air Base, Greenland during the week of 09 Mar – 17 Mar. Approximately 14 participants (2-4 faculty and 6-8 students) will travel to Thule, Greenland to conduct work on the measurements of snow depth and drift distribution and sea-ice features as part of the NASA funded Operation IceBridge project. Students will also deploy and test a new ice buoy designed in collaboration with ONR and PI Rigor’s Arctic Observing eXperiment (AOX) project. Researchers will then work out of Fairbanks in March for a week, Svalbard in April for a week, return to Thule in April, and then work out of Kangerlussuaq for approximately 3 weeks at the end of April to mid May. In 2017 PolarTREC teacher, Adeena Teres (1630463AT) will join the team.

In 2009-2013 CPS will provide Air National Guard cargo airlift between Kangerlussuaq and Thule in both directions. NSF recoups these costs via an interagency funds transfer. IceBridge self-supports all other aspects of their field campaigns in Greenland using their own aircraft (mostly the NASA P-3), including lodging/meals in both Kanger and Thule. All other logistics will be planned and paid for by the grant, including all logistics in 2014. In 2016, CPS will provide space for an emergency part requirement AEY>SFJ on an existing Twin Otter charter, transport of two drums of fuel on ANG flight from Kanger to Raven Camp, and a small amount of ground support in Kanger.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2009Greenland - Thule0
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2010Greenland - Thule0
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2011Greenland - Thule0
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 01 / 2012 04 / 30 / 20121
2012Greenland - Thule04 / 04 / 2012 04 / 30 / 20121
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 03 / 2013 04 / 18 / 20131
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 07 / 2014 04 / 24 / 20141
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)08 / 23 / 2016 09 / 14 / 20161
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 23 / 2016 09 / 14 / 20161
2016Greenland - Thule04 / 16 / 2016 05 / 13 / 20161
2017Alaska - Fairbanks03 / 08 / 2017 03 / 15 / 20171
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 10 / 2017 05 / 03 / 20171
2017Greenland - Thule03 / 06 / 2017 04 / 29 / 20173
2017Norway - Svalbard0
2018Greenland - Thule03 / 06 / 2018 04 / 20 / 20182
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Remote Sensing of Electron Density Using Auroral Radio Emissions (Award# 1147699)

PI: LaBelle, James W (jlabelle@einstein.dartmouth.edu)
Phone: 0(603) 646.2973 
Institute/Department: Dartmouth College, Department of Physics and Astronomy 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\AGS
Program Manager:  Michael Wiltberger (mwiltber@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Space Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~spacephy/labelle_group/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This grant will investigate the role of radio waves in the electromagnetic coupling of the magnetosphere to the ionosphere. In particular it will examine auroral hiss and medium frequency bursts (MFB), which appear in the auroral zones as a prompt response to the onset of a magnetic substorm. In addition to the association with substorm onset, auroral radio emissions are associated with a number of other auroral phenomena, such as poleward-moving arcs and increases in radio wave absorption. The project will use a combination of experimental measurement and theoretical and numerical analysis. An important part of the project will be the measurement of full waveforms and fine structure in MFB events. The waveform measurements will be performed at multiple sites and for multiple events. In some cases it will be possible to use incoherent scatter radar data to determine the plasma density structures within the ionosphere that affect the propagation and dispersion of the waves. Statistical analysis of MFB events, in conjunction with conjugate satellite measurements, will be used to determine the nature of electron precipitation associated with the events. The theoretical and numerical analyses will determine whether or not Langmuir and Z-mode waves can explain the mode conversion processes needed to explain the generation of medium frequency bursts. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and magnetic substorms have been identified as central problems to our understanding of near-earth space plasmas. This project will examine the role that auroral hiss and medium frequency wave bursts play in M-I coupling. Both graduate and undergraduate students will participate in this project in all aspects of the research, including the development of wave measurement instruments, the deployment of the instruments, the analysis of the data obtained from the instruments, and the related plasma theory. The majority of the research will take place at Dartmouth College and will offer opportunities for first and second year women researchers to participate through the Dartmouth Women-in-Science Program (WISP).

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between LaBelle (1147699, Dartmouth) and Yoon (1147759, U of MD) will test the generation mechanism of the auroral MFB emission, establish whether it can contribute to remote sensing of the upper boundary of the ionospheric Alfv´en resonator, and determine its connection to other events in the time history analysis of substorms as well as other auroral phenomena. Beginning in 2012 a field team of two will travel to Greenland to install at Sondrestrom a digital waveform receiver, similar to those at Toolik Lake, Alaska and Churchill, Canada. For the years 2013-2014, the field team will make one trip each summer to one or all of these locations; Toolik Lake, Churchill and Sondestrom, to maintain the radio interferometers. In 2015, researchers will travel to sites as needed for maintenance. In May, one researcher will travel to the Sondestrom site for approximately a week. One researcher will return in 2016 and 2017 and may again in 2018.

CPS will provide Air National Guard (ANG) coordination for passengers and freight between NY and Kangerlussuaq. All other support will be paid by the PI from the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2012Alaska - Toolik08 / 09 / 2012 08 / 15 / 20122
2012Canada - Churchill0
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 18 / 2012 07 / 25 / 20122
2013Alaska - Toolik08 / 22 / 2013 08 / 26 / 20132
2013Canada - Churchill0
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 14 / 2013 08 / 21 / 20132
2014Canada - Churchill0
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 13 / 2014 08 / 22 / 20141
2015Alaska - Toolik0
2015Canada - Churchill0
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 15 / 2015 05 / 21 / 20151
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 11 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20161
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 18 / 2017 05 / 25 / 20171
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
 


Project Title: RAPID: Endangered Archaeology at Iita (Award# 1623802)

PI: LeMoine, Genevieve M (glemoine@bowdoin.edu)
Phone: 0(207) 725.3304 
Institute/Department: Bowdoin College, The Peary-MacMillan Arctic Museum 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Social and Human Sciences\Archaeology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.natmus.gl/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: http://www.tdar.org/
Blog: https://crockerland.wordpress.com

Science Summary:
A team of researchers from Bowdoin, UC Davis, and the National Museum of Greenland will excavate at the site of Iita, Qaasuitsup Kommunia, Greenland. Due to increased ice-free periods in the stormy fall season the site is experiencing rapid erosion. Excavation will focus on unique buried strata dating to the Late Dorset period. The team will also continue documenting and monitoring the erosion there and at the nearby site of Middle Iita, first discovered in 2012 and also eroding. The buried Late Dorset strata at Iita, which date to AD 1050 - 1200 are a unique and valuable resource and are threatened by increasingly rapid erosion of the site. They offer the opportunity to learn about many aspects of Late Dorset Culture, from the importance of exploiting the massive dovekie colony to the demise of the Late Dorset culture as the ancestors of the contemporary Inughuit moved into the area. The clearly separated occupation levels offer an unprecedented opportunity to study and compare well-defined relatively short occupation periods. It will be possible to provide a clearer picture of the lives of families living at the site, and how these may have changed over time. The early Thule levels also present at the site offer the possibility of identifying the nature and extent of interaction (if any) between these two groups. J. Darwent has been documenting erosion at the site since 2006, including dramatic changes noted on his last visit in 2012. In this remote location ongoing evaluation, monitoring, and mitigation of changes due to erosion are difficult. This field work will allow us to both continue monitoring and to partially mitigate impending loss of these significant cultural resources. This work can help raise awareness of, and interest in, the world-wide threat to cultural resources due to rising sea levels, and the specific and more immediate threat to northern resources as a result of diminished sea ice, as well as melting permafrost. Information about the project will be disseminated through both academic and popular channels, before, during, and after the field season. Social media and a project blog will be used to engage both English- and Greenlandic-speakers. Through academic conferences and networks such as iHOpe, the project will also connect with colleagues facing similar issues in the circumpolar north.

Logistics Summary:
This RAPID grant supports researchers in revisiting Iita (Etah), a unique archaeological site in northwestern Greenland containing unique buried strata dating to the Late Dorset period, which the PI first visited in 2006. Recent warming has resulted in Arctic permafrost thaw, earlier spring sea ice melt, and later fall sea ice formation. As a result, important coastal archaeological sites that were once protected by ice are exposed to increased damage and even complete loss due to a combination of melting permafrost and wave erosion during the extended open water season. Iita is an example of these sites, as it contains significant prehistoric and historic archaeological deposits threatened by coastal processes. During a single season, in 2016, a team of six will visit Iita, a coastal site near Qaasuitsup Kommunia, Greenland. They will assemble at Thule Air Base in mid-June, some arriving via commercial flights to Kangerlussuaq with an onward flight to Thule via U.S. Embassy flight; others via Air Military Command (AMC) flight from McGuire Air Force Base to Thule. After spending several days preparing for the work ahead, the team will be transported via helicopter to the field site, where they will establish a tent camp base from which to continue monitoring and to partially mitigate impending loss of the significant cultural resources found at the site. The team will remain at the site until mid-August, when they will take down their base, and depart via helicopter. Back at Thule, the group with prepare cargo and samples for transport, and then disperse. Some will return to the U.S. by AMC, others will fly to Kangerlussuaq via Embassy flight for onward commercial travel to Nuuk.

CPS will provide transport for project personnel & cargo to/from Thule via combination of Air Mobility Command (AMC) and Danish Embassy flights, lodging in Thule and Kangerlussuaq, access to a truck in Thule, helicopter support, Air National Guard (ANG) cargo support, and camp gear/safety equipment. All other logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Iita06 / 23 / 2016 08 / 06 / 20166
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 19 / 2016 08 / 09 / 20167
2016Greenland - Thule06 / 20 / 2016 08 / 10 / 20166
 


Project Title: SAVI: Collaborative Research: Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic - Labrador Basin and Floats (Award# 1259103)

PI: Lozier, Susan (mslozier@duke.edu)
Phone: 0(919) 681.8199 
Institute/Department: Duke University, Nicholas School of the Environment 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OCE
Program Manager: Dr. Eric Itsweire (eitsweir@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://ilikai.soest.hawaii.edu/ladcp/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=12...
Project: http://www.o-snap.org/
Data: https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/

Science Summary:
This project is one of two components of a US-led international program, Overturning in the Sub-polar North Atlantic (OSNAP), designed to provide a continuous record of the full-water column, trans-basin fluxes of heat, mass and freshwater in the subpolar North Atlantic. The OSNAP observing system consists of two legs: one extending from southern Labrador to the southwestern tip of Greenland across the mouth of the Labrador Sea (OSNAP West), and the second from the southeastern tip of Greenland to Scotland (OSNAP East). The observing system also includes subsurface floats (OSNAP Floats) in order to trace the pathways of overflow waters in the basin and to assess the connectivity of currents crossing the OSNAP line. The location of the OSNAP East and West legs purposefully melds with a number of long-term observational efforts in the North Atlantic: the Canadian repeat hydrography program in the Labrador Sea; the German Labrador Sea western boundary array at 53°N; the global Ocean Observatories Initiative node in the southwestern Irminger Sea; the repeat hydrographic sections across the Irminger and Iceland basins; and the Ellett line in the Rockall region. Substantial international collaboration has been garnered for OSNAP, including measurement contributions from the UK, Germany, the Netherlands and Canada. Importantly, this observing system, in conjunction with the RAPID/MOCHA array at 26°N and the European Union NACLIM program measuring the Nordic Seas overflows, will provide the first comprehensive three-dimensional measure of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and provide a means to evaluate inter-gyre connectivity in the North Atlantic. This collaborative project will implement the OSNAP West section and the OSNAP Float program. The primary observational components are: (i) a mooring array across the eastern margin of the Labrador Sea, where the subpolar boundary current enters the basin. This array will complement an analogous array across the western margin at the exit point of the Labrador Sea, maintained by institutions in Germany and Canada; (ii) a sequential release of acoustically tracked floats in the lower limb of the AMOC at the OSNAP East and OSNAP West boundary arrays. These floats will be seeded in the two densest components of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) over the four-year period of the measurement program (2014-2018). This research award includes support for a Science Accross Virtual Institutes (SAVI) that is co-funded by NSF's Office of International and Integrative Activities.

Logistics Summary:
This is a collaborative US-led international program between Pickart (1259618, WHOI) and Lozier (1259103, Duke). Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic (OSNAP), is designed to provide a continuous record of the full-water column, trans-basin fluxes of heat, mass and freshwater in the subpolar North Atlantic. The OSNAP observing system consists of two legs: one extending from southern Labrador to the southwestern tip of Greenland across the mouth of the Labrador Sea (OSNAP West), and the second from the southeastern tip of Greenland to Scotland (OSNAP East). OSNAP is a partner in the North Atlantic Virtual Institute (NAVIS), which connects science teams around the world studying climate variability and change in the North Atlantic. For logistics details go to 1259618.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Arctic Ocean and Seas - Irminger Sea0
2014Arctic Ocean and Seas - Labrador Sea0
2015Arctic Ocean and Seas - Iceland Basin0
2015Arctic Ocean and Seas - Irminger Sea0
2015Arctic Ocean and Seas - Labrador Sea0
2015Arctic Ocean and Seas - Reykjanes Ridge0
2016Arctic Ocean and Seas - Labrador Sea0
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2016Greenland - Nuuk0
2017Arctic Ocean and Seas - Irminger Sea0
2017Arctic Ocean and Seas - Labrador Sea0
2018Arctic Ocean and Seas - Labrador Sea0
 


Project Title: Greenland Cosmology Program (Award# LubinNBI)

PI: Lubin, Philip (lubin@deepspace.ucsb.edu)
Phone: 0(805) 893.8432 
Institute/Department: U of California, Santa Barbara, Physics Department 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: DK\Research/Higher Ed\U. Copenhagen
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Space Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://www.deepspace.ucsb.edu/projects/greenland-i...

Science Summary:
The millimeter wavelength sky is critical for understanding cosmological foregrounds in order to remove the galactic signature from the cosmological signature. This is especially important in searching for the gravity wave signature from the proposed inflationary era from polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). It is also much more interesting in its own right, than was anticipated even a few years ago, particularly with the recent Planck results. Our galaxy has two primary and very different emission mechanisms, namely synchrotron emission from high energy Cosmic Rays that dominates below 100 GHz and dust emission from heated interstellar dust grains that dominates above 100 GHz. It is critical that we have a series of very sensitive maps from 10-100 GHz to understand the synchrotron component of our galaxy to combine with the Planck high frequency dust maps from 100-900 GHz. The current WMAP and Planck maps at 23, 30, 40 and 70 GHz are insufficient, especially in polarization which neither satellite was specifically designed to measure and for which there is both insufficient sensitivity and serious systematic concerns. There are two major goals for the longer term effort in Greenland. One is to study the galactic foregrounds by making over about 50% of the sky AND to feed these maps and understanding into the deep cosmological maps we will make from Greenland at 30, 40 and eventually at 80 GHz to search for evidence of gravitational waves from the early universe. In order to do the latter (search for gravitational waves) researchers must do the former (characterize the galactic foregrounds) as so poignantly been shown by the recent Planck release. Greenland is one of the best observing sites and allow coverage of the northern hemisphere, which is less contaminated by the galaxy and is complimentary to southern hemisphere measurements at higher frequencies that study dust contaminated frequencies. A critical factor that is new is that the Planck data has recently shown that the higher frequency (about 100 GHz) polarization measurements are heavily contaminated by a much more complex dust emission than we had anticipated and at a higher level than anticipated. Since the atmosphere is quite absorptive above 100 GHz and essentially opaque above 300 GHz, with only a few observing frequency windows, in order to fully characterize the dust emission space based systems are needed. On the other hand the lower frequencies below 100 GHz are essentially completely open to observation from the ground with an exception being thr 60 GHz oxygen cluster but otherwise we can observe down to the ionospheric cutoff at 30 MHz. This will allow researchers to make much more detailed measurements of the galactic contamination from ground based measurements. Additionally the advantage of going into space compared to ground is only about a factor of 2 in system noise for the critical bands while at higher frequencies ground observations are much less sensitive than space both due to the increased opacity of the atmosphere and the decreased flux from the CMB at higher frequencies. These two effects give a strong science case to push to lower frequencies and to use the high altitude site in Greenland (Summit site) as an observing site. Another critical factor that favors observing at lower frequencies is that the technology we will use to make these measurements uses detectors that are extremely linear compared to the bolometers used at higher frequencies and thus atmospheric perturbations from water vapor fluctuations and pressure waves will be largely cancelled out to a much higher degree than bolometer based measurements allowing us to get polarization information on larger angular scales that is critical to understanding inflation and to measuring the ionization fraction of the universe (Tau). In the longer term we will want to duplicate the same system we build in Greenland in the Southern hemisphere to get complete sky coverage, possibly in Antarctica. This experiment will consist of a series of replicated telescopes using molds and technology the researchers have recently developed that allows for a staged approach with both short term results and long term observations. This data will be of use to not only the field of cosmology but to those who study galactic processes , high energy cosmic rays, galactic magnetic fields and even studies of the neutrino mass. This program has broad scientific implications and will place Denmark at the forefront of a critical area of cosmology.

Logistics Summary:
With funding from Denmark’s University of Copenhagen, the project team will study the galactic foregrounds of the Milky Way from a ground-based sensing site at Summit Station. They will use data and understanding from these activities to create deep cosmological maps with which to search for evidence of gravitational waves from the early universe. The team’s primary activities involve deployment and operation of a 2.2m microwave telescope and supporting lab structure to carry out project activities, which will span two seasons, 2016 and 2017. In 2016, one field team member will make a site visit to Summit in August to help researchers plan for future visits. In 2017, no researchers will travel to Greenland. In 2018, plans currently are for two researchers to deploy the 2.2m microwave telescope and supporting infrastructure with two goals. First, they will map the polarized emission from the Milky Way at 10 GHz as a contaminant for Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization studies of the signature of Inflation. Second, they will assess Summit Station’s suitability and their observational techniques for measuring this CMB polarization signature at higher frequencies. An ancillary goal is to use the telescope to demonstrate the use of new infrared instruments for atmospheric monitoring. Findings from this initial study will inform future potential work by this group and the wider CMB radiation community.

In 2016, CPS will provide Air National Guard (ANG) coordination for one passenger and cargo, and Summit Station user days. NSF will recoup the costs of CPS support directly from the sponsoring institute. The PI will make all other arrangements, including KISS user days, and pay for them through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 11 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20161
2016Greenland - Summit08 / 13 / 2016 08 / 17 / 20161
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq2
2018Greenland - Summit2
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: GreenTrACS: a Greenland Traverse for Accumulation and Climate Studies (Award# 1417921)

PI: Marshall, Hans-Peter ( hpmarshall@boisestate.edu)
Phone: 0(208) 426.1416 
Institute/Department: Boise State University, Geosciences Department 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Glaciology | Cryosphere\Ice Geochemistry | Cryosphere\Ice Penetrating Radar | Cryosphere\Ice Sheet Mass Balance |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://cgiss.boisestate.edu/data_downloads.php
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
The investigators plan a traverse in the Western Greenland percolation zone over two field seasons to develop continuous in-situ snow accumulation and firn density records using ground-based radar and shallow firn cores. The research objectives include: (1) determining the patterns, in time and space, of snow accumulation in Western Greenland over the past 20-40 years; (2) evaluating surface melt refreeze and englacial meltwater storage in the Western Greenland percolation zone over the past 20-40 years; and (3) quantifying the accumulation and surface melt biases of the most recent climate reanalysis models and their regional climate model counterparts. This project intends to advance knowledge and understanding by providing in-situ validation observations for both the mass gain (snow accumulation) and mass loss (surface melt) components of Western Greenland surface mass balance. Previous studies have shown that the western edge of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been losing mass at an accelerating rate since 2005, due mostly to decreasing surface mass balance. However, surface mass balance trends derived from regional climate models differ by a factor of ~2.5 in this region. Western Greenland firn core accumulation records, required for model validation, generally end in 1996-1998, before the most recent period of accelerated mass loss. The investigators will develop continuous records of Western Greenland snow accumulation over the last 20-40 years using ground-penetrating radar validated by frequent snow pits and firn cores (25-30 m) analyzed for chemistry. They will also use a multi-offset radar method to calculate firn density continuously along the traverse, providing a means to assess past surface melt, refreeze and current meltwater storage in glacier aquifers, as well as critical density-profile data for air- and spaceborne remote sensing work. Meltwater refreeze shows the largest variability in regional climate models among surface mass balance components, and thus validation observations are critically needed. The traverse route will crisscross the percolation zone, near-parallel to the steepest accumulation and surface melt gradients, which will increase the value of the dataset for model validation. The traverse will overlap previous traverse routes, IceBridge airborne radar flight paths, and reoccupy previously sampled sites to update firn core accumulation records by 18-20 years. In addition, the project will collect cores from new sites in data-poor regions at lower elevations, where both accumulation and surface melt increase and regional climate model validation is most needed. Surface mass balance validation of several climate reanalysis models will lead to more accurate assessments of current and future Greenland Ice Sheet mass balance trends, which is critical for accurately predicting future sea-level rise.

Logistics Summary:
This project, Greenland Traverse for Accumulation and Climate Studies (GreenTrACS), is a collaboration between Osterberg and Hawley (1417678, Dartmouth, LEAD), Birkel (1417640, U of Maine), and Marshall (1417921, Boise State). See 1417678 for logistic details.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2016Greenland - Raven0
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: IUSE-Polar: PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (Award# 1525880KM)

PI: McCarthy, Kelly ()
Phone:  
Institute/Department: Our Lady of Lourdes Regional School,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARE\TREC
Program Manager: Ms. Elizabeth Rom (elrom@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.polartrec.com/

Science Summary:
For this project, ARCUS will administer and implement, "IUSE-Polar: PolarTREC- Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating", an international program that brings together U.S. teachers to participate in cutting-edge field research with polar scientists in various, and often remote, locations in the Arctic and Antarctica. Through hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctica, 48 participating teachers (pre-service and in-service) will improve teaching strategies, develop resources for their careers, and change how they teach STEM in the classroom. The program goal is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing educators and polar researchers together in professional collaboration. By integrating research and education, PolarTREC will help sustain and grow the considerable scientific, public, and political enthusiasm for polar research and education. The project will achieve this goal through the following objectives: (1) to improve teachers’ STEM content knowledge of the Polar Regions and transfer to the classroom; (2) to increase teachers’ knowledge and use of STEM practices with their students in the classroom; (3) to develop teachers’ educational leadership skills and give opportunities to teacher to be influential leaders in their professional community; (4) to improve the evidence base of successful strategies that utilize teacher leadership skills for the purpose of broadening participation in polar STEM learning; (5) to increase students’ understanding and engagement in the Polar Regions and interest in polar-related STEM careers; and (6) to develop long-term professional relationships between the education and research communities. Data will be collected using a mixed methods evaluation design, with both quantitative and qualitative elements to address the evaluation questions and report on objectives. Survey data will be analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Evaluators will track impacts on students, teachers, and researchers.

Logistics Summary:
In the spring of 2016, PolarTREC teacher Kelly McCarthy will join PI John Woods on the NASA funded project titled Operation IceBridge 2016.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 21 / 2016 05 / 19 / 20161
 


Project Title: Continued Core Atmospheric and Snow Measurements at the Summit, Greenland Environmental Observatory (Award# 0856845)

PI: McConnell, Joseph R ( joe.mcconnell@dri.edu)
Phone: 0(775) 673.7348 
Institute/Department: Desert Research Institute, Division of Hydrologic Sciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. William Ambrose (wambrose@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Geological Sciences | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.aoncadis.org/projects/continued_core_at...
Institute: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
This award is funded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Public Law 111-5). This award supports the continuation and expansion of long-term measurements of the Arctic atmosphere, snow, and other Earth system components at the Summit, Greenland, Environmental Observatory (GEOSummit). The original measurement program began in 2003 and contributes to the Arctic Observing Network (AON) and the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH). Year-round measurements at least 10 years in duration are required to observe and quantify the roles of large-scale, multiyear oscillations in oceanic and atmospheric circulation (e.g., Arctic Oscillation) as well as long-term changes in industrial emissions and land use. Long-term, broad-spectrum, and high-time-resolution measurements also are required to determine transport pathways and other linkages between low- and mid-latitude industrial emission sources and Arctic climate. Because transport pathways vary strongly with altitude and Summit is the only high elevation observing site in the Arctic and well separated from local emission sources, it is an essential node in AON. Located at an elevation of 3,100 m on the Greenland ice sheet, GEOSummit is part of a network that includes sites at Barrow, Alaska; Alert, Canada; and Mt. Zeppelin, Svalbard. The "Broader Impacts" of these observations are numerous and include the potential to transform understanding of the role of natural and anthropogenic aerosols in climate forcing, to improve climate models and the prediction of future Arctic environmental change, and to enhance the interpretation of ice core records of paleo-environmental variability. The program also will include education and training, with an emphasis on the participation of under-represented groups, through the involvement of undergraduate and graduate students, and a postdoctoral associate.

Logistics Summary:
This grant continues measurements begun under grant #0336450 (Bales). The goal of the project is to continue and expand ongoing long-term measurements of the arctic atmosphere, snow, and other Earth system components at the Summit Greenland Environmental Observatory (GEOSummit). The long-term measurements program at GEOSummit is a close partnership between the Desert Research Institute (DRI), University of California (UC-Merced, UC-Davis), NOAA’s Global Monitoring Division (GMD), and others. The Long Term Observations (LTO) grant funds a suite of year-round measurements from 2009 through 2014, supported by on-site science technicians. In addition to the LTO measurements, Summit Station technical staff will carry out measurements initiated by investigators under other grants, including a significant sampling campaign by NOAA, Baseline Surface Radiation Network, and 50-meter tower experiments at Summit. During campaigns each summer, the research team will conduct field measurements and instrument maintenance. The research deployments will occur seperately for different investigators associated with the project. Additionally, the Steffen deployment to support this project will be conduted in conjunction with the NASAAWS effort. On-site science technicians will take over on year-round measurements when the research team is not on-site. In 2010, PolarTREC teacher, James Pottinger (0956825JP) will join the team for their fieldwork at Summit Station. This project’s field work in June 2011 will involve a team of six—three researchers and again PolarTREC teacher James Pottinger for co-PI Koni Steffen; and a team of two researchers for PI Joe McConnell. The Steffen team will fly to Summit Station in early June via Twin Otter; about a week later, the McConnell team will arrive at Summit via the ANG logistics chain from Kangerlussuaq. In 2013, the ongoing research will be supported with a late-May site visit from a team of four researchers led by co-PI Konrad Steffen. While at Summit the team will service the AWS, the BSRN instruments, and the lower level of the 50-meter tower. The team will arrive and depart Summit Station via Twin Otter as part of the NASAAWS effort. In addition, in July of 2013, one team member will make a trip to Summit to repair an instrument. In 2014, the ongoing research will be supported with a late-May site visit from a team of four researchers led by co-PI Konrad Steffen. While at Summit the team will service the AWS, the BSRN instruments, and the lower level of the 50-meter tower. The team will arrive and depart Summit Station via Twin Otter as part of the NASA AWS effort.

CPS will provide ANG coordination for shipment of cargo and cold samples, user days and access to the Summit Station infrastructure, science technician services (including instrument operation, maintenance, and sample collection), ISC boxes and supplies, Milli-Q filters and other assorted materials, and access to the existing 50-meter tower (either training for grantees or an appropriately trained science technician). The researchers will pay for other costs through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq2
2009Greenland - Summit2
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 12 / 2010 08 / 22 / 20104
2010Greenland - Summit08 / 13 / 2010 08 / 20 / 20104
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 07 / 2011 06 / 15 / 20112
2011Greenland - Summit06 / 03 / 2011 06 / 13 / 20116
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 21 / 2012 06 / 14 / 20122
2012Greenland - Summit05 / 23 / 2012 06 / 12 / 20123
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 11 / 2013 07 / 16 / 20131
2013Greenland - Summit05 / 29 / 2013 07 / 16 / 20135
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 14 / 2014 08 / 20 / 20141
2014Greenland - Summit08 / 15 / 2014 08 / 21 / 20141
2015Greenland - Summit0
2016Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Arctic Sensitivity to Climate Perturbations and a Millennial Perspective on Current Warming Derived from Shrinking Ice Caps (Award# 1204096)

PI: Miller, Gifford (gmiller@colorado.edu)
Phone: 0(303) 492.6962 
Institute/Department: U of Colorado, Boulder, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Climate Change | Cryosphere\Paleoclimate |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.earthchem.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...
Data: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimato...

Science Summary:
The goal of this grant is to provide a millennial context for current warming and to better constrain the nature of abrupt climate changes over the past 5000 years in the North Atlantic sector of the Arctic. This goal will be addressed with the powerful datasets derived from radiocarbon-dated vegetation preserved beneath ice caps for centuries to millennia, but now being exposed annually by current ice-margin retreat across northeastern Canada and West Greenland. These chronologies define the pattern and timing of abrupt summer coolings in the recent past and place current warming in a millennial context. 14C dating of vegetation will be complemented by measuring in situ 14C inventories in recently exposed rock surfaces, providing essential temporal constraints on the duration of ice-covered and ice-free conditions throughout the Holocene. Combined, these two datasets will provide the most secure evidence for the character of current summer warming by explicitly dating when the region was last as warm as present. Comparing our climate reconstructions with on-going studies in NW Europe will help to separate the roles of unforced variability from hemispherically symmetric forcing as causes for abrupt climate change. Research activities under this award will be made accessible to indigenous peoples by translating the goals and eventual results into Inuktitut, through posters that describe the research, and by offering public lectures in Iqaluit, the capital of Nunavut, and at Qikiqtarjuaq, where INSTAAR has long had a presence. This research program will train a PhD and MSc student, and provides opportunities for undergraduate students to become involved with research, building on successful traditions from previous years.

Logistics Summary:
With this collaborative project between Miller (1204096, CU, LEAD) and Briner (1204005, SUNY at Buffalo), researchers hope to answer a number of questions regarding warming within the context of climate change records from the Holocene. The researchers will use information obtained from a number of ice caps (themselves rapidly receding due to a warming climate) along northern Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada; and around small ice caps along West Greenland. Field campaigns will take place in Canada and Greenland. In August 2013, a team of 7 will assemble in Ilulissat, three of whom will have just completed field work for another NSF award (Briner NSF 1156361). Using helicopter support based from Ilulissat, researchers will visit sites in West Greenland, incuding Disko Island and the uplands surrounding Ummannaq Fjord. They will establish remote camps on southern and central Disko Island, and on the inner Nussuaq Peninsula near Ummannaq, from which they can reach multiple ice cap sampling locations on day hikes. They also will stop en route when moving the campsite. About a week after the work begins, PI Miller will return to Ilulissat via helicopter, and fly commercially to Iqaluit, Canada, for research supported by Polar Continental Shelf Project. (This work will not be supported by CPS). In 2014 a team of seven researchers will conduct field work in Canada on Baffin Island’s Cumberland Peninsula from the end of July until the third week in August. Using boats and helicopter support, the team will establish remote camps at Snow Creek, Allen’s Cabin and Spire Camp. Helicopter charters will be contracted directly between the researchers and Natural Resources Canada, Polar Continental Shelf Project (PCSP). The research team will also work with local Inuit contacts to ship their inflatable boats from Clyde River, and to rent a 10hp motor so they can perform a seismic survey of their primary lake target at Spire Camp. In addition to the work on Baffin Island, a team of five will visit Maniitsoq, a small town in western Greenland, and work around Sukkertoppen Ice Cap. They will put-in to the field and establish a tent camp, using helicopter support. After sampling locally for a bit less than a week, they will use helicopter support to move camp to a second sampling site and continue their work. At the end of each day, samples will be flown to Maniitsoq, for shipment to Kangerlussuaq for later transport to NY. This grant received two supplements (NSF 1342470 in 2013 and NSF 1443779 in 2014), to provide funds for PCSP (Polar Continental Shelf Project) and to provide logistical air support in Baffin Island. In 2016, the NSF approved a no-cost extension to the grant. The project will conduct field work, in conjunction with logistics support from National Geographic, in Ilulissat in early July.

For the work in 2013-2014: For Baffin Island, CPS will provide safety and communications equipment only; the PI will work directly with PCSP and local residents to arrange logistics. In Greenland, CPS will provide Air National Guard (ANG) coordination for passengers and cargo, user days at KISS, lodging in Ilulissat and Maniitsoq, intra-Greenland commercial air ticketing/freight shipments, helicopter support, assistance in Maniitsoq for camp put-in, and camping, safety and communications gear. All other logistics will be arranged by the researchers and paid through the grant. In 2016: CPS will provide camping, safety and communications equipment for the work in Greenland, All other support and logistics will be covered by the PI.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2013Canada - Pangnirtung, Baffin Island08 / 05 / 2013 08 / 20 / 20135
2013Canada - Qikiqtarjuaq08 / 05 / 2013 08 / 20 / 20135
2013Greenland - Disko Island07 / 31 / 2013 08 / 04 / 20135
2013Greenland - Ilulissat07 / 28 / 2013 08 / 16 / 20136
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 15 / 2013 08 / 21 / 20136
2013Greenland - Uummannaq07 / 28 / 2013 08 / 16 / 20136
2014Canada - Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island08 / 02 / 2014 08 / 12 / 20144
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 04 / 2014 08 / 22 / 20145
2014Greenland - Maniitsoq08 / 05 / 2014 08 / 19 / 20145
2016Greenland - Ilulissat07 / 04 / 2016 07 / 11 / 20164
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Testing Arctic Ice Sheet Sensitivity to Abrupt Climate Change (Award# 1418040)

PI: Miller, Gifford (gmiller@colorado.edu)
Phone: 0(303) 492.6962 
Institute/Department: U of Colorado, Boulder, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Anjuli Bamzai (abamzai@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Climate Change | Cryosphere\Paleoclimate |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.earthchem.org/
Data: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatol...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
A team of investigators will investigate the response of the Laurentide and Greenland Ice Sheets to two short term cooling events (several decades to a few centuries in duration) that occurred 9.3 and 8.2 thousand years ago. Assessing the sensitivity of ice sheets to short term climate variability is at the forefront of the scientific community's and the public's interest because short term ice sheet change will drive 21st century sea level rise. Thus a central question of the proposed work is whether ice sheets react abruptly to climate forcings, or are multi-millennial-scale trends in climate required to elicit a large-scale ice sheet response? The investigators plan an intensive field-based research program capitalizing on their newly published work reconstructing ice sheet change using high-precision beryllium-10 dating to test the hypothesis that prominent moraine systems marking former ice extents in West Greenland and Baffin Island record the synchronous advance of the Greenland and Laurentide ice sheets driven by the abrupt cooling events 9.3 and 8.2 thousand years ago. Pilot data reveal that portions of the ice sheet margin that are in contact with the surrounding ocean are able to respond rapidly to a short-lived climate perturbation. To test whether these documented changes were restricted to solely the most sensitive marine-terminating ice sheet sectors, or whether ice sheets are capable of a larger scale response to centennial-scale climate change, well-constrained chronologies of ice sheet change are needed from other regions. The investigators' research objectives are to 1) establish how land-terminating regions of ice sheets, which are more representative of broader ice sheet margins, respond to abrupt climate change, 2) further evaluate the role that oceanic forcing plays in modulating ice sheet response to short-lived climate perturbations, and 3) reconstruct the early Holocene behavior of mountain glacier systems (a proxy for summertime temperature) to evaluate what climatic conditions influenced the ice sheets. The investigators will work to make results easily accessible to the public. The work is led by an early career investigator and will support two graduate and several undergraduate students.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative geological study regarding ice-sheet change on Baffin Island, Canada and in Western Greenland is comprised of: Young (1417675 LEAD, Columbia), Miller (1418040, CU) and Briner (1417783, U of Buffalo). Researchers will conduct rock and lake-sediment sampling to perform high-precision 10Be and 14C dating to determine how these regions responded to abrupt cooling events. Logistic details under 1417675.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Canada - Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island0
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2016Greenland - Nuuk0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Ice sheet sensitivity in a changing Arctic system - using Geologic data and modeling to test the stable Greenland Ice Sheet hypothesis (Award# 1504230)

PI: Morlighem, Mathieu (mathieu.morlighem@uci.edu)
Phone: 0(949) 824.1353 
Institute/Department: U of California, Irvine, Earth System Science 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
There is enough water in the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) that, were it to melt, it would raise sea level in most coastal cities significantly with huge consequences for society. In the face of accelerated ice sheet contribution to sea level rise, it remains uncertain how the GrIS will adjust to a warming Arctic, declining sea ice and related changing precipitation patterns. This is a concern, given that future sea level rise is strongly dependent on the GrIS response to arctic change. The scientific community is currently undecided between a model of a dynamic GrIS that becomes greatly reduced during warm periods and a model where it is relatively stable, even through periods warmer than today. This proposal addresses the idea that increased arctic precipitation offsets GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperature. The researchers will test this by contributing significant new information on arctic system change and related GrIS dynamics during past and ongoing warm periods, and employing an ice sheet modeling effort synthesizing all new data aimed at both past and future GrIS simulations. The researchers explicitly combine multiple scientific disciplines to provide a better understanding of how key arctic system components such as precipitation, temperature, sea-ice cover and GrIS mass balance are interconnected. The results will be of fundamental relevance to the fates of the arctic system, the GrIS and global sea level rise. This project will train six graduate students and one post-doctoral researcher. The cross-cutting research program is paralleled by the scope of the outreach plan, to develop a variety of deliverables, including development of an iBook and public outreach events. In addition the team will participate in public outreach events in Buffalo and New York City, where the public and scientists interact in a casual setting. Finally, this work has synergies with ongoing missions at NASA and other programs within the NSF. Due to recent advances in numerical ice sheet models and new sub-ice topography of Greenland, combined with finely-tuned field approaches and geochronologic techniques, the time is ripe for a coordinated, cross-disciplinary effort focusing on cryosphere variability in a warming Arctic; the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and sea ice constitute the largest, and most critical components of the arctic cryosphere. The hypothesis that increased arctic precipitation can counterbalance GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperatures stems from recent findings suggesting that it may be more stable than expected during interglacials. The researchers will: generate new GrIS margin reconstructions during and since the mid-Holocene Thermal Maximum (9,000 to 5,000 years ago), with a powerful approach that combines lake sediment stratigraphy with new sub-ice topography and novel high-sensitivity cosmogenic isotope methods; develop new Holocene climate reconstructions of moisture, temperature and sea ice conditions from lake and ocean sediments and an advanced synthesis of existing arctic ice core and other paleoclimate data; and employ state-of-the-art numerical ice sheet modeling fueled by ice margin and climate reconstructions to test a range of climatic and dynamic controls on GrIS change. If the idea is supported, then it would suggest a relatively stable GrIS during warm periods. If, however, this project provides evidence that the GrIS retreated considerably during the warmer-than-present mid-Holocene and in turn, that the GrIS has reacted more sensitively to temperature than to precipitation change, the results would support a tightly coupled ice sheet size-temperature link and in turn, a much greater near-term GrIS contribution to sea level rise. Either result will be of fundamental relevance to the fates of the arctic system, the GrIS and global sea level rise.

Logistics Summary:
The collaboration of Briner (1504267, U of Buffalo), Steig (1503281, UW), Morlighem (1504230, UCI), Young (1503959, LDEO), and Johnson (1504457, U of Montana) will address the null hypothesis that increased Arctic precipitation offsets GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperature. Logistic details under 1504267.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Nuuk0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2018Greenland - Nuuk0
2018Greenland - Paamiut0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Glacier-Ocean Interactions at a Greenland Ice Shelf at Tidal to Interannual Time Scales (Award# 1604076)

PI: Muenchow, Andreas (muenchow@udel.edu)
Phone: 0(302) 831.0742 
Institute/Department: U of Delaware, College of Marine and Earth Studies 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://IcySeas.org
Data: http://ows.udel.edu
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The rate of ice loss at the ocean margins of the great glacial ice sheets is the largest unknown in predictions of future global sea level change. Many physical processes at a range of time and space scales determine this mass loss, but their relative roles in net loss or gain and trends are poorly understood. This project will investigate the physics of glacier-ocean interaction for a specific system, Petermann Gletscher (PG), using data to improve understanding of processes at the marine margin of PG that drains a large fraction of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) into a deep fjord connected to Nares Strait via a floating, up to 1800 feet thick, ice shelf. The ice shelf has undergone significant retreat in the last few years, from 80 km long in 2010 to 50 km today. Observations of warming of the deep water in Nares Strait and Petermann Fjord, and of ice-shelf thinning during the decade preceding retreat, lead to a hypothesis that increased basal melting contributes to loss of the ice shelf. The project is motivated by three aspects of the Petermann Gletscher and Fjord system: (1) its importance as a gateway for GIS mass loss; (2) comparison of ocean dynamics in Petermann Fjord with previously studied southern Greenland systems; and (3) the value of PG as a well-constrained system for studying processes that contribute to mass loss from other northern Greenland and Antarctic ice-shelf systems and their contribution to rising global sea level. The project takes advantage of recent observations of this system, including ongoing satellite-relayed data from sub-ice-shelf moorings. This project will contribute to the development of a diverse STEM workforce through support for the training of two graduate and three undergraduate students, including a student from an under-represented group in STEM fields. The PI would continue his international collaborations with Swedish, English, and Canadian collaborators that were developed as part of the initial Petermann Gletscher study aboard I/B Oden in 2015. Outreach to the general public will be facilitated through the PI’s website, blog, occasional media interviews, and embedding national print journalists in the field work. Time series analyses will characterize how sub-glacial waters change along the central melt channel with the tides and seasons. Description of the average state and interpretation of variations will be aided by ocean survey data properties collected in the adjacent ocean by ship between 2003 and 2015. Both time- and frequency-domain statistical analyses will reveal correlation time and space scales. More specifically, Fourier, wavelet, and Hilbert transforms will be used to provide estimates of amplitude and phase at discrete scales. Frequency-domain linear system analyses will reveal input-output relations between multiple time series that represent forcings (e.g., atmospheric temperature and wind stress when sea-ice is mobile or absent, tides) and responses (e.g., depth of surface mixed layer, heat content of the meltwater plume, ice velocity and basal melt rate). Analyses of data from GPS and pressure sensors at each mooring will determine the degree of floatation at each site as the glacier transitions from >365 m to <100 m in thickness. Summer ocean surveys describe the inflowing Atlantic waters that will become diluted by basal melt and by direct injection of freshwater. Thermodynamic constraints on the solid-to-fluid phase transition of glacier ice melted by the ocean result in a characteristic relation of ocean temperatures and salinity (the Gade-line), which is set by the latent heat of melting. A second mixing line arises from ice-shelf surface melting and direct runoff into the fjord. In some fjord systems, this component includes a substantial discharge of subglacial water generated upstream of the grounding line. The temperature-salinity analyses will reveal the importance of this sub-glacial freshwater source along the central melt-channel.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers supported by this grant will investigate the physics of glacier-ocean interaction for the Petermann Gletscher system, using data analyses to improve understanding of ice loss processes at ice-sheet marine margins. The work includes analyses of time-series observations, the 2012 and 2015 CTD surveys in Petermann Fjord and adjacent Nares Strait, historical data sets, and ongoing remote-sensing data. Researchers will visit ocean and weather stations that were installed (and use fuel caches placed) in 2015 during an NSF funded cruise on the Oden (PI Mix, grant # 1418053). In August 2016, a field team of four will travel to Thule to then visit three existing surface stations on Petermann Gletscher as well as 2-3 weather stations in Nares Strait, using helicopter support from Thule and Qaanaaq.

CPS will provide AMC ticketing to/from Thule, Thule Air Base clearances, lodging in Thule, freight support on AMC and Air Greenland embassy flights, use of a truck while in Thule, and camp/safety equipment from CPS inventory. The PI will plan and pay directly for all of the costs related to the helicopter charter and any other logistic requirements from grant funds.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Arctic Ocean and Seas - Nares Strait08 / 23 / 2016 08 / 31 / 20164
2016Greenland - Petermann Gletscher08 / 23 / 2016 08 / 31 / 20164
2016Greenland - Thule08 / 23 / 2016 08 / 31 / 20164
 


Project Title: Millimeter-wave spectrometer at Thule (Award# GBMS)

PI: Muscari, Giovanni (muscari@ingv.it)
Phone: 39(065) 186.0724 
Institute/Department: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia,  
IPY Project? YES
Funding Agency: IT\Research/Higher Ed\U. Rome
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Legacy Projects | Meteorology and Climate\Atmospheric and Remote Sensing |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.ndsc.ncep.noaa.gov/

Science Summary:
The State University of New York at Stony Brook (SUNY) and the University of Rome “La Sapienza” (URome) have been collaborating for the past 7 years, operating a millimeter-wave spectrometer (GBMS) from Thule (winter campaigns 2001-2002 and 2002-2003) and from the Alpine site of Testa Grigia (11,500 feet above sea level, Italy, from 2003 onwards). Support for this research work, aimed also at contributing to the NASA EOS Aura satellite validation, was provided by NASA (under Grant NAG513029) and by the Italian Polar Program (PNRA). Personnel from URome have also been operating a LiDAR system from Thule Air Base at various times since 1990, and concurrently to the GBMS activity during winters 2001-2002 and 2002-2003. Both the GBMS and the LiDAR in Thule are among the ground-based instruments enrolled in the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, formerly known as Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change), also widely involved in the EOS Aura satellite validation plan. Data obtained with these two instruments are made available to the scientific community belonging to the NDACC international network. As part of an International Polar Year (IPY) research activity, ORACLE-O3 (Activity ID# 99), involving more than 15 different countries and even more research institutes (including the US Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Naval Research Laboratory), both the GBMS and the LiDAR will be operated from Thule AB during IPY winter 2008-2009. Operations will be run by personnel of URome and of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica and Vulcanologia (INGV).

Logistics Summary:
In contribution to the IPY ORACLE-03 program and the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDAAC), collaborators from URome and INGV will operate the GBMS and a LiDAR at Thule Air Base during the IPY winter of 2008/2009. Two scientists will travel to Thule in winter 2006-2007 to run maintenance on the LiDAR and prepare it for the following winter, when the first IPY field campaign is scheduled. (There was no travel to Thule in 2007/2008). Early the second week of January 2009, the PI and a colleague will travel to Thule Air Base and establish a presence (the PI will remain at Thule for the duration of the field season while other personnel rotate through). After initial set up is complete several days later, the first of two shipments of liquid nitrogen will arrive (to be used to maintain data quality). About January 22, two additional personnel will arrive at Thule to assist with the experiment; a week later, one from the initial team will depart Thule. In early February, a second shipment of LN2 will resupply the experiment stocks, and a field team member will depart the station several days later. The PI will remain on station with one colleague to complete the experiment, and both will depart about 6 March. When possible, the PI will combine logistics for this project with that of the DeZafra grant (0936365). Late in 2009, field work includes the installation of a liquid Nitrogen generator at Thule funded by the DeZafra grant. Then, two of the Muscari field team members will be supported with DeZafra logistics funds, spending a week or so installing/troubleshooting the new generator. In 2011, the PI and two team members will travel to Thule under DeZafra logistics funds. The visit will take place from late January to mid March. See DeZafra (0936365) for more information. This work is on a continuing basis with instruments running and may include periodic participant travel to Thule.

Prior to 2016, CPS will arrange for Thule clearances, cargo on Airbus and AMC, shipment of LN2, and provide reimbursable AMC tickets. From 2016 onward, CPS will provide ANG Clearances only. The investigators will arrange for and pay all other logistics expenses from their grant(s).
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2006Greenland - Thule12 / 07 / 2006 12 / 31 / 20062
2007Greenland - Thule01 / 01 / 2007 02 / 20 / 20072
2009Greenland - Thule01 / 08 / 2009 03 / 06 / 20094
2010Greenland - Thule0
2011Greenland - Thule0
2013Greenland - Thule01 / 23 / 2013 04 / 04 / 20135
2014Greenland - Thule01 / 29 / 2014 03 / 14 / 20143
2015Greenland - Thule0
2016Greenland - Thule02 / 24 / 2016 11 / 30 / 20165
2017Greenland - Thule02 / 16 / 2017 11 / 10 / 20173
2018Greenland - Thule1
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Direction and Mechanisms of Seasonal Change in Arctic Microbial Communities (Award# 1203831)

PI: Nelson, Karen E (kenelson@jcvi.org)
Phone: 0(301) 795.7565 
Institute/Department: J. Craig Venter Institute, Department of Microbial Genomics 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology\Microbial Ecology | Biology\Microbiology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://jcvi.org/metarep/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This project focuses on the characteristics and mechanisms of microbial succession in the high Arctic. Empirical observations suggest that seasonal change could be viewed as consisting of two phases, with simpler communities gradually replaced by more complex assemblages. The researchers hypothesize that life histories of the early colonizers include metabolic versatility and ability to expand quickly, which leads to communities characterized more by interspecies chemical warfare than intricate species integration. They also hypothesize that at later stages, species develop multiple synergies, their communities become more complex, and integrated by a signaling and regulatory network. A corollary of these traits is that the first phase is populated with species that are relatively easy to cultivate in pure culture, whereas species dominating at later stages may appear "uncultivable" in pure culture due to their dependencies on other species. Researchers will test these hypotheses in a study of a microbial community in the Thule Area in Northern Greenland. This environment offers a range of communities from simple to more complex with tractable (short) seasonal succession and constitutes a pristine and endangered community. Intellectual merit of this study is two-fold. The first is about bringing together in one study culture- dependent and culture-independent approaches, enabling us to relate microbial diversity and function in the most general sense. The enabling technology is important for general microbial ecology because it identifies functions expressed by the community with specific microbial players, and deciphers the roles of individual species, spatially and temporally. It has the potential to transform the study of arctic and other environmental microorganisms by informing us what key species are present, what functions they perform, and how the structure-function relationship changes over time. Second is the application of this platform to the ecology of arctic microorganisms, whereby they will test specific hypotheses related to the direction and aspects of microbial seasonal succession, aiming at their mechanistic explanation. Regardless of whether the hypotheses stand, they will assess the importance of community-level microbial interactions that are based on production of bioactive compounds, how these interactions change over the course of seasonal succession, and whether trajectory of the microbial seasonal succession can be manipulated in a predictable fashion. This approach may become useful in human and animal microbiome research helping establish roles of species implicated in a range of diseases; in bioremediation efforts by explaining roles of individual species in biotransformation of pollutants; and drug discovery since bioactive compounds are often produced in a community setting but not in isolation. These cultivation approaches are already used in biotechnology efforts, and are licensed to a biotech startup company. The project will provide opportunities for undergraduate and graduate training in a multidisciplinary setting.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Epstein (1203857, Northeastern, lead) and Nelson (1203831, J. Craig Venter) focuses on the characteristics and mechanisms of microbial growth succession in the High Arctic. See 1203857 for logistic details.

See 1203857 for support details.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2013Greenland - Ilulissat0
2013Greenland - Thule0
2014Greenland - Thule0
2016Greenland - Thule0
2017Greenland - Thule0
 


Project Title: Geophysical constraints on the crust and upper-mantle structure of Greenland (UPPA-GL) (Award# 1304346)

PI: Nettles, Meredith Katherine (nettles@Ldeo.columbia.edu )
Phone: 0(845) 365.8613 
Institute/Department: Columbia University, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.iris.edu/hq//data_and_software
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=13...

Science Summary:
The goals of this project are to characterize the crust and mantle signals associated with the Precambrian to present-day assembly of Greenland, including: identifying the structure and fabric underlying Archean and Paleoproterozoic craton and fold-belt regions; characterizing the nature of the Iceland hotspot's interaction with the Greenland crust and lithosphere; and identifying regions of possible high heat-flux under the ice sheet. The information derived from this study will provide key input for models of glacial isostatic adjustment and models of ice-sheet development and evolution, and will help answer outstanding questions about continent assembly and stability, the history of the Iceland plume, and possible unrecognized modern-day tectonic activity in northeast Greenland. The research will lead to a greatly improved understanding of the crust and mantle structure of Greenland, the way this structure has evolved with time, and its influence on modern-day geophysical processes in the cryosphere and solid Earth. The results of this study will provide important inputs for ice-sheet models and models of glacial isostatic adjustment. The accuracy of both types of models is critical for accurate predictions of sea-level rise. The findings of this study will be relevant for understanding continental assembly and preservation worldwide. The seismological models derived in this project will also allow improved estimates of source parameters for tectonic and glacial earthquakes. Raw data and derived data products will be publicly available through the IRIS and UNAVCO archives. The educational materials produced through this project will be available for general use, and project outreach efforts will support U.S.-Greenland partnership in education. The project will train one graduate student and 2 to 3 undergraduate students.

Logistics Summary:
Scientists working on this geophysical study of the crust and upper mantle of Greenland aim to characterize the seismic velocity structure of Greenland's crust and upper mantle in three dimensions; and to integrate these results with gravity and heat-flow data, laboratory estimates of material properties, and petrological data to map variations in temperature, composition, and heat flux. Researchers will use seismic data from the NSF- and internationally funded GLISN seismic network, supplemented by targeted collection of data at a limited number of temporary PASSCAL stations. Field work begins in the summer of 2014, continues in 2015, and ends in 2016. In 2014 a field team of 3 will deploy seven seismic stations (provided by PASSCAL), six located on the northern ice sheet and one on the East Greenland coast. The power system consists of solar panels and rechargeable batteries in a large Hardigg case attached to the seismic sensor, which sits in a small barrel. The team also will deploy GPS stations at two of the sites with a similar power system and overall setup. The stations will be serviced in summer 2015, and retrieved and returned to the US in summer 2016. The team will travel to Greenland in June 2014 using the ANG logistics chain, and base at Summit Station to deploy the inland sites. At Summit, the field team will test the seismic systems first, building them into fully functional systems before breaking them down and packing them for transport via Twin Otter to the installation sites. The team will make day trips to the installation sites, returning to Summit each day. When this work is complete, the researchers will depart with the Twin Otter and fly to Akureyri. Approximately two weeks later, the field team will return to Kulusuk to install their final site in SE Greenland. The team will fly commercially to Kulusuk and test equipment shipped there earlier in the season. The Norland Air Twin Otter will then pick up the team and cargo in Kulusuk and fly to Kagssortoq where the researchers will install the final station. They will spend one night in the field, and return to Kulusuk. The Twin Otter will return to Akureyri, and the researchers will depart Greenland or continue on education-and-outreach work related to this grant but not requiring logistics support. In 2015 the team will again use the ANG logistics chain and base at Summit to deploy to the northern sites for maintenance visits. A Norland Air Twin Otter will fly from Akureyri, Iceland to Summit to work with the team. They will take day trips to the installation sites, returning to Summit each day, except for one when they will overnight at either Danmarkshavn or EGRIP. When this work is complete, the researchers will depart with the Twin Otter and fly to Akureyri. After one day in town, the field team will fly via Twin Otter to their final site in SE Greenland at Kagssortoq (SE1), where they will swap the data-logger and make some improvements at the site. They will spend one night in the field, and return with the Twin Otter to Akureyri. In 2016, four researchers will return to Greenland, flying via ANG to Kangerlussuaq, and then putting in via LC-130 to a newly established deep drill site north of Summit Station called EGRIP (East GReenland Icecore Project, managed by the Centre of Ice and Climate, University of Copenhagen). The team will base at EGRIP and visit their seismic sites via Twin Otter to dig out, dismantle, and remove all project equipment and batteries for retrograde to EGRIP. Each site will require two flights due to weight. When the work is completed, a total estimate of 7000 lbs. of equipment and batteries will be retrieved by LC-130 and returned to Kangerlussuaq during the late June flight period. Meanwhile, the Nettles team will return to Akureyri via the Twin Otter and stay for two nights. Three team members will then return to Greenland to pull out the Kagssortoq site (SE1) in the southeast, an effort involving one overnight in the village. When this work is done, the researchers will return to Akureyri for onward travel to the US.

CPS will provide Air National Guard (ANG) coordination for passengers and cargo, user days in Kangerlussuaq and EGRIP, freight to/from EGRIP and from Kulusuk to Kangerlussuaq, fixed wing charters, accommodation in Kulusuk, and camp and safety equipment. PASSCAL will provide tools and assistance with field support. UNAVCO will provide GPS units. All other logistics will be organized by the researcher and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 02 / 2014 06 / 04 / 20143
2014Greenland - Kulusuk06 / 30 / 2014 07 / 05 / 20143
2014Greenland - NE106 / 08 / 2014 06 / 08 / 20143
2014Greenland - NE206 / 09 / 2014 06 / 09 / 20143
2014Greenland - NE306 / 10 / 2014 06 / 10 / 20143
2014Greenland - NE406 / 11 / 2014 06 / 11 / 20143
2014Greenland - NE506 / 12 / 2014 06 / 12 / 20143
2014Greenland - NE606 / 13 / 2014 06 / 13 / 20143
2014Greenland - SE107 / 04 / 2014 07 / 05 / 20143
2014Greenland - Summit06 / 04 / 2014 06 / 18 / 20143
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 08 / 2015 06 / 09 / 20152
2015Greenland - NE106 / 12 / 2015 06 / 12 / 20152
2015Greenland - NE206 / 13 / 2015 06 / 13 / 20152
2015Greenland - NE306 / 14 / 2015 06 / 14 / 20152
2015Greenland - NE406 / 15 / 2015 06 / 15 / 20152
2015Greenland - NE506 / 16 / 2015 06 / 16 / 20152
2015Greenland - NE606 / 17 / 2015 06 / 17 / 20152
2015Greenland - SE106 / 22 / 2015 06 / 23 / 20152
2015Greenland - Summit06 / 09 / 2015 06 / 20 / 20152
2016Greenland - EGRIP06 / 02 / 2016 06 / 15 / 20164
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 01 / 2016 06 / 02 / 20164
2016Greenland - NE106 / 05 / 2016 06 / 05 / 20164
2016Greenland - NE206 / 07 / 2016 06 / 07 / 20164
2016Greenland - NE306 / 09 / 2016 06 / 09 / 20164
2016Greenland - NE406 / 10 / 2016 06 / 10 / 20164
2016Greenland - NE506 / 11 / 2016 06 / 11 / 20164
2016Greenland - NE606 / 13 / 2016 06 / 13 / 20164
2016Greenland - SE106 / 17 / 2016 06 / 18 / 20163
 


Project Title: Continued Core Atmospheric and Snow Measurements at the Summit, Greenland Environmental Observatory (Award# ICESat)

PI: Neumann, Thomas A (thomas.neumann@nasa.gov)
Phone: 0(301) 614.5923 
Institute/Department: National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Thomas Wagner (thomas.wagner@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):

Science Summary:
This NASA award supports the continuation and expansion of long-term measurements of the Arctic atmosphere, snow, and other Earth system components at the Summit, Greenland, Environmental Observatory (GEOSummit). The original measurement program began in 2003. Year-round measurements with at least 10 years in duration are required to observe and quantify the roles of large-scale, multiyear oscillations in oceanic and atmospheric circulation (e.g., Arctic Oscillation), snow accumulation, firn densification, and ice flow effects. The "Broader Impacts" of these observations are numerous and include the potential to transform understanding of the role of natural and anthropogenic aerosols in climate forcing, to improve climate models and the prediction of future Arctic environmental change, provide ground calibration for satellite measurements of ice sheet elevation, and to enhance the interpretation of ice core records of paleo-environmental variability.

Logistics Summary:
The researchers will study snow accumulation measured year-round at the Greenland Environmental Observatory at Summit Station (GEO Summit), an effort that continues measurement programs previously supported under PI McConnell (NSF grant 0856845). The project involves two staked arrays: the 121-stake (11 x 11) ‘bamboo forest’ near the station, commencing about 700 meters east of the Big House facility, which is measured weekly; and the 121-stake linear array for NASA’s Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and ICESat-2 validation, commencing about 3,300 meters west of the Big House facility, which is measured monthly. The ICESat validation snow machine transect was started in 2006 along the satellite track of the laser altimeter and has been continued during the interim period between the end of the mission of the original ICESat in 2009 and the planned 2018 launch of ICESat-2. Results improve understanding of ice sheet elevation change and snow-water equivalencies. Beginning in 2016, Summit Station science technicians will collect snow accumulation values for comparison to measurements of ground and remote sensing instrumentation. In 2017, Co-PI Kelly Brunt will visit Summit in June to assess the existing ICESat survey line and procedures carried out by the science technicians. Snow machine training and use will be provided on-site to support her planned activities. Science technicians will coordinate with her and the GreenTracs traverse team to conduct the required surveys. Researchers may return in 2018, details are TBD.

CPS will provide science technician support including project task specific materials, communications equipment, snow machines, poly pod and shared use of UNAVCO GPS instrumentation. CPS will also provide KISS and Summit user days, and transportation via the Air National Guard logistics chain. NSF will recoup costs of this support via an interagency funds transfer NASA>NSF. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the research group from the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 21 / 2017 06 / 29 / 20171
2017Greenland - Summit06 / 23 / 2017 06 / 27 / 20171
2018Greenland - Summit1
 


Project Title: Greenland Telescope (Award# SAOTelescope)

PI: Norton, Timothy John (tnorton@cfa.harvard.edu)
Phone: 0(617) 495.7188 
Institute/Department: Harvard-Smithsonian Center For Astrophysics ,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\SAO
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Space Physics\Astrophysics |

Project Web Site(s):

Science Summary:
The project plans to deploy a 12 m radio antenna to Thule Air Base (TAB) for VLBI operation at 230 GHz prior to installing the telescope at Summit Station for higher frequency Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and submillimeter operation. Deployment at TAB will enable the team to test functionality, measure characteristics, make critical adjustments and observe astronomical sources. This is a crucial first step towards Summit deployment where a key objective is to provide direct confirmation of a Super Massive Black Hole (SMBH) by observing its shadow image in the active galaxy M87. Radiometer: The science objectives are to survey TAB's atmospheric opacity at 225 GHz, utilizing the data in Greenland Telescope sensitivity prediction models. The Radiometer is a passive narrow-band receiver monitoring the sky at a frequency of 225 GHz. It is an automated tipper that repeatedly scans the atmosphere from zenith toward the horizon in a chosen direction.

Logistics Summary:
The project concerns a 12 m radio antenna deployed to Thule Air Base (TAB) for VLBI operation at 230 GHz prior to installing the telescope at Summit Station for higher frequency Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and submillimeter operation. Deployment at TAB will enable the team to test functionality, measure characteristics, make critical adjustments and observe astronomical sources. This is a crucial first step towards Summit deployment, where a key objective is to provide direct confirmation of a Super Massive Black Hole (SMBH) by observing its shadow image in the active galaxy M87. In March of 2016 two researchers will deploy a radiometer to TAB. Their work at TAB will focus on the following science objective: to survey TAB's atmospheric opacity at 225 GHz, utilizing the data in Greenland Telescope sensitivity prediction models. The Radiometer is a passive narrow-band receiver monitoring the sky at a frequency of 225 GHz. It is an automated tipper that repeatedly scans the atmosphere from zenith toward the horizon in a chosen direction. The radiometer is the same instrument that had previously been installed at Summit under the Chen/ASIAA NSF-billed project. The research team will return to Thule in early July and maintain a presence of 2-6 personnel through September. The team will receive the telescope arriving on the Pacer Goose and work with Greenland Contractors on pad and workspace preparations in anticipation of a winter build. Researchers will return in 2018, details are TBD.

CPS will provide Air National Guard airlift to Thule for freight, CPS labor for planning and project management, use of heated staging space at TAB, and assistance with Air Mobility Command cargo shipments. NSF will recoup costs associated with this support directly from SAO and/or ASIAA. CPS will assist in arrangements for base clearances, AMC ticketing, GC contracting, North Star Inn lodging and GC rental trucks; however, all services will be paid for directly by the research team.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Thule03 / 10 / 2016 09 / 21 / 201615
2017Greenland - Thule01 / 26 / 2017 09 / 08 / 201723
2018Greenland - Thule1
 


Project Title: Arctic Observing Networks: Collaborative Research: ITEX AON - understanding the relationships between vegetation change, plant phenology, and ecosystem function in a warming Arctic (Award# 1504381)

PI: Oberbauer, Steven F (oberbaue@fiu.edu)
Phone: 0(305) 348.2580 
Institute/Department: Florida International University, Department of Biological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Ecology |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://faculty.fiu.edu/~oberbaue/AON-ITEX.html
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The goal of this program is to document and understand arctic terrestrial change by maintaining and extracting value from the temporally-critical datasets of the International Tundra Experiment Arctic Observatory Network (ITEX-AON), which has been active in Alaska and Greenland since 2007. ITEX was chartered in 1990 to quantify the effects of inter-annual environmental variability and increased temperature on tundra plant phenology, growth, species composition and ecosystem function using sustained experimental techniques and background monitoring. The ITEX network has provided exceptional value by detecting changes in tundra plant and ecosystem responses to experimental warming and to background change across sites that span the major ecosystems of the Arctic. Unlike most monitoring programs that focus primarily on documenting change and rely on correlation to determine causal factors, ITEX can attribute cause for observed change because of the imbedded experimental approach, which is especially critical as the Arctic System is changing rapidly and in complex ways. This project will provide urgently needed data critical to understanding the impact of multi-scale vegetation change on ecosystem function, namely land-atmosphere carbon and water fluxes and energy balance. Observed changes in the Arctic over the past half century include substantial vegetation change and greening, permafrost warming, and surface hydrological change. Building on the US ITEX program started in 1994, the ITEX-AON (since 2007) has continued and expanded on a wide latitudinal transect consisting of five sites in Alaska and Greenland, collecting core ITEX data with methods designed to address specific needs outlined in the 2003 Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) Implementation Report. Core datasets include manual observations of phenology, vegetation structure and composition, and ecosystem function (carbon flux & nutrient cycling) on long-term ITEX control and experimental warming plots, repeat measurement of vegetation plots on the 1 km2 ARCSS grids, and a multifactor warming/moisture experiment in Greenland. In 2009, the ITEX-AON sampling scheme was expanded to include a larger spatial component to amplify the utility of the measurements collected. This included the addition of phenocams, automated mobile sensor platforms and medium-scale aerial imagery. The automated platforms measure a suite of vegetation surface properties with minimal effort across focal transects spanning strong moisture and microtopographic gradients at a near-daily frequency. These measurements capture the fine-scale changes in vegetation over the growing season that are missed by lower frequency manual measurements and provide a bridge between manual measurements and aerial imagery. Medium-scale aerial imagery, using Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), is acquired throughout the growing season for scaling of manual and automated measurements; satellite imagery is referenced to medium-scale aerial imagery to aid scaling of responses to the regional level. In this phase, collection of core data sets will continue with some streamlining to allow for collection of new data sets aimed at reinforcing the proven value of the program and its utility to adapt to and support future research needs.

Logistics Summary:
This grant continues activities supported by NSF award 1432982 related to the International Tundra eXperiment (ITEX), which has been active in Alaska and Greenland since 2007. The goal of researchers contributing to this collaboration between Oberbauer (1504381, FIU, LEAD), Hollister (1504224, GVSU), Welker (1504141, UAA) and Tweedie (1504345, UTEP) is to document and better understand Arctic terrestrial change by maintaining and extracting value from continuous data sets produced by the ITEX Arctic Observatory Network ( ITEX-AON). During this phase of the project, scientists will streamline collection of core data sets to accommodate new data sets aimed at reinforcing the proven value of the program and its capacity to adapt to and support future research needs. During the summers of 2016 through 2018, ITEX-AON researchers will continue to collect core data at Alaska field sites in Utqiagvik (Barrow), Atqasuk, Toolik Field Station, and Imnavait Creek; and at Thule Air Base, Greenland. In 2016, 3 people will travel to Thule Air Base, Greenland, in late May. They will reestablish ITEX plots, and continue manipulation experiments and sampling activities until early August. Personnel will depart on a staggered schedule.The last of the original field team will depart in early August, just after a fourth researcher arrives to complete field activities and close out the experiment for the season in mid-August. Also in 2016, 2 researchers will visit Utqiagvik (Barrow) and Atqasuk in April to change two batteries in the redundant power system at each site. In late-May, researchers will begin visits to Toolik Field Station for sampling at the station and Imnavait Creek. They will maintain a presence through August with a number of personnel change-outs. Trips to Utqiagvik (Barrow) and Atqasuk commence in early June, and continue through August as well. In 2017, 2 people will return to Thule Air Base, Greenland in early June. They will reestablish ITEX plots, and continue manipulation experiments and sampling activities until early August. Three additional personnel will arrive in mid-July for two weeks of field activities. In Alaska, researchers will begin arriving at Toolik Field Station in late May and will maintain a presence in the area through early September sampling phenology and vegetation properties of established transects. Utqiagvik (Barrow)/Atqasuk work will commence in early June with research teams traveling periodically to Atqasuk throughout the summer to conduct similar work.

In Utqiagvik (Barrow) and Atqasuk, CPS will provide lodging, bear guards, truck rentals, communications equipment, medical kits, ATV rentals, ATV trailer rentals, tents for field sites, radios, BARC laboratory space, storage space and assistance with UIC and NSB permits. UNAVCO will provide dGPS equipment that is based in Utqiagvik (Barrow). At Toolik Field Station and Imnavait Creek, CPS will provide Toolik user days, maintenance of remote power systems and boardwalks, and truck rentals from Fairbanks and Prudhoe Bay. IAB will provide access to infrastructure and services at Toolik. In Thule in 2017, CPS will provide berthing/lab/office space in Bldg 353, use of the Thule lab in Hangar 4, use of an NSF-owned truck, access to Bldg. 1971 to access instrumentation, access to Bldg. 628 for science staging/storage, communication gear, base contractor support for instrument maintenance, power to North Mountain, ANG freight, AMC freight and AMC travel tickets. All other logistics, including land use permits in Toolik, will be arranged and paid for by the PIs from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Atqasuk06 / 06 / 2016 08 / 20 / 20161
2016Alaska - Imnavait Creek05 / 26 / 2016 08 / 18 / 20161
2016Alaska - Toolik05 / 27 / 2016 09 / 05 / 20167
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)04 / 01 / 2016 08 / 31 / 20169
2016Greenland - Thule05 / 31 / 2016 10 / 21 / 20164
2017Alaska - Atqasuk1
2017Alaska - Imnavait Creek1
2017Alaska - Toolik05 / 24 / 2017 09 / 04 / 20178
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)06 / 05 / 2017 08 / 23 / 201713
2017Greenland - Thule06 / 08 / 2017 09 / 06 / 20176
2018Alaska - Atqasuk1
2018Alaska - Imnavait Creek1
2018Alaska - Toolik1
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)1
2018Greenland - Thule1
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: GreenTrACS: a Greenland Traverse for Accumulation and Climate Studies (Award# 1417678)

PI: Osterberg, Erich Christian (erich.c.osterberg@dartmouth.edu)
Phone: 0(603) 646.1096 
Institute/Department: Dartmouth College, Department of Earth Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Glaciology | Cryosphere\Ice Geochemistry | Cryosphere\Ice Penetrating Radar | Cryosphere\Ice Sheet Mass Balance |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://cgiss.boisestate.edu/data_downloads.php
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
The investigators plan a traverse in the Western Greenland percolation zone over two field seasons to develop continuous in-situ snow accumulation and firn density records using ground-based radar and shallow firn cores. The research objectives include: (1) determining the patterns, in time and space, of snow accumulation in Western Greenland over the past 20-40 years; (2) evaluating surface melt refreeze and englacial meltwater storage in the Western Greenland percolation zone over the past 20-40 years; and (3) quantifying the accumulation and surface melt biases of the most recent climate reanalysis models and their regional climate model counterparts. This project intends to advance knowledge and understanding by providing in-situ validation observations for both the mass gain (snow accumulation) and mass loss (surface melt) components of Western Greenland surface mass balance. Previous studies have shown that the western edge of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been losing mass at an accelerating rate since 2005, due mostly to decreasing surface mass balance. However, surface mass balance trends derived from regional climate models differ by a factor of ~2.5 in this region. Western Greenland firn core accumulation records, required for model validation, generally end in 1996-1998, before the most recent period of accelerated mass loss. The investigators will develop continuous records of Western Greenland snow accumulation over the last 20-40 years using ground-penetrating radar validated by frequent snow pits and firn cores (25-30 m) analyzed for chemistry. They will also use a multi-offset radar method to calculate firn density continuously along the traverse, providing a means to assess past surface melt, refreeze and current meltwater storage in glacier aquifers, as well as critical density-profile data for air- and spaceborne remote sensing work. Meltwater refreeze shows the largest variability in regional climate models among surface mass balance components, and thus validation observations are critically needed. The traverse route will crisscross the percolation zone, near-parallel to the steepest accumulation and surface melt gradients, which will increase the value of the dataset for model validation. The traverse will overlap previous traverse routes, IceBridge airborne radar flight paths, and reoccupy previously sampled sites to update firn core accumulation records by 18-20 years. In addition, the project will collect cores from new sites in data-poor regions at lower elevations, where both accumulation and surface melt increase and regional climate model validation is most needed. Surface mass balance validation of several climate reanalysis models will lead to more accurate assessments of current and future Greenland Ice Sheet mass balance trends, which is critical for accurately predicting future sea-level rise.

Logistics Summary:
This project, Greenland Traverse for Accumulation and Climate Studies (GreenTrACS), is a collaboration between Osterberg and Hawley (1417678, Dartmouth, LEAD), Birkel (1417640, U of Maine), and Marshall (1417921, Boise State). In 2016 a team of five will conduct a sampling traverse in Greenland during spring/early summer, April to mid-June. They will fly to Kangerlussuaq via the Air National Guard (ANG) logistics chain and spend several days preparing before flying on to Raven Camp, the traverse starting point, via the ANG. After departing several days later, the team will spend about a month on a snowmachine-based traverse of about 1700 km. They will tent camp for the duration, collecting ice cores (which they will cache along the traverse in several locations) and performing ground-based radar measurements en route. After reaching the traverse end point, Summit Station, the group will fly back to Kangerlussuaq via the ANG, pack up, and then depart Greenland via the ANG. The cached ice cores will be retrieved by Twin Otter immediately following the expedition, and kept in frozen storage until they can be transported to the U.S. on a “cold-deck” ANG flight. CPS staff will unload the cores in New York and a freezer truck from Dartmouth will meet the aircraft to deliver them to the home institution. In 2017, a team of five will travel to Kangerlussuaq via the Air National Guard and then on to Summit Station. The researchers will base out of Summit, traversing via snow machine, conducting similar field work to 2016 for a duration of just under two months. After returning to Summit, they will fly the ANG back to Kangerlussuaq and the US. There will be a crew swap mid-May with one person leaving and the co-PI joining the team in the field.

CPS will provide ANG coordination for passengers and cargo, frozen core sample transport to Kangerlussuaq, sample transport to NY via ANG annual ‘cold deck’, freezer space in Kangerlussuaq between flights, KISS and Summit user days, fixed wing charters, ice core boxes, equipment fuel, sleds, generators, camping equipment, safety gear, med kit/ service and communications equipment. All other support will be arranged and paid for by the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 25 / 2016 06 / 11 / 20165
2016Greenland - Raven04 / 30 / 2016 05 / 02 / 20165
2016Greenland - Summit06 / 06 / 2016 06 / 09 / 20165
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 18 / 2017 06 / 29 / 20176
2017Greenland - Summit05 / 01 / 2017 06 / 25 / 20176
 


Project Title: SAVI: Collaborative Research: Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic - Labrador Basin and Floats (Award# 1259618)

PI: Pickart, Robert S (rpickart@whoi.edu)
Phone: 0(508) 289.2858 
Institute/Department: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Physical Oceanography Dept. 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OCE
Program Manager: Dr. Eric Itsweire (eitsweir@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://ilikai.soest.hawaii.edu/ladcp/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=12...
Project: http://www.o-snap.org/
Data: https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/

Science Summary:
This project is one of two components of a US-led international program, Overturning in the Sub-polar North Atlantic (OSNAP), designed to provide a continuous record of the full-water column, trans-basin fluxes of heat, mass and freshwater in the subpolar North Atlantic. The OSNAP observing system consists of two legs: one extending from southern Labrador to the southwestern tip of Greenland across the mouth of the Labrador Sea (OSNAP West), and the second from the southeastern tip of Greenland to Scotland (OSNAP East). The observing system also includes subsurface floats (OSNAP Floats) in order to trace the pathways of overflow waters in the basin and to assess the connectivity of currents crossing the OSNAP line. The location of the OSNAP East and West legs purposefully melds with a number of long-term observational efforts in the North Atlantic: the Canadian repeat hydrography program in the Labrador Sea; the German Labrador Sea western boundary array at 53°N; the global Ocean Observatories Initiative node in the southwestern Irminger Sea; the repeat hydrographic sections across the Irminger and Iceland basins; and the Ellett line in the Rockall region. Substantial international collaboration has been garnered for OSNAP, including measurement contributions from the UK, Germany, the Netherlands and Canada. Importantly, this observing system, in conjunction with the RAPID/MOCHA array at 26°N and the European Union NACLIM program measuring the Nordic Seas overflows, will provide the first comprehensive three-dimensional measure of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) and provide a means to evaluate inter-gyre connectivity in the North Atlantic. This collaborative project will implement the OSNAP West section and the OSNAP Float program. The primary observational components are: (i) a mooring array across the eastern margin of the Labrador Sea, where the subpolar boundary current enters the basin. This array will complement an analogous array across the western margin at the exit point of the Labrador Sea, maintained by institutions in Germany and Canada; (ii) a sequential release of acoustically tracked floats in the lower limb of the AMOC at the OSNAP East and OSNAP West boundary arrays. These floats will be seeded in the two densest components of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) over the four-year period of the measurement program (2014-2018). This research award includes support for a Science Accross Virtual Institutes (SAVI) that is co-funded by NSF's Office of International and Integrative Activities.

Logistics Summary:
This is a collaborative US-led international program between Pickart (1259618, WHOI) and Lozier (1259103, Duke). Overturning in the Subpolar North Atlantic (OSNAP), is designed to provide a continuous record of the full-water column, trans-basin fluxes of heat, mass and freshwater in the subpolar North Atlantic. The OSNAP observing system consists of two legs: one extending from southern Labrador to the southwestern tip of Greenland across the mouth of the Labrador Sea (OSNAP West), and the second from the southeastern tip of Greenland to Scotland (OSNAP East). OSNAP is a partner in the North Atlantic Virtual Institute (NAVIS), which connects science teams around the world studying climate variability and change in the North Atlantic. Beginning in 2014 through 2018, researchers will participate in various OSNAP cruises to deploy moorings, sound sources and RAFOS floats in the OSNAP East and OSNAP West regions. In 2016 two researchers will travel to Nuuk to conduct interviews as part of their outreach.

CPS will provide coordination for passengers on Air National Guard flights between NY and Kangerlussuaq. The PI will arrange and pay for all other logistics through the grants.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Arctic Ocean and Seas - Irminger Sea05 / 31 / 2014 07 / 18 / 20142
2014Arctic Ocean and Seas - Labrador Sea05 / 31 / 2014 08 / 31 / 20142
2015Arctic Ocean and Seas - Iceland Basin06 / 12 / 2015 07 / 07 / 20152
2015Arctic Ocean and Seas - Irminger Sea07 / 08 / 2015 07 / 30 / 20152
2015Arctic Ocean and Seas - Labrador Sea05 / 01 / 2015 05 / 26 / 20152
2015Arctic Ocean and Seas - Reykjanes Ridge06 / 05 / 2015 07 / 10 / 20152
2016Arctic Ocean and Seas - Labrador Sea05 / 01 / 2016 05 / 27 / 20162
2016Greenland - Nuuk07 / 12 / 2016 07 / 21 / 20162
2017Arctic Ocean and Seas - Irminger Sea1
2017Arctic Ocean and Seas - Labrador Sea1
2018Arctic Ocean and Seas - Labrador Sea1
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Linking belowground phenology and ecosystem function in a warming Arctic (Award# 1107381)

PI: Post, Eric (post@ucdavis.edu)
Phone:  
Institute/Department: U of California, Davis, Wildlife, Fish and Conservation Biology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology\Climate Change | Biology\Ecosystems |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/data/arcss.html
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This project comprises a four-year, passive warming experiment of low-Arctic tundra vegetation at a long-term study site in Greenland, with the primary aim of measuring the response of plant roots to warming, and the role of this response in ecosystem carbon exchange. Phenology, the annual timing and progression of events such as above-ground plant growth, is a well-studied and important component of the ecology of climate change; but it remains under-studied below-ground. The PI will estimate and compare above- and below-ground responses of plant phenology to warming and their respective contributions to ecosystem function, specifically the exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and tundra. It will furthermore determine which plant types, e.g., shrubs or grasses, show the greater below-ground response to warming and contribution to ecosystem carbon exchange. Novel insights into the expected response of the Arctic to climate change will emerge from this experiment, which will also expand the infrastructure for field-based experimental and observational research in the Arctic. This research will promote the involvement of under-represented groups by recruitment of students through Penn State’s Minority Undergraduate Research Experience program, and promote education and dissemination of its results through a summer field ecology module at the study site and in courses at Penn State and the University of Alaska-Anchorage. Results will also be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences by participating students and the Principal Investigators.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this collaboration between Post (1107381, PSU, LEAD) and Sullivan (UAA, 1108425) will continue and expand on research begun by the lead PI in 1993, whose most recent NSF grant for this work is 0902125 (which expires in 2012). From 2012 through 2016, researchers will spend spring and summer in Greenland at a field site near Kangerlussuaq, where they will tend their experimental plots. Each year, research teams of 11 or so will travel to Kangerlussuaq via the ANG logistics chain in mid-May (during the last year, the field team may be as many as 19). They will use a rental vehicle to travel to/from their research site near Russell Glacier, where they will establish a tent camp. They will make daily observations at their sites, and return frequently to Kangerlussuaq for resupply and to work on their samples. The PIs will host visits by undergraduates from Dartmouth and University of Greenland who are participating in a field seminar supported by an IGERT award (Virginia, Dartmouth, 0801490). In February 2013, a team of two will visit Kangerlussuaq to establish experiment plots while the ground is snowcovered. They will fly commercially to Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, assemble CPS-provided camping gear, and perform day trips to their research site near Long Lake. The CPS field coordinator, who will be in Kangerlussuaq for pre-season field preparations, will assist the researchers with daily safety check-ins and other as-needed support. During the 2013 season, the field team will deploy at various times throughout the April – August timeframe. Participants with co-PI Paddy Sullivan will join the other researchers from late June to early August, bringing the local Kangerlussuaq camp to its peak population. In January 2014, a team of one will visit Kangerlussuaq to again establish experiment plots while the ground is snow-covered. They will fly commercially to Kangerlussuaq, Greenland and perform day trips to their research site near Long Lake. During the 2014 season, the field team will deploy at various times throughout the May – September timeframe. The Sullivan participants will join the field team in early June bringing the local Kangerlussuaq camp to its peak population. During the 2015 season, the field team will deploy at various times throughout April – September. In 2016 a smaller group of three people will visit Kangerlussuaq for about 5-6 weeks mid-May through June.

In 2012- 2015, CPS will provide ANG coordination for passengers and cargo, limited rental truck use, and field/safety gear. All other support, including lodging, food, and transportation to/from field site in Kangerlussuaq and in the field, is the responsibility of the PI and will come from grant funds. In 2016, CPS will provide ANG coordination for passengers and cargo, some field gear, and safety/communications equipment. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 19 / 2012 08 / 22 / 201211
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 04 / 2013 09 / 15 / 201323
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 12 / 2014 09 / 12 / 201416
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 24 / 2015 09 / 05 / 201513
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 13 / 2016 06 / 30 / 20163
 


Project Title: Arctic Plant Phenology - Learning through Engaged Science (APPLES) (Award# 1525636)

PI: Post, Eric (post@ucdavis.edu)
Phone:  
Institute/Department: U of California, Davis, Wildlife, Fish and Conservation Biology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\PSI
Program Manager: Ms. Elizabeth Rom (elrom@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Climate Change |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The PI will develop and pilot a scalable strategy for involving educators in polar research and making data from polar research programs accessible to students. Plans include engaging grades 6-12 and undergraduate science educators in a long-term, ongoing research project in Greenland that examines changes in the phenology (e.g. seasonal life cycle events - in this case, the onset of springtime plant growth) of arctic plants and how this relates to climate. Educators and students will conduct similar observations and experiments in their local environment and will contribute their data to the ongoing research efforts. Participants will consist of approximately 24 middle school, high school, and undergraduate educators from schools across a range of geographical locations and school districts serving underrepresented and underserved students. The PI will conduct a workshop each year with the educators and develop online resources for the educators. Educators will be engaged in an ongoing study of plant phenology at a field site near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland and they will learn observational and experimental methods of studying plant phenology that they can use with their students in their local environment. Educators from Fort Lewis College, Colorado, Blue Hill Consolidated School, Maine; and St. Paul Island, Alaska, will participate in this project. Additionally, the development of online resources will provide access to data from long-term research on arctic plant phenology, related lesson plans, and media representations of research activities in Greenland to an expanded network of educators. These on-line resources will serve educational needs beyond the duration of this project. The proposed activities present outstanding opportunities for the involvement of student groups, including Native American and Alaskan Aleut students, in research through hands-on training and inquiry-based educational experiences.

Logistics Summary:
Participants on this project will develop and pilot a scalable strategy for engaging middle school, high school, and undergraduate educators in polar research that will also prepare them to engage their students in similar research in the classroom. Plans include engaging K-12 and undergraduate science educators in a long-term and ongoing research project in Greenland, examining changes in the phenology of arctic plants and how this relates to climate change. Participants will consist of middle school, high school, and undergraduate educators from schools across a range of geographical locations and school districts serving underrepresented and underserved students. In 2016 and 2017, the grantees will send two people to Greenland in early spring to prepare experiments and five to seven people to Greenland for the duration of a flight period each season. Note: The PI has changed institutions from Penn State to UC Davis. The grant itself however remains under Penn State University.

CPS will provide ANG coordination for the participants and cargo, a rental truck, and select camp/safety equipment. All other logistics will be organized by the researcher and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 25 / 2016 07 / 19 / 20167
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 08 / 2017 07 / 29 / 20179
 


Project Title: North East Greenland Automated Weather Station and GPS (Award# NASADTU)

PI: Rignot, Eric J (erignot@uci.edu )
Phone: 0(818) 653.2531 
Institute/Department: U of California, Irvine, Earth System Science 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Thomas Wagner (thomas.wagner@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):

Science Summary:
In collaboration with DTU and UT, researchers will deploy two iAWS (Automated Weather Station) on the north-east ice stream, Greenland, within 50 km of the ice front of Zachariae Isstrom to document surface mass balance processes and changes in ice dynamics in a marine-based glaciological settings that is undergoing significant changes at present. The iAWS will provide surface climatology data and GPS data with a direct satellite uplink. The data will be analyzed to better understand why current regional atmospheric climate models do not capture surface melt processes quite accurately in the northeast in contrast to other parts of Greenland and to document short-term (hourly) changes in ice dynamics in response to the collapse of the Zachariae Isstrom ice shelf around 2012. The results will in turn help researchers better understand the evolution of this marine-based sector of Greenland and projects its future contribution to sea level rise. As part of this collaboration, DTU will deploy GPS stations at locations further upstream to document changes in glacier dynamics in the interior and share data access with our team. These data will document how far inland changes in ice dynamics are tracked down and on what time scales.

Logistics Summary:
In collaboration with DTU, NASA will deploy two iAWS (Automated Weather Station) on the north-east ice stream, Greenland, within 50 km of the ice front of Zachariae Isstrom to document surface mass balance processes and changes in ice dynamics in a marine-based glaciological settings that is undergoing significant changes at present. In 2016 a field team of two will install the iAWS via Air Greenland helicopter in early August. Station AWS3 will be deployed by Konrad Steffen during the Spring 2016 season.

CPS will provide requisition/procurement support in supplementing the DTU helicopter charter with NASA funds. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI or his collaborators.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - AWS3 CU0
2016Greenland - iAWS1 UU08 / 10 / 2016 08 / 13 / 20161
2016Greenland - iAWS2 UU08 / 13 / 2016 08 / 16 / 20161
 


Project Title: A Glacier Dynamics and Ice-Ocean Interactions Perspective for IceBridge Science (Award# NNX14AB93G)

PI: Rignot, Eric J (erignot@uci.edu )
Phone: 0(818) 653.2531 
Institute/Department: U of California, Irvine, Earth System Science 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Thomas Wagner (thomas.wagner@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate\Glaciology | Meteorology and Climate\Physical Climate | Meteorology and Climate\Physical Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://www.ess.uci.edu/group/erignot/home

Science Summary:
This project will study ice-ocean interactions along the coast of Greenland to determine the impact of the ocean on the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Researchers will collect multibeam echo sounding (MBES) swath bathymetry in West Greenland fjords to evaluate the precision of fjord bathymetry that can be inferred with Operation IceBridge gravity data. They will also collect oceanographic data (temperature, salinity) to quantify thermal forcing from the ocean on the glaciers, their melt rates and in turn quantify the impact of the ocean on the mass balance and stability of the ice fronts of marine-terminating glaciers. The results will be instrumental in deriving more reliable ocean products from numerical ocean models and make these models more able to calculate the melt rates of glaciers in contact with ocean waters in past, present and future conditions.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this project will collect multibeam echo sounding (MBES) swath bathymetry in West Greenland fjords in support of NASA Operation IceBridge (OIB). Data will be used to evaluate the precision of fjord bathymetry mapping with OIB gravity data. The survey will also include collection of oceanographic data (temperature, salinity) to quantify thermal forcing from the ocean on the glaciers, their melt rates and in turn quantify the impact of the ocean on the mass balance and stability of the ice fronts of marine-terminating glaciers. Three researchers will travel to Kangerlussuaq via Air National Guard in August of 2014. After preparing instruments in Kangerlussuaq, they will fly on via commercial air to Ilulissat to launch their boat-based survey. The work will be conducted in collaboration with NASA project 11-IDS11-33 (PI Ginny Catania) operating in the Rinks Isbrae sector and will deliver a basin-scale sea-floor topography that extends to the lower reaches of the glaciers to the community. In 2016, project cargo will fly on the Air National Guard. No travel for participants is involved.

CPS will provide clearances and scheduling on Air National Guard flights for passengers (2014 only) and cargo (cargo only in 2016), assist with Air Greenland cargo shipment of the MBES instrument, provide communications/safety equipment, and access/storage to CPS containers in Ilulissat. NSF will recoup the costs of the cargo transport via an interagency funds transfer from NASA to NSF. The PI will arrange and pay for all other support through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - Ilulissat08 / 18 / 2014 08 / 25 / 20143
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 13 / 2014 08 / 27 / 20143
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Population Dynamics in Greenland - A Multi-Component, Mixed-Methods Study of Demographic Change in the Arctic (Award# 1319651 )

PI: Rink, Elizabeth (elizabeth.rink@montana.edu)
Phone: 0(406) 994-3833 
Institute/Department: Montana State University, Health & Human Development 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Social and Human Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.kinseyinstitute.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=13...

Science Summary:
This award supports research on the social, cultural, environmental and physiological dynamics of pregnancy in an indigenous Arctic population. The project is a 3-year collaborative study focusing on Greenlandic ways of perceiving, understanding and experiencing pregnancy. Greenlander's believe that future generations of Greenlanders and Greenlandic culture and practices are in jeopardy due to a variety of demographic factors including low birth rates. This project will examine the individual, social, cultural, environmental and physiological factors that appear to have the greatest influence on Greenlandic women's and men's reproduction. The research will be implemented in Kullorsuaq in northwestern Greenland and the target population for the study is Greenlandic women and men, ages 15 to 49 years. The project is an interdisciplinary international, collaborative community based participatory research (CBPR) study involving the University of Greenland, local health and community partners in Greenland, Indiana University and Montana State University. The main activities of the research project are: 1) Examine how the individual level characteristics including age, gender, physical and mental health, spirituality, and beliefs about sex, pregnancy, and adoption influence reproductive decision making in Kullorsuaq; 2) Examine how the interpersonal dynamics in sexual relationships influence reproductive decision-making among men and women in Kullorsuaq: 3) Examine the foundational cultural constructs regarding kinship, familial obligations and personhood that influence pregnancy outcomes in Kullorsuaq; 4) Examine how natural and built environmental characteristics such as one's own and one's family's connection to place, the climate changes occurring in the environment and its influence on hunting, as well as the increased oil industry in the area, influence pregnancy outcomes in Kullorsuaq; and 5) Examine whether hormonal contraceptives may be biologically ill-matched to some clients in Kullorsuaq. The project will be implemented using a Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) framework. Of particular interest is the combination of the CBPR approach with ethnographic (cultural, natural and biological) and public health methods. Overall the project will contribute to our understanding of the complexity of the factors that may be influencing a declining Arctic population. This research is important for strengthening the scientific collaborations between the United States and a strategic Arctic ally, Greenland. In addition, the information gained from this research will give us critical insights into the effects of global economic forces on the well-being of remote communities. In addition, the interdisciplinary investigation of photoperiod has promise for providing insights into the higher risk of breast cancer faced by women who work in night shift and other jobs that involve changes from a typical daytime work schedule (e.g, airline pilots and personnel, and others with heavy travel schedules), which could lead to low-cost interventions that would reduce the risk of cancer, thereby saving medical costs and increasing economic productivity.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative study between Rink (1319651, Montana State) and Vitzthum (1319663, Indiana U) will investigate Greenlandic ways of perceiving, understanding and experiencing pregnancy. Researchers will provide recommendations to policy makers for improving Greenlander's reproductive health. The target population for the study will be Greenlandic women and men ages 15 to 49. Beginning in 2014, researchers on this three year study will focus on Greenlandic ways of perceiving, knowing and experiencing pregnancy and contraceptive outcomes. A field team of 2 or 3 will make multiple trips to conduct interviews and biological sampling in Kullorsuaq, over three years 2014-2016; they also will make several trips to Nuuk. Travel will primarily run in the fall and winter months and involves interviews and biological sampling.

CPS will provide ANG coordination for passengers and cargo and in-transit KISS user days (in 2014 and 2015 only). All other logistics, including travel in 2016, will be arranged and paid for by the PI.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - Kullorsuaq06 / 06 / 2014 06 / 19 / 20141
2014Greenland - Nuuk05 / 28 / 2014 06 / 19 / 20143
2015Greenland - Kullorsuaq09 / 03 / 2015 10 / 05 / 20151
2015Greenland - Nuuk10 / 05 / 2015 10 / 12 / 20151
2016Greenland - Kullorsuaq04 / 01 / 2016 04 / 30 / 20162
2016Greenland - Nuuk10 / 01 / 2016 10 / 15 / 20162
 


Project Title: IGERT: Adaptation to Abrupt Climate Change (A2C2) (Award# 1144423)

PI: Saros, Jasmine (Jasmine.saros@maine.edu)
Phone: 0(207) 581.2112 
Institute/Department: U of Maine, Climate Change Institute 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\EHR\DGE\IGERT
Program Manager: Dr. Laura Regassa (lregassa@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://a2c2igert.umaine.edu/
Data: http://climatechange.umaine.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=11...

Science Summary:
This Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) award facilitates the interdisciplinary training of Ph.D. natural and social scientists in adaptation to abrupt climate change, one of the greatest challenges to the sustainability of human society and ecosystem services in the 21st century. This program meets the challenge of abrupt climate change by training students to conduct collaborative, interdisciplinary research across the natural and social sciences, and to develop innovative policy and management solutions from their research that fosters resilience and adaptation in response to abrupt climate change. Research themes focus on three major challenges that society faces with abrupt climate change: threats to global security, reductions in ecosystem services, and adaptation in social systems. Novel training elements of this program include a collaborative interdisciplinary research project, and a policy and management internship with organizations that span international, federal and state agencies, as well as the private sector. The risks of abrupt climate change are globally pervasive and include increased numbers of environmental refugees and political conflicts over resources. Determining how to anticipate, avoid, and manage abrupt climate change was recently identified as one of the five grand challenges to global sustainability. This IGERT award trains the next generation of scientists to meet these environmental and social challenges. To promote future recruitment of a diverse science workforce, all IGERT trainees will conduct outreach activities with K-12 students from underrepresented groups. The program also fosters a strong international perspective through research collaborations as well as internship experiences abroad. IGERT is an NSF-wide program intended to meet the challenges of educating U.S. Ph.D. scientists and engineers with the interdisciplinary background, deep knowledge in a chosen discipline, and the technical, professional, and personal skills needed for the career demands of the future. The program is intended to establish new models for graduate education and training in a fertile environment for collaborative research that transcends traditional disciplinary boundaries, and to engage students in understanding the processes by which research is translated to innovations for societal benefit.

Logistics Summary:
This award funds an Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT). IGERT is an NSF-wide program intended to meet the challenges of educating U.S. Ph.D. scientists and engineers with the interdisciplinary background, deep knowledge in a chosen discipline, and the technical, professional, and personal skills needed for the career demands of the future. This particular effort is designed to meet the critical societal challenge of human adaptation to abrupt climate change. Students will study how abrupt climate change may alter the dynamics of coupled natural and human systems and will investigate how to inform policy and management to improve environmental security by enhancing resilience and adaptation. Aspects of this work include a collaborative interdisciplinary research project, and a policy and management internship with organizations that span international, federal and state agencies, as well as the private sector. This IGERT project will support 24 students, a subset of which (4-6) will travel annually to Greenland for related field work. In 2015 - 2017, a field team of 5-7 will travel to Greenland (by a combination of ANG and commercial air) to conduct field work in Kangerlussuaq.

CPS will provide Air National Guard flights for passengers/cargo, satellite phones, medical kit and service, freezer space, off-season storage and assistance with coordination of KISS lab space/reservations and truck rental. All other logistics, including KISS user days and truck rental, will be organized by the researcher and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 25 / 2015 07 / 16 / 20157
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 26 / 2016 07 / 19 / 20165
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 18 / 2017 06 / 29 / 20177
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: The Greenland Firn Aquifer Impacts on Ice Sheet Hydrology: Characterizing Volume, Flow, and Discharge (Award# 1417993)

PI: Schmerr, Nicholas (nschmerr@umd.edu)
Phone: 0(301) 614.5223 
Institute/Department: U of Maryland College Park, Dept. of Geology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://neptune.gsfc.nasa.gov/csb/index.php?section...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
This project will follow up on the serendipitous recent discovery that liquid water is present year-round within the firn layer of the southern Greenland Ice Sheet. This discovery complicates understanding of the relationship of surface melting on the ice sheet to sea level rise by revealing another pathway for meltwater to take. Even the most fundamental questions about the firn aquifer remain unanswered. This project will address three essential research questions: 1. What are the pathways and connections of the firn aquifer with the broader Greenland hydrologic system and what is the aquifer's effect on sea level rise? 2. What is the mass/volume of the liquid water stored in the Greenland firn aquifer? 3. What are the rates and patterns of water flow in the aquifer? These questions will be addressed using standard groundwater sampling techniques, seismic sounding, nuclear magnetic resonance, and ice core measurements. This research will advance knowledge of the Greenland firn aquifer guided by two end member hypotheses that present possible pathways for this stored water to exit the aquifer. 1: The aquifer is connected to a well-developed englacial hydrologic network, including crevasses and moulins, that drain some portion of the aquifer at a relatively constant rate (seasonally) to the bed, similar to surface melt in western Greenland. or 2: The aquifer is primarily storing water in available firn pore space and will not release water until the pore space is completely saturated and/or a threshold is met leading to a release event. It is likely that some proportion of each mechanism is relevant depending upon location on the ice sheet. The field studies along with local and regional modeling studies focused along an elevation gradient of an ice flow line into Helheim Glacier are aimed at determining the relative contribution of each pathway. This knowledge is required to accurately measure and predict the Greenland ice sheet’s present and future contribution to sea level rise. Additionally this research verifies ground hydrology and seismic techniques for measuring englacial water volume and flow providing new multi-disciplinary techniques for future research.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Forster (1417987, U of Utah) and Schmerr (1417993, U of MD) will advance knowledge of the Greenland firn aquifer and help further the understanding of its potential impact on sea level rise by using standard groundwater sampling techniques, seismic sounding, nuclear magnetic resonance, ice core measurements, and computer modeling. Logistic details under 1417987.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Greenland - Kulusuk0
2016Greenland - Kulusuk0
 


Project Title: IUSE-Polar: PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (Award# 1525880AS)

PI: Schoeffler, Anne Farley ()
Phone:  
Institute/Department: Seton Catholic School,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARE\TREC
Program Manager: Ms. Elizabeth Rom (elrom@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.polartrec.com/

Science Summary:
For this project, ARCUS will administer and implement, "IUSE-Polar: PolarTREC- Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating", an international program that brings together U.S. teachers to participate in cutting-edge field research with polar scientists in various, and often remote, locations in the Arctic and Antarctica. Through hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctica, participating teachers (pre-service and in-service) will improve teaching strategies, develop resources for their careers, and change how they teach STEM in the classroom. The program goal is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing educators and polar researchers together in professional collaboration. By integrating research and education, PolarTREC will help sustain and grow the considerable scientific, public, and political enthusiasm for polar research and education. The project will achieve this goal through the following objectives: (1) to improve teachers’ STEM content knowledge of the Polar Regions and transfer to the classroom; (2) to increase teachers’ knowledge and use of STEM practices with their students in the classroom; (3) to develop teachers’ educational leadership skills and give opportunities to teacher to be influential leaders in their professional community; (4) to improve the evidence base of successful strategies that utilize teacher leadership skills for the purpose of broadening participation in polar STEM learning; (5) to increase students’ understanding and engagement in the Polar Regions and interest in polar-related STEM careers; and (6) to develop long-term professional relationships between the education and research communities. Data will be collected using a mixed methods evaluation design, with both quantitative and qualitative elements to address the evaluation questions and report on objectives. Survey data will be analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Evaluators will track impacts on students, teachers, and researchers.

Logistics Summary:
PolarTREC teacher, Anne Schoefller, will join Dr. Urbanowicz's project (Lead PI is Irwin, NSF grant 1601526) in the low-shrub tundra of Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, which is near the poleward range edge of many plants, including a focal species, Vaccinium uliginosum (Ericaceae) where they will explore how climate-driven changes in plant-plant interactions may influence plant reproduction near the poleward range edge by altering local abiotic conditions and pollination mutualisms. For more information refer to grant 1601526 in this database.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2016Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at Summit (ICECAPS) (Award# 1303879)

PI: Shupe, Matthew D (matthew.shupe@colorado.edu)
Phone: 0(303) 497.6471 
Institute/Department: U of Colorado, Boulder, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate\Atmospheric Radiation | Meteorology and Climate\Cloud Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.archive.arm.gov
Project: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/arctic/observatories/...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=13...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
In 2010, the observatory at Summit, Greenland, in the center of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), was expanded to include a comprehensive suite of cloud-atmosphere observing instruments including microwave and infrared spectrometers, cloud radar, depolarization lidar, ceilometer, precipitation sensor, sodar, and a twice-daily radiosonde program. This observing effort was termed ICECAPS (Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at Summit). Continuation of the work was approved / funded late summer 2013 to allow for continuous operation, with moderate enhancements to include new precipitation measurements. Measurements from this expanded instrument suite will be used to derive critical baseline atmospheric data products including: Atmospheric State - tropospheric temperature, moisture, and wind profiles, Cloud Macrophysics - occurrence, vertical boundaries, temperature, Cloud Microphysics - phase, water content, and characteristic particle size, and Precipitation - type and rate. Together these products, when combined with similar ongoing measurements at Summit, can be used to study processes that impact the surface energy budget and precipitation at the site, as well as addressing questions related to atmospheric stability, cloud phase composition, and the persistence of stratiform clouds. It is further anticipated that these observations will continue to be used by a broad cross-section of the scientific community to promote understanding of GIS and Arctic climate, validate satellite observations, and evaluate model simulations. Graduate students play significant roles in most aspects of this project, gaining valuable experience with polar field work, operating instruments, and processing data. In addition, this research team has developed a unique education and outreach plan to work with students from local schools using simple, proxy instrumentation to help develop their understanding of atmospheric principles and observations, and to enhance the scientific curriculum in their schools via a wide range of outreach activities.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this collaboration between Walden (1414314, WSU), Turner (1304692, U of OK), Shupe (1303879, CU) and Bennartz (1304544, U of WI) will continue work begun under NSF grant 0856773 "ICECAPS". Researchers will continue an intensive cloud experiment at Summit with fieldwork from late spring 2014 through late spring 2018. Logistic details under 1414314.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2014Greenland - Summit0
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2015Greenland - Summit0
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Summit0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2018Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Drainage efficiency of the Greenland supraglacial river network (Award# NNX14AH93G)

PI: Smith, Laurence C (lsmith@geog.ucla.edu)
Phone: 0(310) 825.3154 
Institute/Department: U of California, Los Angeles, Department of Geography 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Thomas Wagner (thomas.wagner@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):

Science Summary:
The production, transport, and export of meltwater from the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is critically important to our understanding of global sea level rise, yet remains one of the least-studied hydrologic systems on Earth. To date, efforts to measure GrIS contributions to global sea level rise have prioritized solid/dynamical ice losses, gravity anomalies from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, and calculations of surface mass balance from automated weather stations and/or climate modeling. None of these explicitly considers the fast transport of meltwater through supraglacial river networks, despite their ubiquity across much of the ablation zone and being a primary mechanism by which surface meltwater is routed to the englacial and proglacial parts of the ice sheet. This currently poor state of knowledge about supraglacial rivers impairs understanding of GrIS contributions to global sea level rise for at least four reasons. First, there is a recognized positive feedback between the penetration of surface meltwater to the bed and ice sliding velocity, thus impacting ice dynamics. Second, there is a growing appreciation in the Greenland science community that meltwater runoff contributes as much if not more mass loss to the global ocean than does solid/dynamical ice loss. Third, the intensity and areal extent of meltwater production on the GrIS surface are projected to increase. Fourth, virtually nothing is known about the hydraulics of GrIS supraglacial rivers, so numerical modeling of meltwater fluxes flowing over and into the ice sheet cannot be done with confidence. To address this knowledge gap, the researchers seek to answer five science questions: 1) To what extent does ice surface topography dominate the movement of water across the ice sheet? 2) Are fluxes of supraglacial meltwater into the GrIS subsurface uniformly distributed or do some parts of the ice sheet receive greater concentrations of meltwater than others? 3) Do supraglacial river flows attain supercritical velocities? 4) Was a 100% efficient surface water drainage pattern observed following the extreme July 2012 melt event unusual or typical for the ice sheet? 5) How efficiently is GrIS surface meltwater transported off the ice sheet surface and out to the global ocean? To answer these questions, the project will build upon new remote sensing capabilities developed in previous NASA Cryospheric Sciences grant NNX11AQ38G (ending 2014). It will use archived and scheduled high-resolution visible/NIR imagery and stereo digital elevation models from WorldView-1/2, QuickBird, and Geoeye-1 satellites, and cold-season IceBridge Digital Mapping System (DMS) camera imagery, to study supraglacial river drainage pattern and flow efficiency for a ~15,000 km2 area of the ablation zone in western Greenland. Remotely sensed estimates of river flow direction, velocity and flux (discharge) will be calibrated/validated using a dataset of in situ hydraulic measurements from two field campaigns in the ablation zone. The operation and maintenance of four previously established terrestrial river gaging sites near Kangerlussuaq will be continued. Finally, all of these remotely sensed and field datasets will be incorporated into a GIS-based hydrologic modeling framework to enable a first "snow-to-sea" simulation of GrIS meltwater runoff that explicitly includes principles of open-channel flow through supraglacial river drainage networks.

Logistics Summary:
This project will continue hydrological and supraglacial river studies in the vicinity of Kangerlussuaq begun under NASA grant "NASASmith". Beginning in 2015 through 2017 field teams will travel to Kangerlussuaq, Greenland for field work. In 2015, researchers will make three trips to Kangerlussuaq, in February, April and July. Three researchers will travel via commercial air to Kangerlussuaq in February, each staying for about 10 days. Based from the KISS, the team will collect water samples from the Watson River, accessing sites via snowmachine and ATV. They also may visit a camera installation nearby if able. A team of two will return in April to install instruments on the Watson River bridge, basing out of KISS for ~2 nights. In July, a team of eight will return for approximately two weeks, traveling to Greenland via the Air National Guard. July work is establishing 2 different ice camps in the area of the Watson River (WQ) and Isortoq River (IQ) Watersheds on the ice cap. In 2016, researchers will return to Greenland twice: in March and again in June, when they will remain for work through August. In March, two researchers will travel to Kangerlussuaq via the ANG to service the proglacial river instrumentation on the Watson River bridge and complete lidar surveys of the Watson River channel. Several days later, they will depart. Then, in June, five researchers will return to Kanger, establish a small tent camp, and work around Pt 660, returning to Kangerlussuaq occasionally for resupply. Three of the five will depart after about two weeks. At the end of June, eight additional scientists will join the remaining team of two, and this group will continue work at Pt 660 while preparing for the put in of the Smith ice camp, located out on the ice sheet margin. A six-person team will deploy to the Smith ice camp in early July and work there for about 2 weeks. When work is complete, eight people will depart Greenland; the remaining three will continue working out by Pt 660 for about another month. In 2017, researchers will return to Greenland in July. Four researchers will travel via the ANG to establish a small tent camp and continue work at Pt 660. Five additional researchers will travel via combination of ANG and commercial travel deploying to the Smith ice camp and work there for about 1 week. Nine people will depart Greenland at the beginning of August via a combination of ANG and commercial travel. Researchers will return in 2018, details are TBD.

Via an interagency funds transfer NASA>NSF, CPS will provide Air National Guard coordination for passengers and cargo, KISS user days in Kangerlussuaq, rental trucks, helicopter support, and camp/communications/safety gear. UNAVCO will provide GPS equipment. The PI will arrange and pay for all other logistics from the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 06 / 2015 07 / 27 / 201510
2015Greenland - Smith Ice Camp 207 / 17 / 2015 07 / 24 / 20159
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq03 / 08 / 2016 08 / 19 / 201611
2016Greenland - Point 66006 / 01 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20166
2016Greenland - Smith Ice Camp 207 / 04 / 2016 07 / 14 / 20167
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 21 / 2017 08 / 05 / 20179
2017Greenland - Point 66007 / 21 / 2017 07 / 28 / 20174
2017Greenland - Smith Ice Camp 207 / 22 / 2017 07 / 29 / 20179
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
 


Project Title: FESD Type 1: Sun to Ice--Impacts on Earth of Extreme Solar Events (Award# 1135432)

PI: Spence, Harlan E (harlan.spence@unh.edu)
Phone: 0(603) 862.0322 
Institute/Department: U of New Hampshire, Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\AGS
Program Manager: Dr. Therese Jorgensen (tjorgens@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This grant supports a 5-year research project that explores extreme solar events and their effects on Earth. The project draws together scientists from many different disciplines to tackle a question of growing importance to our society: What extremes of solar activity produce powerful space-weather- effects at Earth that pose risks to society? We know that the Sun is capable of creating explosive events and that these events generate dangerous streams of charged particles that can arrive at Earth moments later. We also know that these solar particles can slam into our atmosphere and affect its chemistry, including in the ozone layer. These same particles can cripple satellite systems we depend on in everyday life (GPS, communications, etc.), and pose radiation risks to astronauts and even to airline passengers. However, we only have measured such events during the space age over the past 50 years, a brief wink of time compared to the age of the Sun and solar system. "Sun-to-Ice" investigates extreme solar events and their effects on Earth by detailed studies of the physical processes linking the Sun to Earth. The researchers will study how solar eruptions lead to giant blasts of material called coronal mass ejections and how these evolve in space once they leave the Sun. The PI will investigate the processes by which these extreme solar events accelerate charged particles and how these particles are transported from the Sun to Earth, and how they enter the Earth's atmosphere and how they change its chemical properties. Finally, researchers also will study how chemical signatures of these events are recorded in ice near the poles. By confirming a link between extreme solar activity and the ice-core record, deep ice cores can help researchers unravel the history of ancient solar activity and establish the range of extreme solar events. This project seeks to make breakthroughs in diverse, complex and interlinked systems that cross the boundaries between space physics, atmospheric, and ice core science, yielding insights into the genesis of extreme events and their impact on Earth.

Logistics Summary:
This grant supports a study of the physical processes of the Sun-Earth system including coronal mass ejections (CME) and solar energetic particle acceleration and transport. As part of this systemic study, researchers will study how chemical signatures of solar events (like CMEs) are recorded in ice near the poles. Beginning in 2012 and for four consecutive years after, science technicians on site at Summit Station, Greenland, will perform six months of daily sampling following a potential CME event. (There were no CME events in 2013 or 2014). The PI or his designee will request the sampling support as needed; no project personnel are expected to deploy to Greenland.

CPS will provide Air National Guard (ANG) cargo support for necessary sampling supplies and potential retro cargo of snow samples, and--dependent on a qualifying solar event--science-technician support to collect daily samples for up to 6 months each time. The PI will arrange and pay for all other support through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2012Greenland - Summit0
2013Greenland - Summit0
2014Greenland - Summit0
2015Greenland - Summit0
2016Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Surface Processes of the Greenland Ice Sheet Under a Warming Climate (Award# NASAAWS)

PI: Steffen, Konrad (konrad.steffen@wsl.ch )
Phone: 0(303) 492.4524 
Institute/Department: U of Colorado, Boulder, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Thomas Wagner (thomas.wagner@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://cires.colorado.edu/science/groups/steffen/
Media: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/?eocn=topnav&eoci...

Science Summary:
A part of the NASA-sponsored PARCA (Program in Arctic Regional Climate Assessment) project, researchers on this NSF co-funded project have installed and are currently maintaining 18 Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). Each AWS is equipped with a number of instruments to sample the following: -air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, humidity, pressure -accumulation rate at high temporal resolution to identify and resolve individual storms -surface radiation balance in visible and infrared wavelengths -sensible and latent heat fluxes -snowpack conductive heat fluxes Hourly average data are transmitted via a satellite link (GOES or ARGOS) throughout the year. In addition, measurements are stored in solid state memory. The system is powered with two 100 Ah batteries, charged by a 10 or 20 W solar panel. The satellite data-link is powered by two separate 100 Ah batteries connected to a 20 W solar panel. This setup guarantees continuous data recordings and storage, even in the case of satellite transmission failure. The expected lifetime of the instrumentation is 5 years. PARCA GC-Net Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) are equipped with communication satellite transmitters that enable near-real time monitoring of weather conditions on the Greenland ice sheet. Transmission latency is as short as 4 minutes, typically 1-2 hours, and occasionally as long as 48 hours.

Logistics Summary:
This project is co-funded between NSF and NASA. In 1995, the PI initiated a network of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) on the Greenland ice cap. Each year since then, a team of four to five travels to the project's sites via Twin Otter for maintenance, repairs, and upgrades. Additionally, the team tent-camps at Swiss Camp for several weeks to conduct more intensive measurements related to the state of the ice sheet. These include monitoring ablation in the Jakobshavn region (in collaboration with Dr. Jay Zwally [NASA-GSFC]); and measuring accumulation variability, mass transfer, and surface energy balance. In 2007, one person will visit Summit Station to install a thermistor string to capture hourly temperature profiles in the upper ~100 m of ice. The researcher will use an empty borehole. The data will help the team reconstruct surface temperature history on a multi-decadal to century scale. The researcher will spend about a week at Summit setting up the experiment, which may remain in place for several years. Also in 2007, the PI’s graduate student will base from Ilulissat and fly a NOAA-funded UAV experiment in early May and again in July to collect high-resolution laser data around Swiss Camp during the pre-melt and melt season. These data will help researchers calculate surface water storage on the ice sheet. New at Swiss Camp in 2008, a UAV equipped with laser instruments to collect high-resolution data about surface water storage.This NOAA-funded project uses a UAV based in Ilulissat to collect high-resolution laser data around Swiss Camp during the pre-melt and melt season. These data are used to calculate surface water storage on the ice sheet. The information contributes to the PI’s sub-glacier hydrological modeling study (“GPS Network Maintenance,” above). The PI’s graduate student, John Adler, will fly the UAV in early May and again in July to collect the data in the second and final field season for this project. In 2009, mid-April to mid-May, the researchers will maintain the automatic weather station network. In the south, they will service the Dye-II, Saddle, NASA SE and S-Dome stations, and during the Swiss Camp put in the CP1 and NASA-U stations. While at Swiss Camp, the team will service the profile JAR2, JAR1, and CU/ETH. They will continue the effort to monitor ablation along a transect from Swiss Camp to the ice margin. The Swiss Camp team will service eight receivers in the GPS network in collaboration with Dr. Jay Zwally (NASA-GSFC). They will continue to collect high-resolution surface topography data using Trimble Pathfinder differential GPS measurements along several transects in the lower ablation region. In addition, they will acquire a set of QuickBird satellite imagery during the onset of melt and the melt period to monitor the spatial variation and extent of snow fields, lakes, and surface hydrological channels in the ablation region. This project has collected a number of ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiles along the western slope of the ice sheet (Jakobshavn and Kangerlussuaq region) in previous field seasons (1999, 2000, 2003). Data analysis showed that the accumulation could vary up to 40% between the trough and the ridge of the undulation. (Surface topography with scale length of several kilometers plays an important role for the spatial variability of accumulation, mass transfer, and surface energy balance.) The team repeated some of these GPR measurements during the spring 2007 field season along the same profiles to verify the recent accumulation changes and high percolation events in that region. In addition to science research, the PI will host two media visits in spring 2009: (a) MISCHIEF FILMS, Austrian documentary film about Albert Schweitzer. The crew will participate for one day and one night during the southern AWS maintenance trip. (b) National Geographic, documentary called “The Big Picture.” The crew visits Swiss Camp May 3-5. They will organize their own helicopter flight from Ilulissat to Swiss Camp and back. In 2010, DRI's Joe McConnell and an ICDS driller will join the AWS maintenance visits to Humboldt and TUNU to drill shallow cores for analysis related to the NEEM deep drilling project (0909541). Participant travel for McConnell and the driller to Kangerlussuaq will be carried under his NSF grant record. In 2011, a team of about eight will arrive in Greenland around 1 May. They will first travel via Twin Otter to Swiss Camp to install new extension poles on the GPS network; and to maintain/upgrade (with new satellite transmitters) the AWS network stations JAR2, JAR1, Swiss Camp, and Crawford Point. Around Swiss Camp and in the lower ablation region the team will map sub-glacial melt channels using a new MALA ground penetrating radar with a 20 MHz antenna. They also will install new seismic stations close to Swiss Camp and in the lower ablation region close to a moulin. Researchers for NSF grant 0909454, Ginny Catania, PI, also will visit Swiss Camp at the same time to work on the project’s GPS experiment. Researchers also will visit AWS stations in the north of Greenland (NEEM, GITS, Petermann, Tunu-N, Humbold, NASA-U, and NASA-E) and in the south (Dye-II, Saddle, NASA-SE, and Saddle) for maintenance service. At Summit researchers will maintain the 50m Swiss Tower and the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN); these provide the basing meteorological and radiation data for other Summit researchers. In 2013, a team of four will fly commercially to Kanger for a Twin Otter put-in to Swiss Camp in early May for a three-week effort at the camp. Three more researchers will arrive mid-May on a helicopter flight arranged and paid for by the PI’s institution (CU). The three new arrivals plus one original team member will depart a few days later on another CU-chartered helicopter flight. The Twin Otter will return to Swiss camp in late May to pick up the remaining team members and begin transporting them to the southern set of AWS stations (Dye-II, NASA-SE, and Saddle), with air support based from Kangerlussuaq. A team of four will then depart Kangerlussuaq via Twin Otter to begin visiting the northern AWS sites (NEEM, GITS, Petermann, Tunu-N, Humbold, NASA-U, and NASA-E), working out of Daneborg, Qaanaaq, and NEEM. The team will wrap up Twin Otter work with a visit to Summit Station, overnighting to service the Swiss Tower and the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), which provide the basing meteorological and radiation data for other Summit researchers. In mid-August, a team will return to Swiss Camp and the Moulin Site via helicopter out of Ilulissat to make late-season repairs to the camp, which sustained considerable damage during the 2012 melt season. After about one week at camp, the team will depart via helicopter and commercial air. In 2014, a team of six will fly commercially to Kangerlussuaq for a Twin Otter put-in to Swiss Camp in early May. The team will spend ~two weeks based at the camp. The Twin Otter will return to Swiss camp in mid-May to pick up the team and begin transporting them to the southern set of AWS stations (Dye-II, Saddle, NASA-SE, and Saddle), with air support based from Kangerlussuaq. A team of four will then depart Kangerlussuaq via Twin Otter to begin visiting the northern AWS sites (NEEM, GITS, Petermann, Tunu-N, Humboldt, NASA-U, and NASA-E), working out of Daneborg, Qaanaaq, and NEEM. The team will wrap up Twin Otter work with a visit to Summit Station, overnighting to service the Swiss Tower and the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) which provide the basing meteorological and radiation data for other Summit researchers. In 2015, a team of six will fly commercially to Kangerlussuaq for a Twin Otter put-in to Swiss Camp in early May. The team will spend ~two weeks based at the camp. The Twin Otter will return to Swiss camp in mid-May to pick up the team and begin transporting them to the southern set of AWS stations

CPS will provide ANG cargo coordination from the U.S., chartered air support within Greenland, lodging and user days, camping gear, fuel, and safety and communications equipment. Costs will be covered in the following ways: NASA will pay 100% of Swiss Camp support costs. NSF and NASA will each pay for 50% of the remaining activities. NSF will recoup costs from NASA via an interagency funds transfer NASA > NSF. The PI will arrange and pay for other work directly.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
1995Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS1
1995Greenland - GITS AWS1
1995Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
1995Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
1995Greenland - Swiss Camp1
1996Greenland - Constable Point1
1996Greenland - GITS AWS1
1996Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
1996Greenland - JAR1 AWS1
1996Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
1996Greenland - Raven1
1996Greenland - Summit1
1996Greenland - Swiss Camp1
1996Greenland - Tunu N AWS1
1997Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS1
1997Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS1
1997Greenland - GITS AWS1
1997Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
1997Greenland - JAR1 AWS1
1997Greenland - NASA-E AWS1
1997Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
1997Greenland - NGRIP1
1997Greenland - Raven1
1997Greenland - Saddle AWS1
1997Greenland - South Dome AWS1
1997Greenland - Summit1
1997Greenland - Swiss Camp1
1997Greenland - Tunu N AWS1
1998Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS1
1998Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS1
1998Greenland - GITS AWS1
1998Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
1998Greenland - JAR1 AWS1
1998Greenland - NASA-E AWS1
1998Greenland - NASA-SE AWS1
1998Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
1998Greenland - NGRIP1
1998Greenland - Raven1
1998Greenland - Saddle AWS1
1998Greenland - South Dome AWS1
1998Greenland - Summit1
1998Greenland - Swiss Camp1
1998Greenland - Tunu N AWS1
1999Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS1
1999Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS1
1999Greenland - GITS AWS1
1999Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
1999Greenland - JAR1 AWS1
1999Greenland - JAR2 AWS1
1999Greenland - KAR AWS1
1999Greenland - Kulusuk1
1999Greenland - NASA-E AWS1
1999Greenland - NASA-SE AWS1
1999Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
1999Greenland - NGRIP1
1999Greenland - Raven1
1999Greenland - Saddle AWS1
1999Greenland - South Dome AWS1
1999Greenland - Summit1
1999Greenland - Swiss Camp1
1999Greenland - Tunu N AWS1
2000Greenland - Aurora AWS4
2000Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS4
2000Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS4
2000Greenland - GITS AWS4
2000Greenland - Humboldt AWS4
2000Greenland - JAR1 AWS4
2000Greenland - JAR2 AWS4
2000Greenland - JAR3 AWS4
2000Greenland - KAR AWS4
2000Greenland - Kulusuk4
2000Greenland - NASA-E AWS4
2000Greenland - NASA-SE AWS4
2000Greenland - NASA-U AWS4
2000Greenland - Raven4
2000Greenland - Saddle AWS4
2000Greenland - South Dome AWS4
2000Greenland - Summit4
2000Greenland - Swiss Camp4
2000Greenland - Tunu N AWS4
2001Greenland - Aurora AWS1
2001Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS0
2001Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS1
2001Greenland - GITS AWS1
2001Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
2001Greenland - JAR1 AWS1
2001Greenland - JAR2 AWS1
2001Greenland - JAR3 AWS1
2001Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 29 / 2001 06 / 30 / 20018
2001Greenland - KAR AWS1
2001Greenland - Kulusuk06 / 05 / 2001 06 / 26 / 20014
2001Greenland - NASA-E AWS1
2001Greenland - NASA-SE AWS1
2001Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
2001Greenland - Raven1
2001Greenland - Saddle AWS1
2001Greenland - South Dome AWS1
2001Greenland - Summit05 / 22 / 2001 06 / 26 / 20014
2001Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 10 / 2001 06 / 04 / 20017
2001Greenland - Tunu N AWS1
2002Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - JAR1 AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - JAR2 AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - JAR3 AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 29 / 2002 06 / 18 / 20029
2002Greenland - Kulusuk05 / 12 / 2002 05 / 18 / 20024
2002Greenland - NASA-E AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Raven05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - South Dome AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Summit05 / 22 / 2002 06 / 13 / 20022
2002Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 02 / 2002 05 / 17 / 20027
2002Greenland - Thule05 / 16 / 2002 06 / 13 / 20025
2002Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2003Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS04 / 15 / 2003 04 / 17 / 20031
2003Greenland - GITS AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 27 / 2003 05 / 30 / 20033
2003Greenland - JAR1 AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - JAR2 AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - JAR3 AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 14 / 2003 06 / 07 / 20037
2003Greenland - Kulusuk06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - NASA-E AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 10 / 2003 05 / 10 / 20031
2003Greenland - NASA-U AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20033
2003Greenland - NGRIP05 / 13 / 2003 05 / 16 / 20031
2003Greenland - Raven05 / 08 / 2003 05 / 08 / 20031
2003Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 08 / 2003 05 / 12 / 20033
2003Greenland - South Dome AWS05 / 10 / 2003 05 / 12 / 20033
2003Greenland - Summit06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 02 / 20031
2003Greenland - Swiss Camp04 / 21 / 2003 05 / 06 / 20037
2003Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 30 / 2003 06 / 02 / 20033
2004Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS05 / 19 / 2004 05 / 19 / 20042
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 17 / 2004 06 / 19 / 20045
2004Greenland - NASA-SE AWS06 / 14 / 2004 06 / 14 / 20044
2004Greenland - Raven06 / 15 / 2004 06 / 15 / 20044
2004Greenland - Saddle AWS06 / 14 / 2004 06 / 15 / 20044
2004Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 18 / 2004 06 / 10 / 20048
2005Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 20 / 2005 05 / 20 / 20053
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 01 / 2005 05 / 27 / 20055
2005Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 25 / 2005 05 / 25 / 20053
2005Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 23 / 2005 05 / 24 / 20053
2005Greenland - NGRIP05 / 23 / 2005 05 / 23 / 20053
2005Greenland - Petermann Gletscher05 / 21 / 2005 05 / 21 / 20053
2005Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 25 / 2005 05 / 26 / 20053
2005Greenland - South Dome AWS05 / 26 / 2005 05 / 26 / 20053
2005Greenland - Summit05 / 24 / 2005 05 / 24 / 20053
2005Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 02 / 2005 05 / 18 / 20055
2006Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS05 / 03 / 2006 05 / 03 / 20064
2006Greenland - GITS AWS04 / 26 / 2006 04 / 27 / 20063
2006Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 01 / 2006 05 / 01 / 20064
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 25 / 2006 05 / 26 / 200612
2006Greenland - NASA-E AWS05 / 02 / 2006 05 / 02 / 20064
2006Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 06 / 2006 05 / 06 / 20063
2006Greenland - NASA-U AWS04 / 26 / 2006 04 / 26 / 20063
2006Greenland - NEEM04 / 26 / 2006 04 / 27 / 20063
2006Greenland - Petermann Gletscher04 / 28 / 2006 04 / 28 / 20064
2006Greenland - Raven05 / 06 / 2006 05 / 06 / 20063
2006Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 06 / 2006 05 / 06 / 20063
2006Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 08 / 2006 05 / 23 / 200610
2006Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 01 / 2006 05 / 02 / 20064
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 22 / 2007 08 / 25 / 200718
2007Greenland - Summit05 / 08 / 2007 05 / 18 / 20071
2008Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS04 / 28 / 2008 04 / 28 / 20085
2008Greenland - DYE-204 / 30 / 2008 04 / 30 / 20085
2008Greenland - GITS AWS04 / 25 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20085
2008Greenland - Humboldt AWS04 / 24 / 2008 04 / 24 / 20085
2008Greenland - Ilulissat04 / 22 / 2008 04 / 23 / 20085
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 21 / 2008 06 / 07 / 20086
2008Greenland - NASA- N70 AWS05 / 05 / 2008 05 / 05 / 20087
2008Greenland - NASA- Up50 AWS05 / 05 / 2008 05 / 05 / 20087
2008Greenland - NASA-E AWS04 / 27 / 2008 04 / 27 / 20085
2008Greenland - NASA-SE AWS04 / 30 / 2008 04 / 30 / 20085
2008Greenland - NASA-U AWS04 / 28 / 2008 04 / 28 / 20085
2008Greenland - NEEM04 / 25 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20085
2008Greenland - Petermann ELA04 / 24 / 2008 04 / 24 / 20085
2008Greenland - Qaanaaq04 / 23 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20085
2008Greenland - Saddle AWS04 / 30 / 2008 04 / 30 / 20085
2008Greenland - South Dome AWS04 / 30 / 2008 04 / 30 / 20085
2008Greenland - Summit04 / 27 / 2008 04 / 28 / 20085
2008Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 02 / 2008 06 / 04 / 20087
2008Greenland - Thule04 / 24 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20085
2008Greenland - Tunu N AWS04 / 25 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20085
2009Greenland - DYE-204 / 24 / 2009 04 / 24 / 20093
2009Greenland - JAR1 AWS3
2009Greenland - JAR2 AWS3
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 19 / 2009 08 / 24 / 20095
2009Greenland - NASA- Up50 AWS05 / 19 / 2009 05 / 19 / 20093
2009Greenland - NASA-SE AWS04 / 21 / 2009 04 / 21 / 20093
2009Greenland - NASA-U AWS04 / 27 / 2009 04 / 28 / 20093
2009Greenland - Saddle AWS04 / 21 / 2009 04 / 21 / 20093
2009Greenland - South Dome AWS04 / 23 / 2009 04 / 24 / 20093
2009Greenland - Swiss Camp04 / 28 / 2009 05 / 19 / 20094
2010Greenland - Humboldt AWS04 / 27 / 2010 05 / 21 / 20107
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 26 / 2010 05 / 21 / 20105
2010Greenland - Tunu N AWS04 / 27 / 2010 05 / 21 / 20107
2011Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - DYE-205 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - JAR1 AWS05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - JAR2 AWS05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 30 / 2011 06 / 15 / 20118
2011Greenland - NASA-E AWS05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - NEEM05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - Petermann ELA05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - Summit0
2011Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2012Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 23 / 20124
2012Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 23 / 20124
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 30 / 2012 05 / 31 / 20128
2012Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 23 / 20124
2012Greenland - NEEM05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 28 / 20124
2012Greenland - Petermann ELA05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 23 / 20124
2012Greenland - Summit05 / 28 / 2012 05 / 29 / 20124
2012Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 01 / 2012 05 / 22 / 20128
2012Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 23 / 20124
2013Greenland - DYE-205 / 22 / 2013 05 / 25 / 20134
2013Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 28 / 2013 05 / 28 / 20134
2013Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 27 / 2013 05 / 27 / 20134
2013Greenland - Ilulissat08 / 09 / 2013 08 / 17 / 20132
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 30 / 2013 08 / 18 / 20139
2013Greenland - NASA-Moulin08 / 15 / 2013 08 / 16 / 20132
2013Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 22 / 2013 05 / 25 / 20134
2013Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 26 / 2013 05 / 26 / 20134
2013Greenland - NEEM05 / 26 / 2013 05 / 27 / 20134
2013Greenland - Petermann ELA05 / 27 / 2013 05 / 27 / 20134
2013Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 22 / 2013 05 / 25 / 20134
2013Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 01 / 2013 08 / 15 / 20137
2013Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 28 / 2013 05 / 28 / 20134
2014Greenland - Daneborg05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 01 / 2014 05 / 29 / 20146
2014Greenland - NASA-E AWS05 / 26 / 2014 05 / 26 / 20144
2014Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - NEEM05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Petermann ELA05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Qaanaaq05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Summit05 / 26 / 2014 05 / 27 / 20144
2014Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 02 / 2014 05 / 21 / 20146
2014Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 04 / 2015 06 / 06 / 20156
2015Greenland - NASA-E AWS05 / 22 / 2015 05 / 22 / 20155
2015Greenland - NEGIS05 / 28 / 2015 05 / 28 / 20155
2015Greenland - Summit05 / 18 / 2015 06 / 01 / 20155
2015Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 06 / 2015 05 / 18 / 20156
2016Greenland - EGRIP05 / 22 / 2016 05 / 25 / 20168
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 03 / 2016 06 / 10 / 20168
2016Greenland - Summit05 / 21 / 2006 06 / 09 / 20165
2016Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 05 / 2016 05 / 18 / 20167
2017Greenland - DYE-205 / 22 / 2017 05 / 22 / 20174
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 01 / 2017 05 / 29 / 20176
2017Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 24 / 2017 05 / 24 / 20174
2017Greenland - South Dome AWS05 / 22 / 2017 05 / 22 / 20174
2017Greenland - Summit05 / 23 / 2017 05 / 24 / 20174
2017Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 03 / 2017 05 / 22 / 20176
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
2018Greenland - Summit1
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Ice sheet sensitivity in a changing Arctic system - using Geologic data and modeling to test the stable Greenland Ice Sheet hypothesis (Award# 1503281)

PI: Steig, Eric J (steig@uw.edu)
Phone: 0(206) 685.3715 
Institute/Department: U of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
There is enough water in the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) that, were it to melt, it would raise sea level in most coastal cities significantly with huge consequences for society. In the face of accelerated ice sheet contribution to sea level rise, it remains uncertain how the GrIS will adjust to a warming Arctic, declining sea ice and related changing precipitation patterns. This is a concern, given that future sea level rise is strongly dependent on the GrIS response to arctic change. The scientific community is currently undecided between a model of a dynamic GrIS that becomes greatly reduced during warm periods and a model where it is relatively stable, even through periods warmer than today. This proposal addresses the idea that increased arctic precipitation offsets GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperature. The researchers will test this by contributing significant new information on arctic system change and related GrIS dynamics during past and ongoing warm periods, and employing an ice sheet modeling effort synthesizing all new data aimed at both past and future GrIS simulations. The researchers explicitly combine multiple scientific disciplines to provide a better understanding of how key arctic system components such as precipitation, temperature, sea-ice cover and GrIS mass balance are interconnected. The results will be of fundamental relevance to the fates of the arctic system, the GrIS and global sea level rise. This project will train six graduate students and one post-doctoral researcher. The cross-cutting research program is paralleled by the scope of the outreach plan, to develop a variety of deliverables, including development of an iBook and public outreach events. In addition the team will participate in public outreach events in Buffalo and New York City, where the public and scientists interact in a casual setting. Finally, this work has synergies with ongoing missions at NASA and other programs within the NSF. Due to recent advances in numerical ice sheet models and new sub-ice topography of Greenland, combined with finely-tuned field approaches and geochronologic techniques, the time is ripe for a coordinated, cross-disciplinary effort focusing on cryosphere variability in a warming Arctic; the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and sea ice constitute the largest, and most critical components of the arctic cryosphere. The hypothesis that increased arctic precipitation can counterbalance GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperatures stems from recent findings suggesting that it may be more stable than expected during interglacials. The researchers will: generate new GrIS margin reconstructions during and since the mid-Holocene Thermal Maximum (9,000 to 5,000 years ago), with a powerful approach that combines lake sediment stratigraphy with new sub-ice topography and novel high-sensitivity cosmogenic isotope methods; develop new Holocene climate reconstructions of moisture, temperature and sea ice conditions from lake and ocean sediments and an advanced synthesis of existing arctic ice core and other paleoclimate data; and employ state-of-the-art numerical ice sheet modeling fueled by ice margin and climate reconstructions to test a range of climatic and dynamic controls on GrIS change. If the idea is supported, then it would suggest a relatively stable GrIS during warm periods. If, however, this project provides evidence that the GrIS retreated considerably during the warmer-than-present mid-Holocene and in turn, that the GrIS has reacted more sensitively to temperature than to precipitation change, the results would support a tightly coupled ice sheet size-temperature link and in turn, a much greater near-term GrIS contribution to sea level rise. Either result will be of fundamental relevance to the fates of the arctic system, the GrIS and global sea level rise.

Logistics Summary:
The collaboration of Briner (1504267, U of Buffalo), Steig (1503281, UW), Morlighem (1504230, UCI), Young (1503959, LDEO), and Johnson (1504457, U of Montana) will address the null hypothesis that increased Arctic precipitation offsets GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperature. Logistic details under 1504267.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Nuuk0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2018Greenland - Nuuk0
2018Greenland - Paamiut0
 


Project Title: GEOFON (GEOFOrschungsNetz - Geo Research Network) (Award# DESeismic)

PI: Strollo, Angelo ( strollo@gfz-potsdam.de)
Phone: 49(331) 288.1285 
Institute/Department: GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, GEOFON Program 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: DE\Research/Higher Ed\GFZ Potsdam
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://geofon.gfz-potsdam.de/
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/

Science Summary:
Most knowledge about the deeper interior of the earth is derived from seismological records. Seismic waves generated by earthquakes travel through the globe and sample its major structures on the way. Important information about seismic velocities and densities, structural boundaries, mineral composition, temperature and pressure regimes etc are hidden in each recorded seismogram and can be retrieved by inverse methods. To obtain a complete picture, globally distributed high quality broadband seismological stations are required to record a full seismologically range in terms of frequency content (10**2 – 10**-6 Hz) and dynamic range (10**-9 – 10**-1 m/s). The technical equipment of the GEOFON network fullfills these requirements and is installed in 50 stations worldwide. (Near) real-time data transmission (via the Internet) from most stations makes the GEOFON data immediately available to the scientifc community and provides a perfect tool for rapid determination of earthquake source parameters for scientific purposes but also for earthquake and tsunami early warnings and for use by disaster management. Both near real-time and archive data are openly available to the community from the GEOFON Data Center and are shared with other national and international data centers such as the european ORFEUS Data Center in De Bilt (Netherlands) and the global FDSN/IRIS Data Center (Seattle, USA).

Logistics Summary:
This project makes broadband seismological recordings of global earthquakes at Summit, Greenland. Formerly a part of the temporary GLATIS network, project responsibility has been turned over to GFZ Potsdam. Summit instruments have been included in that institute's GEOFON network. The PI (Hanka, then Strollo starting in 2015) will visit Summit Station annually to service and maintain the project's seismological station. Over the years, in addition to the scheduled maintenance, project personnel have visited Summit for various other project needs: In 2002, they installed an upgraded datalogger for the seismological station and a "Seiscomp" box that connected the station to the Summit LAN for Internet real-time data transmission; in 2004, another major station upgrade overcame technical problems and minimized required local support; finally, in 2007, two technicians raised and relocated the seismometer bunker, routing power and communications connections out of the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory. In 2009, a technician will return to Summit in May to conduct minor maintenance on the seismometer. Station staff will assist the technician as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2010, a team of two researchers will return to Summit in July. The seismometer bunker will be raised and relocated to a new site so that power and communications can continue to be connected out of the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory, which is also being relocated during this time. Station staff will assist the technicians as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2011, one researcher will return to Summit in mid-June to conduct minor maintenance on the seismometer. Summit staff will assist the researcher as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2012, two researchers will return to Summit Station in July to conduct minor maintenance on the seismometer. In 2013, two researchers will return to Summit Station in July with the following objectives: (1) relocate the seismometer to a new trench, and (2) replace the cable between the TAWO and the new seismometer trench. Summit Station staff will assist the researchers as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2014, no researchers will deploy to Summit Station. Instead, station staff will assist with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities as needed. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2015, two researchers will deploy to Summit Station in June to perform maintenance on the seismometer system, including relocating it to a new vault, raising all cables above the snow surface and checking out all hardware. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument, maintain data and power cables above the snow surface and provide as-needed assistance. No researchers will deploy in 2016. Instead, station technical staff replaced a broken seiscompbox. The replacement box is expected in fall 2016; when functioning, it will allow remote mass centering. In 2017, two researchers will visit Summit in May to perform maintenance on the seismometer system, including relocating it to a new vault, raising all cables above the snow surface, and checking out all hardware. The project team plans to install a post hole sensor for a 1-2 year comparison with the current seismic system to investigate potential replacement of the system in future years.

CPS will provide ANG travel and cargo support to/from Summit Station, Summit Station user days, a snow auger/corer with required tools, access to infrastructure, and year around science technician support for re-leveling the instrument, maintaining data and power cables above the snow surface, and general maintenance/troubleshooting as-needed). The PI will pay NSF directly for costs associated with this support. All other logistics will be provided by the PI.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2000Greenland - Summit05 / 15 / 2000 09 / 05 / 20002
2001Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 14 / 2001 1
2001Greenland - Summit07 / 17 / 2001 07 / 19 / 20011
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 07 / 2002 06 / 14 / 20022
2002Greenland - Summit06 / 10 / 2002 06 / 13 / 20022
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 12 / 2003 08 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - Summit05 / 13 / 2003 08 / 01 / 20031
2004Greenland - Summit0
2005Greenland - Summit0
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 08 / 2006 05 / 11 / 20061
2006Greenland - Summit05 / 09 / 2006 05 / 11 / 20061
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 01 / 2007 06 / 08 / 20072
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 04 / 2007 06 / 06 / 20072
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 21 / 2008 04 / 27 / 20081
2008Greenland - Summit04 / 22 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20081
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 11 / 2009 05 / 18 / 20091
2009Greenland - Summit05 / 12 / 2009 05 / 14 / 20091
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 20 / 2010 07 / 30 / 20102
2010Greenland - Summit07 / 21 / 2010 07 / 29 / 20102
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 07 / 2011 06 / 15 / 20111
2011Greenland - Summit06 / 09 / 2011 06 / 13 / 20111
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 14 / 2012 07 / 21 / 20122
2012Greenland - Summit07 / 16 / 2012 07 / 20 / 20122
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 15 / 2013 08 / 01 / 20132
2013Greenland - Summit07 / 16 / 2013 07 / 31 / 20132
2014Greenland - Summit0
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 29 / 2015 06 / 11 / 20152
2015Greenland - Summit06 / 03 / 2015 06 / 09 / 20152
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 15 / 2017 05 / 26 / 20172
2017Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2017 05 / 23 / 20172
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
2018Greenland - Summit1
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Linking belowground phenology and ecosystem function in a warming Arctic (Award# 1108425)

PI: Sullivan, Patrick "Paddy" (pfsullivan@uaa.alaska.edu )
Phone: 0(907) 786.1270 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Anchorage, Department of Biological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/data/arcss.html
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
This project comprises a four-year, passive warming experiment of low-Arctic tundra vegetation at a long-term study site in Greenland, with the primary aim of measuring the response of plant roots to warming, and the role of this response in ecosystem carbon exchange. Phenology, the annual timing and progression of events such as above-ground plant growth, is a well-studied and important component of the ecology of climate change; but it remains under-studied below-ground. The PI will estimate and compare above- and below-ground responses of plant phenology to warming and their respective contributions to ecosystem function, specifically the exchange of carbon between the atmosphere and tundra. It will furthermore determine which plant types, e.g., shrubs or grasses, show the greater below-ground response to warming and contribution to ecosystem carbon exchange. Novel insights into the expected response of the Arctic to climate change will emerge from this experiment, which will also expand the infrastructure for field-based experimental and observational research in the Arctic. This research will promote the involvement of under-represented groups by recruitment of students through Penn State’s Minority Undergraduate Research Experience program, and promote education and dissemination of its results through a summer field ecology module at the study site and in courses at Penn State and the University of Alaska-Anchorage. Results will also be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences by participating students and the Principal Investigators.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this collaboration between PIs Post (1107381, PSU, LEAD) and Sullivan (UAA, 1108425) will continue and expand on research begun by the lead PI in 1993, whose most recent NSF grant for this work is 0902125 (which expires in 2012). From 2012 through 2016, researchers will spend spring and summer in Greenland at a field site near Kangerlussuaq, where they will tend their experimental plots. Each year, research teams of 11 or so will travel to Kangerlussuaq via the ANG logistics chain in mid-May (during the last year, the field team may swell to 19). They will use a rental vehicle to travel to/from their research site near Russell Glacier, where they will establish a tent camp. They will make daily observations at their sites, and return frequently to Kangerlussuaq for resupply and to work on their samples. The PIs will host visits by undergraduates from Dartmouth and University of Greenland who are participating in a field seminar supported by an IGERT award (Virginia, Dartmouth, 0801490). Logistics details under 1107381.

For support details, see 1107381.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at Summit (ICECAPS) (Award# 1304692)

PI: Turner, David D (dave.turner@noaa.gov )
Phone: 0(608) 262-3822 
Institute/Department: National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate\Atmospheric Radiation | Meteorology and Climate\Cloud Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.archive.arm.gov
Project: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/arctic/observatories/...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=13...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
In 2010, the observatory at Summit, Greenland, in the center of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), was expanded to include a comprehensive suite of cloud-atmosphere observing instruments including microwave and infrared spectrometers, cloud radar, depolarization lidar, ceilometer, precipitation sensor, sodar, and a twice-daily radiosonde program. This observing effort was termed ICECAPS (Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at Summit). Continuation of the work was approved / funded late summer 2013 to allow for continuous operation, with moderate enhancements to include new precipitation measurements. Measurements from this expanded instrument suite will be used to derive critical baseline atmospheric data products including: Atmospheric State - tropospheric temperature, moisture, and wind profiles, Cloud Macrophysics - occurrence, vertical boundaries, temperature, Cloud Microphysics - phase, water content, and characteristic particle size, and Precipitation - type and rate. Together these products, when combined with similar ongoing measurements at Summit, can be used to study processes that impact the surface energy budget and precipitation at the site, as well as addressing questions related to atmospheric stability, cloud phase composition, and the persistence of stratiform clouds. It is further anticipated that these observations will continue to be used by a broad cross-section of the scientific community to promote understanding of GIS and Arctic climate, validate satellite observations, and evaluate model simulations. Graduate students play significant roles in most aspects of this project, gaining valuable experience with polar field work, operating instruments, and processing data. In addition, this research team has developed a unique education and outreach plan to work with students from local schools using simple, proxy instrumentation to help develop their understanding of atmospheric principles and observations, and to enhance the scientific curriculum in their schools via a wide range of outreach activities.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this collaboration between Walden (1414314, WSU), Turner (1304692, U of OK), Shupe (1303879, CU) and Bennartz (1304544, U of WI) will continue work begun under NSF grant 0856773 "ICECAPS". Researchers will continue an intensive cloud experiment at Summit with fieldwork from late spring 2014 through late spring 2018. Logistic details under 1414314.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2014Greenland - Summit0
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2015Greenland - Summit0
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Summit0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2018Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Arctic Observing Networks: Collaborative Research: ITEX AON - understanding the relationships between vegetation change, plant phenology, and ecosystem function in a warming Arctic (Award# 1504345)

PI: Tweedie, Craig E. (ctweedie@utep.edu)
Phone: 0(915) 747.8448 
Institute/Department: U of Texas, El Paso (UTEP), Biological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Ecology |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://faculty.fiu.edu/~oberbaue/AON-ITEX.html
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/catalog/#view/urn:uuid:0ebda...

Science Summary:
The goal of this program is to document and understand arctic terrestrial change by maintaining and extracting value from the temporally-critical datasets of the International Tundra Experiment Arctic Observatory Network (ITEX-AON), which has been active in Alaska and Greenland since 2007. ITEX was chartered in 1990 to quantify the effects of inter-annual environmental variability and increased temperature on tundra plant phenology, growth, species composition and ecosystem function using sustained experimental techniques and background monitoring. The ITEX network has provided exceptional value by detecting changes in tundra plant and ecosystem responses to experimental warming and to background change across sites that span the major ecosystems of the Arctic. Unlike most monitoring programs that focus primarily on documenting change and rely on correlation to determine causal factors, ITEX can attribute cause for observed change because of the imbedded experimental approach, which is especially critical as the Arctic System is changing rapidly and in complex ways. This project will provide urgently needed data critical to understanding the impact of multi-scale vegetation change on ecosystem function, namely land-atmosphere carbon and water fluxes and energy balance. Observed changes in the Arctic over the past half century include substantial vegetation change and greening, permafrost warming, and surface hydrological change. Building on the US ITEX program started in 1994, the ITEX-AON (since 2007) has continued and expanded on a wide latitudinal transect consisting of five sites in Alaska and Greenland, collecting core ITEX data with methods designed to address specific needs outlined in the 2003 Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) Implementation Report. Core datasets include manual observations of phenology, vegetation structure and composition, and ecosystem function (carbon flux & nutrient cycling) on long-term ITEX control and experimental warming plots, repeat measurement of vegetation plots on the 1 km2 ARCSS grids, and a multifactor warming/moisture experiment in Greenland. In 2009, the ITEX-AON sampling scheme was expanded to include a larger spatial component to amplify the utility of the measurements collected. This included the addition of phenocams, automated mobile sensor platforms and medium-scale aerial imagery. The automated platforms measure a suite of vegetation surface properties with minimal effort across focal transects spanning strong moisture and microtopographic gradients at a near-daily frequency. These measurements capture the fine-scale changes in vegetation over the growing season that are missed by lower frequency manual measurements and provide a bridge between manual measurements and aerial imagery. Medium-scale aerial imagery, using Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), is acquired throughout the growing season for scaling of manual and automated measurements; satellite imagery is referenced to medium-scale aerial imagery to aid scaling of responses to the regional level. In this phase, collection of core data sets will continue with some streamlining to allow for collection of new data sets aimed at reinforcing the proven value of the program and its utility to adapt to and support future research needs.

Logistics Summary:
The goal of this collaboration between Oberbauer (1504381, FIU, LEAD), Hollister (1504224, GVSU), Welker (1504141, UAA) and Tweedie (1504345, UTEP) is to document and understand arctic terrestrial change by maintaining and extracting value from the temporally-critical data sets of the International Tundra eXperiment Arctic Observatory Network (ITEX-AON), which has been active in Alaska and Greenland since 2007. This project is a continuation of the expired Oberbauer 1432982 ITEX project, and with this new phase of the project collection of core dat sets will continue with some streamlining to allow for collection of new data sets aimed and reinforcing the proven value of the program and its utility to adapt to and support future research needs. Logistic details under 1504381.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Atqasuk0
2016Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2016Greenland - Thule0
2017Alaska - Atqasuk0
2017Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2017Greenland - Thule0
2018Alaska - Atqasuk0
2018Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2018Greenland - Thule0
 


Project Title: Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) (Award# ViereggCMB)

PI: Vieregg, Abigail Goodhue (avieregg@kicp.uchicago.edu)
Phone: 0(773) 834.2988 
Institute/Department: U of Chicago, Department of Physics 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Research/Higher Ed
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Space Physics\Astrophysics |

Project Web Site(s):

Science Summary:
The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) is the oldest detectable light in the universe, and is an invaluable tool for learning about the early universe, the evolution of the universe, and the fundamental physics that govern the universe on its smallest and largest scales. Microwave telescopes at the South Pole and in Chile observe the CMB, which is a bath of microwave radiation that was emitted a mere 380,000 years after the Big Bang, when the universe underwent a phase transition to neutral hydrogen. Measurements of its spacial fluctuations in temperature and polarization have revealed information about the contents and evolution of the universe. Current and future telescopes focus on making precision measurements of the polarization of the CMB, to measure the mass of the neutrino through observations of the large scale structure of the universe, and to probe the nature of a potential inflationary epoch in the first tiny fraction of a second after the Big Bang by measuring the imprint of primordial gravitational waves on the polarization of the CMB. The next generation of ground-based CMB telescopes, such as CMB-S4, will attain the best precision with full sky coverage, which is especially important for the goal of measuring properties of neutrinos. Currently both actively-used CMB sites are in the Southern hemisphere, and Summit Station is an attractive Northern site because of its high altitude and dry, stable atmosphere. The team is currently performing site characterization at Summit Station to determine how a CMB telescope would perform at the site compared to South Pole and Chile. In 2016, they deployed a 183 GHz Water Vapor Radiometer with scanning optics that perform 360 degree scans continuously in azimuth and periodic full sky dips in elevation. They are measuring the fluctuations in atmospheric millimeter-wave power on timescales and angular scales relevant for CMB observations to determine the potential noise contribution to CMB maps. An identical unit is deployed at the South Pole for comparison.

Logistics Summary:
The goal of the project is to perform site characterization for future cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. Researchers will deploy a compact 183 GHz water vapor radiometer at Summit Station, Greenland to collect data in 2016-2017. The radiometer will have the capability to scan in azimuth and tip in elevation, to measure the atmospheric fluctuations on angular scales and timescales that contribute noise to CMB measurements. A field team of three will travel to Summit in late June of 2016, staying for two-three weeks to deploy the radiometer which will continue collecting data. Researchers will not deploy to Summit in 2017 but possibly 2018, details are TBD.

CPS will provide Air National Guard (ANG) coordination for passengers and cargo, Summit Station user days, provision of up to 630W peak UPS power draw with an anticipated continuous draw of 290W for approximately one year, labor support for installation and demobilization, and year-round technician support. NSF will recoup costs associated with this support directly from the PI’s institute. All other items, including KISS user days, will be arranged and paid for by the PI.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 26 / 2016 07 / 19 / 20163
2016Greenland - Summit06 / 28 / 2016 07 / 17 / 20163
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
2018Greenland - Summit1
 


Project Title: A Dartmouth-JSEP partnership for international science education in Greenland (Award# 1506155)

PI: Virginia, Ross Arthur (Ross.A.Virginia@Dartmouth.edu)
Phone: 0(603) 646.0192 
Institute/Department: Dartmouth College, Institute of Arctic Studies 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARE
Program Manager: Ms. Elizabeth Rom (elrom@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://www.arcus.org/jsep
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
Through this grant, Dartmouth will lead the U.S. contributions to the Joint Science Education Project (JSEP) for the next three years (starting in February 2015). The leadership role will include: sending a small team of graduate student and postdoctoral researchers with polar field experience, along with a Dartmouth faculty member, to Greenland to lead field science education in the JSEP programs; continued training of Dartmouth graduate students and postdoctoral researchers in cross-cultural science communication to advance outreach in Greenland and share this training more broadly with the Dartmouth community; hosting planning meetings and workshops to design the curriculum for Science and Education Week and to help coordinate efforts by all parties engaged in JSEP; working with our partners in Greenland to increase the visibility of JSEP in Greenland; and sharing and assessing the results of our work through presentations in education-focused symposia at national meetings and publications in scholarly journals. As an outcome of the NSF Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship grant to Dartmouth to develop the Polar Environmental Change program, these researchers have many years of experience with science, outreach, and the logistics of working in Kangerlussuaq and at Summit, Greenland, and the students, postdocs, and faculty have contributed significantly to the JSEP programs since 2011. In addition, they have a strong network of colleagues and scholars in Greenland that can continue to help us increase participation and engagement of students and teachers from Greenland. A Dartmouth-JSEP partnership is a natural and synergistic collaborative opportunity to provide significant international Arctic science education and outreach to students from Greenland, Denmark, and the U.S., with broader impacts for international communities of stakeholders, future leaders, and polar scientists.

Logistics Summary:
This grant supports the Joint Science Education Project (JSEP) program in Greenland. The Joint Committee, a high-level forum involving the Greenlandic, Danish and U.S. governments, initiated JSEP in 2007 to educate an international community of high school students and teachers from each of the three nations about the causes and consequences of rapid environmental change. The goals of JSEP include inspiring the next generation of polar scientists, building strong networks of students and teachers among the three countries, and providing an opportunity to practice language and communication skills by taking students from the three nations to Greenland to observe polar science in action. From 2015 to 2017, Dartmouth JSEP team participants will visit Greenland each summer to engage in the Kangerlussuaq Science Field School and lead Science and Education week at Summit Station. The PI and postdoctoral fellow will also travel to Nuuk to advance partnerships with Greenlandic institutions. The 2016 JSEP effort features two field visits: a spring preparatory trip, and the June summer intensive. In early June, graduate students will conduct research in the Kangerlussuaq area while camping in the sand dune area along the road. These grad students will lead some of the activities during the Field School portion of the project, which commences in late June when the international group assembles in Kangerlussuaq, the U.S. participants arriving via the ANG logistics chain. At the start of Science Education (SciEd) week, the high school group will camp for 2 nights near the Russell Glacier before travelling to Summit Station via LC-130. At Summit, two Dartmouth grad students plus teachers from all 3 nations will lead activities for the students, to include visualizing snow layer differences between summer and winter deposition bands in a backlit chamber. When the Summit visit is over, the JSEP participants will return to Kangerlussuaq and all will travel homeward. The U.S. participants will fly via the ANG to Scotia, New York, and commercial air to their points of origin. The 2017 JSEP effort features two field sessions: a spring preparatory trip, and the July summer intensive. In early May/June, two co-PIs and five graduate/undergraduate students will conduct research in the Kangerlussuaq area while camping in the sand dune area along the road. These grad students will lead some of the activities during the Field School portion of the project, which commences in early July when the international group assembles in Kangerlussuaq, the U.S. participants arriving via Commercial Air.

For the May/June trip in 2017, CPS will provide limited use of CPS inventory, comms and safety gear and coordination of ANG travel. All other support for the first session, including KISS user days, meals and truck rental will be paid through the grant will be organized and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 28 / 2015 07 / 20 / 201531
2015Greenland - Summit07 / 15 / 2015 07 / 18 / 201525
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 25 / 2016 07 / 23 / 201634
2016Greenland - Summit07 / 13 / 2016 07 / 17 / 201624
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 15 / 2017 07 / 28 / 201740
2017Greenland - Summit07 / 21 / 2017 07 / 25 / 201727
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Population Dynamics in Greenland - A Multi-Component, Mixed-Methods Study of Demographic Change in the Arctic (Award# 1319663)

PI: Vitzthum, Virginia J (vitzthum@indiana.edu)
Phone: 0(812) 855.7686 
Institute/Department: Indiana University, Department of Anthropology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Social and Human Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.kinseyinstitute.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=13...

Science Summary:
This award supports research on the social, cultural, environmental and physiological dynamics of pregnancy in an indigenous Arctic population. The project is a 3-year collaborative study focusing on Greenlandic ways of perceiving, understanding and experiencing pregnancy. Greenlander's believe that future generations of Greenlanders and Greenlandic culture and practices are in jeopardy due to a variety of demographic factors including low birth rates. This project will examine the individual, social, cultural, environmental and physiological factors that appear to have the greatest influence on Greenlandic women's and men's reproduction. The research will be implemented in Kullorsuaq in northwestern Greenland and the target population for the study is Greenlandic women and men, ages 15 to 49 years. The project is an interdisciplinary international, collaborative community based participatory research (CBPR) study involving the University of Greenland, local health and community partners in Greenland, Indiana University and Montana State University. The main activities of the research project are: 1) Examine how the individual level characteristics including age, gender, physical and mental health, spirituality, and beliefs about sex, pregnancy, and adoption influence reproductive decision making in Kullorsuaq; 2) Examine how the interpersonal dynamics in sexual relationships influence reproductive decision-making among men and women in Kullorsuaq: 3) Examine the foundational cultural constructs regarding kinship, familial obligations and personhood that influence pregnancy outcomes in Kullorsuaq; 4) Examine how natural and built environmental characteristics such as one's own and one's family's connection to place, the climate changes occurring in the environment and its influence on hunting, as well as the increased oil industry in the area, influence pregnancy outcomes in Kullorsuaq; and 5) Examine whether hormonal contraceptives may be biologically ill-matched to some clients in Kullorsuaq. The project will be implemented using a Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) framework. Of particular interest is the combination of the CBPR approach with ethnographic (cultural, natural and biological) and public health methods. Overall the project will contribute to our understanding of the complexity of the factors that may be influencing a declining Arctic population. This research is important for strengthening the scientific collaborations between the United States and a strategic Arctic ally, Greenland. In addition, the information gained from this research will give us critical insights into the effects of global economic forces on the well-being of remote communities. In addition, the interdisciplinary investigation of photoperiod has promise for providing insights into the higher risk of breast cancer faced by women who work in night shift and other jobs that involve changes from a typical daytime work schedule (e.g, airline pilots and personnel, and others with heavy travel schedules), which could lead to low-cost interventions that would reduce the risk of cancer, thereby saving medical costs and increasing economic productivity.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative study between Rink (1319651, Montana State) and Vitzthum (1319663, Indiana U) will investigate Greenlandic ways of perceiving, understanding and experiencing pregnancy. Researchers will provide recommendations to policy makers for improving Greenlander's reproductive health. Beginning in 2014, this three year study will focus on Greenlandic ways of perceiving, knowing and experiencing pregnancy and contraceptive outcomes. The target population for the study will be Greenlandic women and men ages 15 to 49. Logistics details under 1319651.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - Kullorsuaq0
2014Greenland - Nuuk0
2015Greenland - Kullorsuaq0
2015Greenland - Nuuk0
2016Greenland - Kullorsuaq0
2016Greenland - Nuuk0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at Summit (ICECAPS) (Award# 1414314)

PI: Walden, Von P (v.walden@wsu.edu)
Phone: 0(509) 335.5645  
Institute/Department: Washington State University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate\Atmospheric Radiation | Meteorology and Climate\Cloud Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.archive.arm.gov
Project: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/arctic/observatories/...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
In 2010, the observatory at Summit, Greenland, in the center of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), was expanded to include a comprehensive suite of cloud-atmosphere observing instruments including microwave and infrared spectrometers, cloud radar, depolarization lidar, ceilometer, precipitation sensor, sodar, and a twice-daily radiosonde program. This observing effort was termed ICECAPS (Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at Summit). Continuation of the work was approved / funded late summer 2013 to allow for continuous operation, with moderate enhancements to include new precipitation measurements. Measurements from this expanded instrument suite will be used to derive critical baseline atmospheric data products including: Atmospheric State - tropospheric temperature, moisture, and wind profiles, Cloud Macrophysics - occurrence, vertical boundaries, temperature, Cloud Microphysics - phase, water content, and characteristic particle size, and Precipitation - type and rate. Together these products, when combined with similar ongoing measurements at Summit, can be used to study processes that impact the surface energy budget and precipitation at the site, as well as addressing questions related to atmospheric stability, cloud phase composition, and the persistence of stratiform clouds. It is further anticipated that these observations will continue to be used by a broad cross-section of the scientific community to promote understanding of GIS and Arctic climate, validate satellite observations, and evaluate model simulations. Graduate students play significant roles in most aspects of this project, gaining valuable experience with polar field work, operating instruments, and processing data. In addition, this research team has developed a unique education and outreach plan to work with students from local schools using simple, proxy instrumentation to help develop their understanding of atmospheric principles and observations, and to enhance the scientific curriculum in their schools via a wide range of outreach activities.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this collaboration between Walden (1414314, WSU), Turner (1304692, U of OK), Shupe (1303879, CU) and Bennartz (1304544, UW-Madison) will continue work begun under NSF grant 0856773. Researchers will continue an intensive experiment to measure atmospheric properties at Summit with fieldwork running continuously from late summer 2013 through summer 2018. The suite of ICECAPS instruments was originally installed in 2010 and since then the project has been maintained by year-round science technician support and summer maintenance visits by the research team. During 2014- 2016, four to six members of the research team will deploy to Summit station for instrument support and upgrades. CPS will provide technician support at the station year-round. The CPS science technician will continue to monitor project instruments and oversee a twice daily radiosonde program. In subsequent years, a research team of four to five participants will travel to Summit Station each spring / summer to provide instrument support. In 2016 field team members will deploy in June to support instrument maintenance, upgrades and the Mobile Science Facility relocation. The scientists will reinstall the multi-angle snowflake camera, sent off-station for repairs, when it is shipped back to Summit mid-season. The group will stay for periods of several weeks to the entire month of June. Two additional researchers may visit Summit Station to troubleshoot and repair instrumentation if the Stirling cooler fails. CPS science technicians will continue to monitor project instruments and oversee the twice-daily radiosonde program year-round. In 2017, researchers will return to perform annual maintenance and instrument support activities as necessary. Planned activities include reinstallation of the MASC and Hotplate instruments and annual liquid nitrogen calibrations of the Microwave Radiometers. The Stirling cooler component will be closely monitored on the PAERI system as it is performing well but is beyond its expected lifecycle. A short notice deployment may be required if it were to fail. CPS will provide technician support at the station year-round, and the technicians will continue to monitor project instruments and oversee the twice-daily radiosonde program year-round.

CPS will provide Air National Guard (ANG) coordination for the field team and cargo; coordination of candidate screening, hiring, management, travel and accommodations for year-round science technician; science technical services; in-transit user days in Kangerlussuaq; access to the Summit Station infrastructure and services, relocation of the Mobile Science Facility; helium provision and shipment; liquid nitrogen provision and shipment; provision and shipment of radiosondes and balloons. The PIs will make all other arrangements and pay for them through their respective grants.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 12 / 2014 08 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Summit05 / 14 / 2014 08 / 21 / 20144
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 24 / 2015 08 / 22 / 20154
2015Greenland - Summit04 / 28 / 2015 08 / 20 / 20154
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 01 / 2016 06 / 30 / 20163
2016Greenland - Summit06 / 04 / 2016 06 / 29 / 20163
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 15 / 2017 08 / 25 / 20174
2017Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2017 08 / 23 / 20174
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 22 / 2018 08 / 22 / 20185
2018Greenland - Summit05 / 02 / 2018 08 / 27 / 20185
 


Project Title: Arctic Observing Networks: Collaborative Research: ITEX AON - understanding the relationships between vegetation change, plant phenology, and ecosystem function in a warming Arctic (Award# 1504141)

PI: Welker, Jeffrey M (jmwelker@alaska.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 244.7785 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Anchorage, Department of Biological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Ecology |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://faculty.fiu.edu/~oberbaue/AON-ITEX.html
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The goal of this program is to document and understand arctic terrestrial change by maintaining and extracting value from the temporally-critical datasets of the International Tundra Experiment Arctic Observatory Network (ITEX-AON), which has been active in Alaska and Greenland since 2007. ITEX was chartered in 1990 to quantify the effects of inter-annual environmental variability and increased temperature on tundra plant phenology, growth, species composition and ecosystem function using sustained experimental techniques and background monitoring. The ITEX network has provided exceptional value by detecting changes in tundra plant and ecosystem responses to experimental warming and to background change across sites that span the major ecosystems of the Arctic. Unlike most monitoring programs that focus primarily on documenting change and rely on correlation to determine causal factors, ITEX can attribute cause for observed change because of the imbedded experimental approach, which is especially critical as the Arctic System is changing rapidly and in complex ways. This project will provide urgently needed data critical to understanding the impact of multi-scale vegetation change on ecosystem function, namely land-atmosphere carbon and water fluxes and energy balance. Observed changes in the Arctic over the past half century include substantial vegetation change and greening, permafrost warming, and surface hydrological change. Building on the US ITEX program started in 1994, the ITEX-AON (since 2007) has continued and expanded on a wide latitudinal transect consisting of five sites in Alaska and Greenland, collecting core ITEX data with methods designed to address specific needs outlined in the 2003 Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) Implementation Report. Core datasets include manual observations of phenology, vegetation structure and composition, and ecosystem function (carbon flux & nutrient cycling) on long-term ITEX control and experimental warming plots, repeat measurement of vegetation plots on the 1 km2 ARCSS grids, and a multifactor warming/moisture experiment in Greenland. In 2009, the ITEX-AON sampling scheme was expanded to include a larger spatial component to amplify the utility of the measurements collected. This included the addition of phenocams, automated mobile sensor platforms and medium-scale aerial imagery. The automated platforms measure a suite of vegetation surface properties with minimal effort across focal transects spanning strong moisture and microtopographic gradients at a near-daily frequency. These measurements capture the fine-scale changes in vegetation over the growing season that are missed by lower frequency manual measurements and provide a bridge between manual measurements and aerial imagery. Medium-scale aerial imagery, using Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), is acquired throughout the growing season for scaling of manual and automated measurements; satellite imagery is referenced to medium-scale aerial imagery to aid scaling of responses to the regional level. In this phase, collection of core data sets will continue with some streamlining to allow for collection of new data sets aimed at reinforcing the proven value of the program and its utility to adapt to and support future research needs.

Logistics Summary:
The goal of this collaboration between Oberbauer (1504381, FIU, LEAD), Hollister (1504224, GVSU), Welker (1504141, UAA) and Tweedie (1504345, UTEP) is to document and understand arctic terrestrial change by maintaining and extracting value from the temporally-critical data sets of the International Tundra eXperiment Arctic Observatory Network (ITEX-AON), which has been active in Alaska and Greenland since 2007. This project is a continuation of the expired Oberbauer 1432982 ITEX project, and with this new phase of the project collection of core dat sets will continue with some streamlining to allow for collection of new data sets aimed and reinforcing the proven value of the program and its utility to adapt to and support future research needs. Logistic details under 1504381.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Atqasuk0
2016Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2016Greenland - Thule0
2017Alaska - Atqasuk0
2017Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2017Greenland - Thule0
2018Alaska - Atqasuk0
2018Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2018Greenland - Thule0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Refining Long-term Climate Records from the Renland Ice Cap (Award# 1304109)

PI: White, James W (james.white@colorado.edu)
Phone: 0(303) 492.5494 
Institute/Department: U of Colorado, Boulder, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. William Wiseman (wwiseman@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatol...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=13...

Science Summary:
Researchers on this project will drill, analyze, and interpret a new ice core from the Renland Ice Cap on the north east coast of Greenland. This is a collaborative venture between scientists from the U.S., Denmark's Center for Ice and Climate at the Univ. of Copenhagen and Germany's Alfred Wegner Institute. U.S. efforts will focus on gas concentrations and gas isotopes (Sowers, Penn State) and ice isotopes (White, U. Colorado). Danish partners will also focus on stable isotopes of ice and gas composition, as well as high-resolution chemistry. German partners will focus on physical properties of the ice, line scanning and dielectric properties to investigate the factors driving snow densification and ice core age model development. Ice cores will be retrieved and processed within this international framework. In order to help guide site selection for the 2015 drill project CReSIS will send a surface radar to Renland for a pre-season survey after training a Danish colleague in Kansas on how to operate the radar system. Renland is an important location for an ice core as it is cold (infrequent melt layers), constrained by topography so that it cannot significantly change in elevation, contains ice from the last glacial period (and possibly the Eemian period), and has not been overrun by the main Greenland ice sheet. The lack of elevation change means that Renland's isotopic temperature and total air content records can be used as climate standards against which to compare other Greenland ice cores. The Renland ice cap is about 400 meters thick so it does not contain brittle ice. These properties will allow significant scientific progress to be made in mapping out and constraining Greenland climatic conditions in general, but especially for the Holocene. The occurrence of brittle ice in other Greenland ice cores has limited our ability to reconstruct high-resolution climate records due to poor core quality. The Renland ice core will provide the means of reconstructing greenhouse gas records, volcanic activity, biomass burning events, as well as key feedback mechanisms such as sea ice extent throughout the Holocene. Primary objectives of this project are: 1) link the recent, rapid warming seen in Greenland over the past decade to the baseline record of the past few centuries, as well as the broader Holocene record; 2) provide high-quality gas records throughout the Holocene from a Greenland core to test current theories about the how early human activity may have impacted the greenhouse gas composition; 3) provide an ultra-high resolution isotopic temperature record that is tightly coupled to sea ice near eastern Greenland, as well as a history of climate in this region hopefully extending back into the last interglacial period. This project will provide important data to inform the public, and policy makers, about the earth's climate and what causes changes in that climate. This project proposes to place both the records of sea ice off eastern Greenland, as well as the climate record, into the context of natural variability, and further understanding of recent rapid changes in Arctic temperatures and sea ice. The project will support graduate and undergraduate students.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative research between White (1304109, CU, Lead) and Sowers (1304077, PSU) represents the U.S. contribution to an international venture with scientists from Denmark's Center for Ice and Climate at the Univ. of Copenhagen and Germany's Alfred Wegner Institute. The researchers will study the Renland ice cap in Eastern Greenland on a high elevation plateau on the Renland peninsula in Scoresbysund Fjord. U.S. efforts will focus on gas concentrations and gas isotopes (Sowers, Penn State) and ice isotopes (White, U. Colorado). Danish partners will also focus on stable isotopes of ice and gas composition, as well as high-resolution chemistry. German partners will focus on physical properties of the ice, line scanning and dielectric properties to investigate the factors driving snow densification and ice core age model development. Ice cores will be retrieved and processed within this international framework During one season of field work, in 2015, researchers will drill, analyze, and interpret a new ice core from the Renland Ice Cap. A field team of four U.S. scientists will assist in drilling a high-quality, 4-inch-diameter ice core through the Renland ice cap during May/June. Three U.S. scientists plus a camp cook will travel via the ANG logistics chain through New York to Kangerlussuaq, and then on to Mestersvig. They will stop in Mestersvig to prepare for the field work before putting in to a camp on the Renland ice cap via Basler. The researchers will spend about three weeks drilling and working with the core. The new ice core will be drilled with the Danish intermediate drilling system that is capable of drilling in a liquid-filled borehole. Early in June, the three U.S. researchers will depart on the return leg of a Basler flight on which the PI will put in to the field from Constable Pynt. From there, one person will fly commercially (due to personal deadline) back to the US via Iceland, while the other two will fly commercially to Kangerlussuaq and on to New York via ANG a few days later. The PI will continue work at the Renland camp for about a month before pulling out by Basler to Mestersvig, then flying to Kangerlussuaq via C-130 with the ice cores for onward transport to Denmark. The camp cook and a US citizen from Centre of Ice and Climate will also fly on the C-130 Mestersvig to Kangerlussuaq and onto NY. In 2016, there will be no personnel travel by team members but ice core boxes will be shipped via the ANG on behalf of one of the PI's.

In 2015, CPS will provide travel coordination to Greenland via C-130, meal tickets in Kangerlussuaq, freight and cargo support, and C-130 flights between Kangerlussuaq and Mestersvig. All other logistics, including accommodations, will be arranged and paid for from the grant or from the project's international collaborators: the Center for Ice and Climate (Denmark) and Alfred Wegener Institute (Germany). In 2016 only, CPS will provide shipment of ice core boxes from Kangerlussuaq to New York via the Air National Guard flight.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Greenland - Constable Point05 / 31 / 2015 06 / 02 / 20153
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 24 / 2015 04 / 26 / 20153
2015Greenland - Mestersvig04 / 26 / 2015 05 / 31 / 20153
2015Greenland - Renland Ice Cap05 / 04 / 2015 05 / 31 / 20153
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
 


Project Title: BLACK and BLOOM - Microbial processes darken and accelerate the melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet (Award# WilliamsonNERC)

PI: Williamson, Christopher (c.williamson@bristol.ac.uk)
Phone: 44(0117) 331.4151 
Institute/Department: Bristol University, Schools of Biological & Geographical Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: GB\Federal\NERC
Program Manager: Mr. Patrick Haggerty (phaggert@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://darksnow.org/
Project: https://blackandbloom.org/

Science Summary:
The UK Natural Environment Research Council(NERC) has funded a consortium of UK scientist to work together with their international collaborators on issues related to why the melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet is accelerating. Global warming alone is not enough to account for the increasingly rapid melting of the ice sheet. Other factors are darkening the ice sheet surface, which results in greater rates of melting. The main focus of this large research project is based on our hypothesis that microbes thrive and bloom on melting snow and ice surfaces, and darken the ice sheet surface as a consequence.

Logistics Summary:
The main focus of this large UK-led research project, funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC), will test the hypothesis that microbes thrive and bloom on melting snow and ice surfaces, and darken the ice sheet surface as a consequence. Beginning in 2016, this five year project will conduct detailed measurements of how the surface of the ice sheet darkens over the whole spring, summer and autumn, starting with cold snow, going through slush, then ice as the snow melt drains away, and finally to rotten ice, a mix of ice and water. Note: The lead PI for this project is Martyn Tranter, however, the NSF billing arrangement was made directly with Dr. Williamson, a collaborator on this project, therefore, Williamson is listed as the PI in this document and record. In 2016, a field team of five will travel to Kangerlussuaq, Greenland via commercial air. They will use Kangerlussuaq as a hub to access the ice sheet for these measurements throughout the summer.

CPS will provide Air National Guard (ANG) coordination of shipments of two LN2 dewars NY><Kangerlussuaq. All other logistics, including the cost of procuring the LN2 and vent kits, will be arranged and paid for by the grant. NSF will recoup costs associated with this support directly from NERC/Bristol University.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 12 / 2016 08 / 05 / 20165
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Remote Sensing of Electron Density Using Auroral Radio Emissions (Award# 1147759)

PI: Yoon, Peter H (YoonP@UMD.EDU)
Phone: 0(301) 405.4826 
Institute/Department: U of Maryland, Institute for Physical Science and Technology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\AGS
Program Manager:  Michael Wiltberger (mwiltber@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Space Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This grant will investigate the role of radio waves in the electromagnetic coupling of the magnetosphere to the ionosphere. In particular it will examine auroral hiss and medium frequency bursts (MFB), which appear in the auroral zones as a prompt response to the onset of a magnetic substorm. In addition to the association with substorm onset, auroral radio emissions are associated with a number of other auroral phenomena, such as poleward-moving arcs and increases in radio wave absorption. The project will use a combination of experimental measurement and theoretical and numerical analysis. An important part of the project will be the measurement of full waveforms and fine structure in MFB events. The waveform measurements will be performed at multiple sites and for multiple events. In some cases it will be possible to use incoherent scatter radar data to determine the plasma density structures within the ionosphere that affect the propagation and dispersion of the waves. Statistical analysis of MFB events, in conjunction with conjugate satellite measurements, will be used to determine the nature of electron precipitation associated with the events. The theoretical and numerical analyses will determine whether or not Langmuir and Z-mode waves can explain the mode conversion processes needed to explain the generation of medium frequency bursts. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and magnetic substorms have been identified as central problems to our understanding of near-earth space plasmas. This project will examine the role that auroral hiss and medium frequency wave bursts play in M-I coupling. Both graduate and undergraduate students will participate in this project in all aspects of the research, including the development of wave measurement instruments, the deployment of the instruments, the analysis of the data obtained from the instruments, and the related plasma theory. The majority of the research will take place at Dartmouth College and will offer opportunities for first and second year women researchers to participate through the Dartmouth Women-in-Science Program (WISP).

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between LaBelle (1147699, Dartmouth) and Yoon (1147759, U of MD) will test the generation mechanism of the auroral MFB emission, establish whether it can contribute to remote sensing of the upper boundary of the ionospheric Alfv´en resonator, and determine its connection to other events in the time history analysis of substorms as well as other auroral phenomena. Logistic details under 1147699.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2012Alaska - Toolik0
2012Canada - Churchill0
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2013Alaska - Toolik0
2013Canada - Churchill0
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2014Alaska - Toolik0
2014Canada - Churchill0
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Testing Arctic Ice Sheet Sensitivity to Abrupt Climate Change (Award# 1417675)

PI: Young, Nicolas E (nicolasy@ldeo.columbia.edu)
Phone: 0(845) 365.8653 
Institute/Department: Columbia University, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Anjuli Bamzai (abamzai@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Climate Change | Cryosphere\Paleoclimate |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.earthchem.org/
Data: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatol...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
A team of investigators will investigate the response of the Laurentide and Greenland Ice Sheets to two short term cooling events (several decades to a few centuries in duration) that occurred 9.3 and 8.2 thousand years ago. Assessing the sensitivity of ice sheets to short term climate variability is at the forefront of the scientific community's and the public's interest because short term ice sheet change will drive 21st century sea level rise. Thus a central question of the proposed work is whether ice sheets react abruptly to climate forcings, or are multi-millennial-scale trends in climate required to elicit a large-scale ice sheet response? The investigators plan an intensive field-based research program capitalizing on their newly published work reconstructing ice sheet change using high-precision beryllium-10 dating to test the hypothesis that prominent moraine systems marking former ice extents in West Greenland and Baffin Island record the synchronous advance of the Greenland and Laurentide ice sheets driven by the abrupt cooling events 9.3 and 8.2 thousand years ago. Pilot data reveal that portions of the ice sheet margin that are in contact with the surrounding ocean are able to respond rapidly to a short-lived climate perturbation. To test whether these documented changes were restricted to solely the most sensitive marine-terminating ice sheet sectors, or whether ice sheets are capable of a larger scale response to centennial-scale climate change, well-constrained chronologies of ice sheet change are needed from other regions. The investigators' research objectives are to 1) establish how land-terminating regions of ice sheets, which are more representative of broader ice sheet margins, respond to abrupt climate change, 2) further evaluate the role that oceanic forcing plays in modulating ice sheet response to short-lived climate perturbations, and 3) reconstruct the early Holocene behavior of mountain glacier systems (a proxy for summertime temperature) to evaluate what climatic conditions influenced the ice sheets. The investigators will work to make results easily accessible to the public. The work is led by an early career investigator and will support two graduate and several undergraduate students.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative geological study regarding ice-sheet change on Baffin Island, Canada and in Western Greenland is comprised of: Young (1417675 LEAD, Columbia), Miller (1418040, CU) and Briner (1417783, U of Buffalo). Researchers will conduct rock and lake-sediment sampling to perform high-precision 10Be and 14C dating to determine how these regions responded to abrupt cooling events. In August 2015, a field team of four will visit Baffin Island accessing various sites via helicopter to sample boulders and moraine deposits for 10 Be dating. In 2016, in addition to the sampling of moraine deposits and boulders for 10 Be, lake sediments with distinct sedimentological assemblages will also be sampled and dated via macrofossil 14 C dating. A helicopter will be used to access campsites and field sampling locations. For the 2016 and 2017 seasons, researchers on this collaboration will combine field efforts with work advancing the science goals of a collaboration led by Young (NSF grant 1417675), for which Briner is on. In July 2016, six people total (both projects) will assemble in Kangerlussuaq, four via the Air National Guard logistics chain, and two via commercial air from Ilulissat. The group will prepare and then put-in by helicopter to the first of six camp sites in the Søndre-Strømfjord region. After working for four to five days, the base camp will move to the next site, again using helicopter support, establishing the basic logistics effort for the five to six week field campaign. Helicopter-supported camp moves will facilitate personnel change-outs as well as ground stops for more sampling. Once during the field season, the team will return to Kangerlussuaq for a more thorough camp resupply effort. The final camp put-in will be accessed by driving to Point 660, from which the team will then proceed to their last sampling site on foot. When the work is finished, the team will return to Kangerlussuaq. Some will depart via the ANG, while others depart on commercial flights. In 2017, the Briner and Young teams will again work together outside of Nuuk. A team of four researchers will travel to Nuuk via Kangerlussuaq to a site at the terminus of the Kangiata Nunaata Sermia (SMS) glacier, approximately 100 km east of Nuuk. Helicopters will once again be utilized to reach field sites and conduct sampling.

In 2015 for the work in Canada, CPS will provide communications and safety gear. In 2016 and 2017, CPS will provide Air National Guard coordination for pax and cargo, user days at KISS, in-transit lodging in Nuuk, rental trucks as needed, intra-Greenland commercial air ticketing and freight, helicopter support, and camp & safety/communication gear. All other logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Canada - Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island08 / 03 / 2015 08 / 25 / 20154
2016Greenland - JB207 / 22 / 2016 07 / 28 / 20163
2016Greenland - JB408 / 14 / 2016 08 / 18 / 20165
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 21 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20163
2016Greenland - NY107 / 30 / 2016 08 / 06 / 20165
2016Greenland - NY208 / 06 / 2016 08 / 13 / 20165
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-107 / 24 / 2017 07 / 30 / 20171
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-207 / 30 / 2017 08 / 05 / 20171
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-308 / 05 / 2017 08 / 08 / 20171
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-408 / 08 / 2017 08 / 13 / 20172
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-5 (Long Lake)08 / 13 / 2017 08 / 18 / 20172
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-6 (Target Lake)08 / 18 / 2017 08 / 26 / 20172
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 21 / 2017 08 / 28 / 20172
2017Greenland - Nuuk07 / 22 / 2017 08 / 26 / 20172
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Ice sheet sensitivity in a changing Arctic system - using Geologic data and modeling to test the stable Greenland Ice Sheet hypothesis (Award# 1503959)

PI: Young, Nicolas E (nicolasy@ldeo.columbia.edu)
Phone: 0(845) 365.8653 
Institute/Department: Columbia University, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
There is enough water in the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) that, were it to melt, it would raise sea level in most coastal cities significantly with huge consequences for society. In the face of accelerated ice sheet contribution to sea level rise, it remains uncertain how the GrIS will adjust to a warming Arctic, declining sea ice and related changing precipitation patterns. This is a concern, given that future sea level rise is strongly dependent on the GrIS response to arctic change. The scientific community is currently undecided between a model of a dynamic GrIS that becomes greatly reduced during warm periods and a model where it is relatively stable, even through periods warmer than today. This proposal addresses the idea that increased arctic precipitation offsets GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperature. The researchers will test this by contributing significant new information on arctic system change and related GrIS dynamics during past and ongoing warm periods, and employing an ice sheet modeling effort synthesizing all new data aimed at both past and future GrIS simulations. The researchers explicitly combine multiple scientific disciplines to provide a better understanding of how key arctic system components such as precipitation, temperature, sea-ice cover and GrIS mass balance are interconnected. The results will be of fundamental relevance to the fates of the arctic system, the GrIS and global sea level rise. This project will train six graduate students and one post-doctoral researcher. The cross-cutting research program is paralleled by the scope of the outreach plan, to develop a variety of deliverables, including development of an iBook and public outreach events. In addition the team will participate in public outreach events in Buffalo and New York City, where the public and scientists interact in a casual setting. Finally, this work has synergies with ongoing missions at NASA and other programs within the NSF. Due to recent advances in numerical ice sheet models and new sub-ice topography of Greenland, combined with finely-tuned field approaches and geochronologic techniques, the time is ripe for a coordinated, cross-disciplinary effort focusing on cryosphere variability in a warming Arctic; the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and sea ice constitute the largest, and most critical components of the arctic cryosphere. The hypothesis that increased arctic precipitation can counterbalance GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperatures stems from recent findings suggesting that it may be more stable than expected during interglacials. The researchers will: generate new GrIS margin reconstructions during and since the mid-Holocene Thermal Maximum (9,000 to 5,000 years ago), with a powerful approach that combines lake sediment stratigraphy with new sub-ice topography and novel high-sensitivity cosmogenic isotope methods; develop new Holocene climate reconstructions of moisture, temperature and sea ice conditions from lake and ocean sediments and an advanced synthesis of existing arctic ice core and other paleoclimate data; and employ state-of-the-art numerical ice sheet modeling fueled by ice margin and climate reconstructions to test a range of climatic and dynamic controls on GrIS change. If the idea is supported, then it would suggest a relatively stable GrIS during warm periods. If, however, this project provides evidence that the GrIS retreated considerably during the warmer-than-present mid-Holocene and in turn, that the GrIS has reacted more sensitively to temperature than to precipitation change, the results would support a tightly coupled ice sheet size-temperature link and in turn, a much greater near-term GrIS contribution to sea level rise. Either result will be of fundamental relevance to the fates of the arctic system, the GrIS and global sea level rise.

Logistics Summary:
The collaboration of Briner (1504267, U of Buffalo), Steig (1503281, UW), Morlighem (1504230, UCI), Young (1503959, LDEO), and Johnson (1504457, U of Montana) will address the null hypothesis that increased Arctic precipitation offsets GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperature. Logistic details under 1504267.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Nuuk0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2018Greenland - Nuuk0
2018Greenland - Paamiut0
 


Project Title: Greenland AWS technology (Award# NNX14AH55A)

PI: Zender, Charles S (zender@uci.edu)
Phone: 0(949) 824.2987 
Institute/Department: U of California, Irvine, Earth System Science 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Thomas Wagner (thomas.wagner@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://www.the-cryosphere.net/10/727/2016

Science Summary:
Swath-like data (SLD) are defined by non-rectangular and/or time-varying spatial grids in which one or more coordinates are multi-dimensional. It is often challenging and time-consuming to work with SLD, including all NASA Level~2 satellite-retrieved data, non-rectangular subsets of Level~3 data, and model data on non-rectangular grids. Researchers and data centers would benefit from user-friendly, fast, and powerful methods to specify, extract, serve, manipulate, and thus analyze, SLD. This project addresses these needs by extending the functionality, user-base, and integration into NASA data services of the netCDF Operators (NCO), an open-source scientific data analysis software package which our current ACCESS project has augmented with HDF capabilities applicable to most archived and virtually all new NASA-distributed data.

Logistics Summary:
With NASA support, the PI is developing software to assist scientists in processing swath-like data (SLD), which is derived from non-rectangular and/or time-varying spatial grids in which one or more coordinates are multi-dimensional. Automatic weather station (AWS) measurements, which produce SLD, are the only long-term ground observations of climate in Greenland, and thus the data quality is not only critical to the direct diagnostics but also to the validation of satellite observations and model simulations. In developing the SLD software, the researchers have identified some parameters that need adjustment. Information gained from measurements taken at two AWS in 2016 will help validate their adjustments. In late July, a UCI graduate student will travel to Thule Air Base via AMC flight to join 2 colleagues from the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) for field work. GEUS maintains 22 PROMISE AWS in Greenland, 2 of which are near Thule Air Base, and these stations are the subject of the UCI researcher’s field efforts, as measurements taken before and after GEUS’s AWS maintenance activities will help advance the development of SLD processing software. The researcher will base at North Star Inn for about a week and take day trips with the GEUS team to AWS sites for measurements. When the work is completed, the PI will depart Greenland via AMC flight. Researchers will not return in 2017 but may return in 2018, details are TBD.

CPS will provide Thule base clearance, AMC ticketing for one person and lodging at North Star Inn. All other logistics will be covered by the PI from the grant or from their collaborators at GEUS. NSF will recoup these funds via an interagency transfer with NASA.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Thule07 / 19 / 2016 07 / 27 / 20161
2018Greenland - Thule1
 


Generated from:
 
Parameters used to generate this report:Region = "Greenland", Season = "2016", IPY = "ALL" 
     Number of projects returned based on your query parameters = 84
 
ARLSS_ProjectsDetail