Arctic Field Projects



Project Title: Quantifying Firn Compaction and its Implications for Altimetry-based Mass Balance Estimates of the Greenland Ice Sheet (Award# NNX15AC62G)

PI: Abdalati, Waleed (waleed.abdalati@colorado.edu)
Phone: 0(301) 614.5706 
Institute/Department: National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Thomas Wagner (thomas.wagner@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Blog: http://ciresblogs.colorado.edu/firncover/

Science Summary:
The Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) contains enough ice to raise sea levels by 7 meters if it were to disappear entirely. Although total loss of the ice sheet is not a concern for the foreseeable future, accurately measuring the total mass balance — accumulation minus loss —of the GrIS remains a critical scientific objective for determining the ice sheet’s present day contributions to sea level rise. Greenland's mass was in near balance in the mid-1990s, but has experienced an increasingly negative mass balance since then with a current annual mass loss of approximately 0.46 - 0.75mm of sea-level equivalent (SLE) per year. The year 2012 proved an "extreme" melt year in Greenland with a single-year loss of 1.59 mm SLE, owing in part to surface mass balance (loss from surface melting) that was three standard deviations below the long-term mean. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) altimetry is one of the primary approaches used to compute mass changes on the GrIS, in part because of its high spatial resolution and sampling capabilities when compared to other approaches such as gravimetry and radar altimetry. The Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) was used to successfully estimate mass balance for Greenland during much of the last decade. ICESat's successor ICESat-2 is scheduled to launch in 2017 and will continue ICESat's legacy of space-based lidar remote sensing of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. In addition, airborne laser altimetry has been used to estimate ice sheet mass balance and outlet glacier changes since 1991. Such an airborne lidar is fundamental to Operation IceBridge (OIB), which is dedicated to filling the elevation change measurement gap between ICESat and ICESat-2. An unavoidable source of uncertainty in altimetry-based mass balance measurements is the conversion from volume change into mass. One of the primary components of this volume change is firn compaction: the rate at which fresh snow is compressed into glacial ice on the surface of a glacier. At elevations below the equilibrium line, snow melts out entirely to glacial ice each summer, and a density of pure ice may be assumed to calculate changes in mass. However, approximately 80% of the GrIS lies within the accumulation zone, where firn compaction must be accurately measured or modeled in order to perform this volume-to-mass conversion effectively. Direct compaction measurements are spatially and temporally extremely sparse on the GrIS and nonexistent in some large regions, so models remain the primary source for compaction adjustments in mass balance measurements. Most firn compaction models were created and parameterized assuming long-term steady state climate conditions, namely that accumulation and mean temperature remain nearly constant over components of ice sheet elevation change for long time periods, an assumption that held true for much of Greenland only a few decades ago. Some of the current models include considerations for melt, percolation and refreezing, but maintain many of the same steady-state assumptions in the underlying physical characterizations of snow forming into ice. The models not only tend to disagree with each other when run under identical steady-state conditions, but also exhibit a broad range of future behaviors when forced with the transient variables of a changing climate. Each model was created and validated against varying levels of field data spanning different regions and time periods. Without a consistently measured validation dataset, it is nearly impossible to determine which compaction models are most correct when estimating firn compaction across a vast region. One of the most widely-cited firn compaction models used during ICESat-1 to calculate mass balance in Greenland estimated that the rate of firn compaction changed by as much as ± 2.5-13.5 cm yr-1 across nearly three quarters of Greenland’s accumulation zone in the six years spanning 2002-2007. This estimated change in compaction rate dwarfs the ±0.4 cm yr-1 measurement accuracy in the baseline science requirements currently proposed for NASA’s upcoming ICESat-2 mission. To successfully calculate the current and future mass balance of Greenland, accurate and timely field measurements are needed to more precisely constrain firn compaction rates across the GrIS.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this NASA project (“FirnCover”), will measure compaction rates at a range of depths to differentiate between rapid melt-induced densification and steadier grain deformation at depth in Greenland. With visits to Greenland from 2015 to 2017, a field team will gather data from sampling sites, some existing and others to be installed. Accumulation, temperature, firn stratigraphy and density profiles will be measured at each station to initialize and force compaction models under Greenland’s changing climate. In 2015 a field team of up to six will obtain and build all components of the FirnCover instruments and transmission towers. After flying to Kangerlussuaq via ANG and spending several days preparing for the work ahead, six researchers will fly to Raven Camp, and base there to revisit the existing FirnCover stations (KAN-U, Dye-2, and EKT) by snow machine, maintain the towers and instruments, and install new surface instruments atop the latest layer of snow accumulation to extend the continuous depth-profile compaction measurements. New stations will be installed near the GC-Net weather station at Saddle and NASA-SE. When this work is finished, two team members will return to Kangerlussuaq via chartered Twin Otter and depart Greenland via commercial air. The remaining party will fly via Twin Otter to the rest of the stations (Crawford Point, Summit, and NEGIS) to drill cores and install new stations. They will work at Summit Station, and after the Twin Otter support is finished, return to Kangerlussuaq via ANG in early-mid June. The researchers will depart Greenland, chiefly via ANG, several days later. In 2016, 11 researchers will return to maintain the instruments, continue measurements from the surface, repair equipment as necessary, and collect firn core samples. The team will assemble in Kangerlussuaq via a combination of Air National Guard and commercial flights in April. They will spend about a month tent-camping while visiting existing sites based from hubs at Raven Camp and Summit Station. Air transport between hubs and field sites will be accomplished largely by chartered Twin Otter. The work will end at Summit Station in mid-May, at which point the researchers will return to Kangerlussuaq via Twin Otter, carrying firn core samples if space allows. Researchers will spend several days in Kangerlussuaq processing the firn samples before departing via a combination of ANG and commercial air. In 2017, six researchers will visit the sites in mid-April to mid/late May. The team’s field season plans will be similar to 2016. They will process their firn cores at Summit Station prior to returning to Kangerlussuaq thus no freezer space is required in this year.

Via an interagency funds transfer NASA>NSF, CPS will provide Air National Guard coordination for passengers and cargo, including dedicated flights to Raven, KISS user days, in-transit Summit user days, fixed-wing support, truck rental, snow machines/sleds & camp equipment, fuel, communications equipment, and safety gear. The PI will arrange and pay for all other support directly.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Greenland - Crawford Point05 / 29 / 2015 05 / 30 / 20154
2015Greenland - DYE-205 / 06 / 2015 05 / 28 / 20156
2015Greenland - EKT05 / 06 / 2015 05 / 28 / 20156
2015Greenland - GRIP06 / 02 / 2015 06 / 02 / 20154
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 24 / 2015 06 / 09 / 20156
2015Greenland - KAN-U05 / 01 / 2015 05 / 06 / 20156
2015Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 06 / 2015 05 / 28 / 20156
2015Greenland - NEGIS06 / 01 / 2015 06 / 01 / 20154
2015Greenland - Raven04 / 30 / 2015 05 / 06 / 20156
2015Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 06 / 2015 05 / 28 / 20156
2015Greenland - Summit05 / 30 / 2015 06 / 01 / 20154
2016Greenland - Crawford Point05 / 15 / 2016 05 / 15 / 20165
2016Greenland - DYE-204 / 24 / 2016 05 / 12 / 201611
2016Greenland - EGRIP05 / 16 / 2016 05 / 16 / 20165
2016Greenland - EKT04 / 29 / 2016 05 / 12 / 201611
2016Greenland - Ilulissat06 / 07 / 2016 06 / 09 / 20162
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 18 / 2016 06 / 11 / 201612
2016Greenland - KAN-U04 / 24 / 2016 04 / 29 / 20166
2016Greenland - NASA-SE AWS04 / 29 / 2016 05 / 12 / 201611
2016Greenland - Raven04 / 19 / 2016 04 / 24 / 201611
2016Greenland - Saddle AWS04 / 29 / 2016 05 / 12 / 201611
2016Greenland - Summit05 / 13 / 2016 05 / 15 / 20165
2017Greenland - Crawford Point05 / 17 / 2017 05 / 17 / 20174
2017Greenland - DYE-204 / 25 / 2017 05 / 14 / 20176
2017Greenland - EGRIP05 / 18 / 2017 05 / 18 / 20174
2017Greenland - EKT05 / 01 / 2017 05 / 04 / 20176
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 18 / 2017 05 / 25 / 20176
2017Greenland - KAN-U04 / 26 / 2017 04 / 29 / 20176
2017Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 04 / 2017 05 / 08 / 20176
2017Greenland - Raven04 / 24 / 2017 05 / 15 / 20176
2017Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 08 / 2017 05 / 12 / 20176
2017Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2017 05 / 19 / 20174
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 18 / 2018 05 / 25 / 20186
2018Greenland - Raven04 / 18 / 2018 05 / 25 / 20186
2018Greenland - Summit04 / 18 / 2018 05 / 25 / 20186
 


Project Title: CAREER: South Greenland's Holocene Climate History Reconstructed Using Three Paleolimnological Approaches (Award# 1454734)

PI: Axford, Yarrow L (axford@northwestern.edu)
Phone: 0(847) 467.2268 
Institute/Department: Northwestern University, Earth and Planetary Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Anjuli Bamzai (abamzai@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences\Polar Environments | Meteorology and Climate\Paleoclimatology |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...
Data: https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimato...

Science Summary:
This NSF CAREER project supports a multi-pronged effort at deciphering and understanding the climate history of southern Greenland over the last eleven thousand years, and an educational effort focused on public communication of science and K-12 science literacy. Paleoclimate data provide our only empirical observations of how the arctic system responds to major sustained climate change. It is especially urgent to understand how past climate change unfolded on Greenland, because mass loss from the Greenland Ice Sheet will drive a large fraction of future sea level rise. Existing data from south Greenland hint that climate trends there may differ from trends observed elsewhere in the Northern Hemisphere on a range of timescales, with potential consequences for future temperature change and thus for ice sheet mass balance. This research will assess the apparent divergence through the Holocene (the last 11,000 years), by developing a suite of climate reconstructions from lakes in southernmost Greenland. Climate records to be generated include quantitative temperature reconstructions based on insect (chironomid) assemblages and reconstructions of precipitation isotopes (reflecting changes in atmospheric circulation) using an emerging method based on chironomid oxygen-18. A third approach -- reconstructions of alpine glacier fluctuations using sediments from glacial threshold lakes -- will constrain local ice mass balance and help to further characterize local atmospheric climate through the Holocene, especially its influence on the ice sheet. This work will double the number of continuous, quantitative Holocene terrestrial temperature reconstructions available from Greenland beyond the ice sheet, thus contributing to community-wide efforts to understand how the arctic system responds to sustained climate change. Data will be incorporated into paleodata syntheses, in keeping with the PI's track record of participation in such efforts, and will allow for better tests of climate and ice sheet models. Independent reconstructions of Holocene precipitation isotopes will be used to assess whether changes in atmospheric circulation accompanied past climate change, and thus might accompany future climate change. By constraining summer temperatures and local glacier mass balance, and comparing results with glacial geologic studies, this work will help clarify the role of atmospheric climate at the ice sheet margin in driving ice sheet changes. This work will also advance two methods: It will validate and apply an emerging isotopic proxy with potential for widespread application, and the PI will lead international collaborative development of a new calibration dataset for the chironomid paleothermometer. This grant will train at least two Ph.D. students and at least five undergraduates in international polar research, and will advance the professional development of a pre-tenure geoscientist who has a demonstrated commitment to the broader impacts of her research. Multiple collaborations, including with glacial geologists and paleoecologists at five foreign institutions, will be advanced. A new seminar will train graduate students in sustainability-relevant STEM fields in skills for communicating science beyond academia, contributing to broad training of the future STEM workforce. This project will provide sustained professional development for K-12 teachers, who in turn will bring climate and energy science to Chicago-area classrooms, promoting innovative STEM education for students in one of the largest U.S. urban school districts (Chicago's District 299).

Logistics Summary:
With support from a CAREER grant, the PI aims to reconstruct climate history in Southern Greenland, using lake sediment and other samples collected during field work, to characterize to what extent climate trends in South Greenland may diverge from hemispheric trends on a range of timescales, with potential consequences for future temperature change—and thus for ice sheet mass balance. Researchers will travel to Greenland in 2016, 2018 and 2019 (there is no field work in 2017). A field team of 4 will access field sites via helicopter from Narsarsuaq and via truck from Kangerlussuaq. Generally, sampling sites are closer to the outer coast than to the ice sheet, and at relatively high elevation. A small packable raft will be used where possible for lake measurements and sampling. Sediment cores and other samples will be shipped back to the researchers’ home institutions for analysis. In 2016, a team of four will travel to Narsarsuaq, Greenland, via commercial air late in July, arriving via commercial air from Copenhagen. They will put in to their camp site by helicopter, and spend about 2 weeks collecting sediment cores from areas of interest. The team will reposition during this time, with helicopter support to facilitate resupply and the camp move. Prior to take out, the team will store gear in Narsarsuaq, and prepare their cores for shipment. Two researchers will depart for Kangerlussauq, where they will spend several days packing before departing with their sediment samples for the U.S. via the Air National Guard. (The other two researchers will continue until the end of August on another project.) In 2018, a team of four plan to return in late July/ early August.

CPS will provide ANG coordination for passengers and cargo, including retro of samples via ANG, KISS user days, rental truck in Narsarsuaq, intra-Greenland commercial ticketing/freight, helicopter charters, lodging, and storage space in Narsarsuaq, and camp/safety equipment from CPS inventory. In 2017, CPS will provide storage space in Narsarsuaq (during a non-field work year of the grant). All other logistics, including commercial shipping between institute and NY, will be organized by the researcher and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Ammassivik Highland Lakes08 / 09 / 2016 08 / 15 / 20164
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 16 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20162
2016Greenland - Narsaq Highland Lakes08 / 04 / 2016 08 / 09 / 20164
2016Greenland - Narsarsuaq07 / 30 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20164
2016Greenland - Tupaussat08 / 01 / 2016 08 / 04 / 20164
2017Greenland - Narsarsuaq0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 15 / 2018 08 / 15 / 20184
2018Greenland - Narsarsuaq07 / 15 / 2018 08 / 15 / 20184
2019Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 15 / 2019 08 / 15 / 20194
2019Greenland - Narsarsuaq07 / 15 / 2019 08 / 15 / 20194
 


Project Title: Dynamic Observations of the Evolution of Firn (Award# 1603239)

PI: Baker, Ian (ian.baker@dartmouth.edu)
Phone: 0(603) 646.2184 
Institute/Department: Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
One important factor that controls ice sheet melt is its physical properties. Using modern microstructural characterization techniques, the PI will determine the mechanisms of ice core densification and microstructure evolution as a function of depth. An 80 meter firn core will be drilled at Summit, Greenland, and transported to Dartmouth College. For the shallow part of the core, where the firn is subjected to seasonal and diurnal temperature gradients, the PI will impose Greenlandic in situ temperature gradients at the core boundaries. Continuous X-ray micro-computed tomography (microCT) will be used to monitor densification and microstructure evolution. For the deep part of the core, a Greenlandic in situ temperature gradient does not exist over the length of the core. However, it does experience stresses from the weight of the overburden. The PI will therefore conduct in situ loading experiments on the deep core. Continuous microCT will be used to monitor densification and microstructure evolution. After the completion of the microCT experiments, the firn will be sectioned and examined in a cold-stage-equipped scanning electron microscope. Electron backscattering and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy will be used to determine ice crystal orientations and local microchemistry.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this project intend to determine the mechanisms of firn densification and microstructural evolution as a function of depth using dynamic observations of the evolution of the firn using X-ray computed microtomography. The field team will drill an 80 m firn core (approx. pore-close-off depth), at Summit Station, Greenland and transport it to Dartmouth. A team of five (two researchers, two IDDO drillers and one teacher) will deploy to Summit for ~3 weeks during June 2017 to obtain the 80m of firn core. PolarTREC teacher, Steve Kirsche (0630463SK) will join the field team. They will base out of Summit and travel via snow machine approximately 6km West from the station on a daily basis for drill operations. IDDO will also be drilling 2” diameter test cores with a new drilling system.

CPS will provide Air National Guard coordination for passengers and cargo, Summit Station user days, KISS user days, snowmachines and fuel, a generator, communications / safety gear and Summit science technician support. IDDO will provide a drill system, drilling structure, and two drillers. The PI will make all other arrangements and pay for them through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 03 / 2017 06 / 29 / 20175
2017Greenland - Summit06 / 05 / 2017 06 / 23 / 20175
 


Project Title: Greenland Magnetometer Array (Award# MagnetometerDTU)

PI: Behlke, Rico (rico.behlke@space.dtu.dk)
Phone: 45(45) 25.97.06 
Institute/Department: Technical University of Denmark, National Space Institute  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: DK\Research/Higher Ed\DTU\DNSC
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Space Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://www.space.dtu.dk/English/Research/Scientifi...

Science Summary:
The project plans to install a magnetometer at Summit Station to investigate geomagnetic variations in Central Greenland in support of two projects with complementary scientific aims: (1) Project IceBase is a high altitude geomagnetic survey to be proposed by a consortium around Goddard Space Flight Center to NASA to investigate the geothermal heat flux below the Greenland ice cap. The project aims at producing a Greenland-wide map of magnetic crust depth (Curie-depth), indicative for geothermal heat flux. The derived heat flux map is a boundary condition for ice sheet models to improve, among other things, estimates for global sea level rise due to melting of the Greenland ice sheet. Ground magnetometers are critical when correcting the survey data for natural geomagnetic time variations. Data from Summit Station, due to its location in Central Greenland, in combination with the below mentioned array, is crucial here. (2) The Greenland Magnetometer Array operated by DTU Space is a permanent array of some 15 magnetometer stations located on the Greenland East and West Coasts. The array is ideal for investigating the polar ionospheric current systems and processes related to the coupling of energy and momentum from the solar wind to the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Data is interpreted in combination with satellite data (e.g. NASA's Themis mission, ESA's Cluster mission), or with conjugate stations from Antarctica. The proposed Summit magnetometer experiment will, apart from improved geographical coverage, provide data from the electrically insulating ice cap. This data will be less affected by induced electric currents in surrounding oceans and underlying bedrock than the coastal stations, thus improving the scientific value of the array data as a whole.

Logistics Summary:
Participants in this Danish Technical University (DTU)-funded project will install and collect data from a magnetometer at Summit Station to investigate geomagnetic variations in Central Greenland. The funding period for this grant begins in 2014 and ends in 2020. This work will support two complementary scientific objectives: (1) Project IceBase is a high altitude geomagnetic survey to be proposed by a consortium around Goddard Space Flight Center to NASA to investigate the geothermal heat flux below the Greenland ice cap. The project aims at producing a Greenland-wide map of magnetic crust depth (Curie-depth), indicative for geothermal heat flux. The derived heat flux map is a boundary condition for ice sheet models to improve, among other things, estimates for global sea level rise due to melting of the Greenland ice sheet. Ground magnetometers are critical when correcting the survey data for natural geomagnetic time variations. Due to its location in Central Greenland, data from Summit, in combination with the below mentioned array, is crucial to this objective. (2) The Greenland Magnetometer Array operated by DTU Space is a permanent array of some 15 magnetometer stations located on the Greenland east and west coasts. The array is ideal for investigating the polar ionospheric current systems and processes related to the coupling of energy and momentum from the solar wind to the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Data is interpreted in combination with satellite data (e.g. NASA's Themis mission, ESA's Cluster mission), or with conjugate stations from Antarctica. In addition to improved geographical coverage, the Summit magnetometer experiment will provide data from the electrically insulating ice cap. This data will be less affected by induced electric currents in surrounding oceans and underlying bedrock than the coastal stations, thus improving the scientific value of the array data as a whole. From 2014 to 2020, project personnel may visit Summit Station to maintain or upgrade the magnetometer installation. CPS science technicians will monitor and maintain the magnetometer, electronics, and datalogger year-round. In 2014, two people will visit Summit in June on project business. The science group will not deployment to Summit during 2015, 2016 and 2017. The experiment will continue to be maintained by onsite technicians. In 2015 the Lead PI switched from Dr. Jurgen Matzka to Dr. Rico Behlke at which time the grant name was changed from MatzkaDTU to MagnetometerDTU in this database.

CPS will provide Air National Guard support for cargo and passengers between Kangerlussuaq and Summit Station, Summit user days, fuel from Summit stocks, and science tech/labor support for the project. NSF will recoup costs associated with this support directly from DTU. All other items, including KISS user days, will be arranged and paid for by the PI.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 02 / 2014 06 / 12 / 20142
2014Greenland - Summit06 / 04 / 2014 06 / 10 / 20142
2015Greenland - Summit0
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Summit0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
2018Greenland - Summit1
2019Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
2019Greenland - Summit1
2020Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
2020Greenland - Summit1
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at Summit (ICECAPS) (Award# 1304544)

PI: Bennartz, Ralf ()
Phone: 0(615) 322.2976  
Institute/Department: U of Wisconsin, Madison,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate\Atmospheric Radiation | Meteorology and Climate\Cloud Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.archive.arm.gov
Project: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/arctic/observatories/...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=13...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
In 2010, the observatory at Summit, Greenland, in the center of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), was expanded to include a comprehensive suite of cloud-atmosphere observing instruments including microwave and infrared spectrometers, cloud radar, depolarization lidar, ceilometer, precipitation sensor, sodar, and a twice-daily radiosonde program. This observing effort was termed ICECAPS (Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at Summit). Continuation of the work was approved / funded late summer 2013 to allow for continuous operation, with moderate enhancements to include new precipitation measurements. Measurements from this expanded instrument suite will be used to derive critical baseline atmospheric data products including: Atmospheric State - tropospheric temperature, moisture, and wind profiles, Cloud Macrophysics - occurrence, vertical boundaries, temperature, Cloud Microphysics - phase, water content, and characteristic particle size, and Precipitation - type and rate. Together these products, when combined with similar ongoing measurements at Summit, can be used to study processes that impact the surface energy budget and precipitation at the site, as well as addressing questions related to atmospheric stability, cloud phase composition, and the persistence of stratiform clouds. It is further anticipated that these observations will continue to be used by a broad cross-section of the scientific community to promote understanding of GIS and Arctic climate, validate satellite observations, and evaluate model simulations. Graduate students play significant roles in most aspects of this project, gaining valuable experience with polar field work, operating instruments, and processing data. In addition, this research team has developed a unique education and outreach plan to work with students from local schools using simple, proxy instrumentation to help develop their understanding of atmospheric principles and observations, and to enhance the scientific curriculum in their schools via a wide range of outreach activities.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this collaboration between Walden (1414314, WSU), Turner (1304692, U of OK), Shupe (1303879, CU) and Bennartz (1304544, U of WI) will continue work begun under NSF grant 0856773 "ICECAPS". Researchers will continue an intensive cloud experiment at Summit with fieldwork from late spring 2014 through late spring 2018. Logistic details under 1414314.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2014Greenland - Summit0
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2015Greenland - Summit0
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Summit0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2018Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Ultraviolet Radiation in the Arctic: 2012-2015 (Award# 1203250)

PI: Bernhard, Germar Hermann (bernhard@biospherical.com)
Phone: 0(619) 686.1888 
Institute/Department: Biospherical Instruments, Inc.,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. William Ambrose (wambrose@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate\Radiation | Meteorology and Climate\Surface UV Radiation |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://uv.biospherical.com
Data: http://www.ndsc.ncep.noaa.gov/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...
Data: http://www.woudc.org
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Biospherical Instruments Inc (BSI) has operated NSF’s Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitoring Network (UVSIMN) between 1988 and 2008. The network included three locations in Antarctica, two in the Arctic (Barrow, Alaska, and Summit, Greenland) and two mid-latitude sites. In 2009, the instruments at Barrow and Summit have been integrated into NSF’s Arctic Observing Network as part of the AON projects “Ultraviolet Radiation in the Arctic” and, since 2012, “Ultraviolet Radiation in the Arctic: 2012-2015.” The award is jointly overseen by Prof. John E. Frederick of the University of Chicago and Dr. Germar Bernhard of BSI and will end on 31-August 2015. To date, the network has produced one of the longest Climate Data Records (CDR) of UV radiation in existence. Measurements at Barrow span the 21-year period of 1991-2012. Measurements at Summit started in 2004 and are ideally suited to probe the free troposphere and study the effects of long-range transport of pollutants and aerosols on UV radiation. Data can also be used for validation of satellite observations, verification of models describing the transfer of radiation through the atmosphere, advancement of climate models, and addressing the SEARCH question such as whether the Arctic is moving to a new state. Data have been used by hundreds of researchers investigating the effects of stratospheric ozone depletion and other climatic factors on UV radiation at the Earth’s surface and subsequent consequences on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, and humans. Several researchers from other AON projects have used data. Recently, data were used to interpret radiosonde and LIDAR observations at Summit as part of the AON project “High Resolution, Active Remote Sensing of Cloud Microphysics at Summit, Greenland with Polarized Raman Lidar” (NSF Award 1303864) and to calibrate down-welling irradiance measurements at Summit in support of the AON project “Direct radiative forcing over central Greenland - assessment of the coupled effect of light absorbing aerosols and snow albedo variability” (NSF Award 1023227) [Wright et al., 2014]. Spectral UV data from Barrow have recently been used to interpret a massive phytoplankton bloom observed in the Chukchi Sea under first-year sea ice in 2011 [Palmer et al., 2014].

Logistics Summary:
This grant supports continued UV-visible solar irradiance observing experiments. BSI will operate several radiometers at Barrow, Alaska, and Summit, Greenland. This project is a continuation of the NSF's Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance monitoring Network (UVSIMN) and NSF grants 0907819 and 0856268. For information regarding the project's prior logistics, see records for 0907819 (2009 only), 0856268, and UVSIMN. At Summit, the instrument is primarily maintained by on-site science technicians, with occasional visits by the research team for maintenance, or tear down/set-up when the structure where the experiment is housed must be relocated. During 2013 the team will make two deployments. In June the team will visit Summit to dismantle the instrument for storage while the Green House structure is relocated. The PI will return to Summit in July to reinstall the instrument in the Green House at the new location. At Barrow, on-site technicians in the employ of Arctic Administrators LLC maintain the instruments.

At Summit Station, CPS will provide access to the Summit infrastructure, accommodations and meals in Kangerlussuaq, user days at Summit, and science technician services. The PI will not send a research team to Barrow using local CPS support in 2013 and 2014, though a visit may be arranged using grant funds. All other logistics will be coordinated by the researchers through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2013Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 25 / 2013 07 / 19 / 20133
2013Greenland - Summit06 / 26 / 2013 07 / 16 / 20133
2014Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2014Greenland - Summit0
2015Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 17 / 2015 07 / 27 / 20151
2015Greenland - Summit07 / 18 / 2015 07 / 25 / 20151
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2017Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: The Greenland GPS Network (GNET): Geodetic characterization of water vapor, climate cycles, climate change and ice mass balance (Award# 1111882)

PI: Bevis, Michael G (mbevis@osu.edu)
Phone: 0(614) 499.5966 
Institute/Department: Ohio State University, Byrd Polar Research Center, Department of Geological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS\AON
Program Manager: Dr. William Ambrose (wambrose@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://facility.unavco.org/data/data.html
Project: http://polenet.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This grant continues operation of the Greenland GPS Network (GNET) for four years. GNET has been "weighing" the Greenland ice sheet by tracking the earth's elastic response to changing surface loads. The PIs will extend the life of GNET so that it can continue to sense space-time changes in ice mass, including spatial shifts in the position of the centers of ice loss, and accelerations in mass change rates. The PIs will use GNET to map the steady vertical velocity field associated with postglacial rebound (PGR), which will provide the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), and any successor missions, with an accurate ‘PGR correction,’ thereby suppressing the largest source of uncertainty in GRACE-based estimates of ice mass changes in Greenland. The PIs also will use GNET to ‘weigh’ annual and inter-annual changes in ice mass, obtaining better spatial resolution than GRACE is capable of, using Earth’s instantaneous elastic response to surface load changes. GNET is now resolving seasonal oscillations in the vertical position of the earth's crust as well as longer-term trends. These oscillations reflect seasonal changes in the loads placed on the solid earth by both the atmosphere and the ice sheet. Researchers will remove the atmospheric pressure signal, using state-of-the-art weather models, in order to isolate the signal due to changes in the ice sheet. As part of the pressure analysis, they will produce a time series of integrated water vapor for each station in GNET, with benefits for weather and climate predictions. Broader impacts include the training of a graduate student and support of a postdoctoral researcher as co-investigator. Scientifically, GNET is addressing a problem of great interest and also considerable societal importance: the trajectory and magnitude of Greenland mass balance. With current and potential additional gaps in satellite geodesy coverage of Greenland, GNET is a cornerstone of our observations of the cryosphere. The data are openly accessible and are available in near real-time through UNAVCO.

Logistics Summary:
This effort continues GNET work begun under NSF grant 0632320. Researchers will maintain a network (GNET) of 38 continuous GPS stations in Greenland that were established as part the U.S. contribution to the International Polar Year (IPY) and the international Polar Earth Observing Network (POLENET) consortium. From 2012 through 2015 field work will focus on upgrading all the modems and swapping out batteries on the occasional stations that require it. In each year, a team of two technical experts will visit Greenland to conduct maintenance on installations in various regions of Greenland using air support to travel to and between the sites, with fuel caches placed as needed to fuel the aircraft. In the latter half of August, 2012, researchers will conduct light maintenance and repair as well as wildlife hardening at 14 stations (from the 2007 generation) along the eastern coast of Greenland, from Narsarsuaq in the south up to Södalen in the north. Field efforts to accomplish this work involve two phases and airframes: Twin Otter transport to deliver cargo and establish fuel caches, conducted largely prior to the main body of the work; and the helicopter-supported maintenance/repair/hardening of the GNET monuments themselves. To the former, a Twin Otter from Akureyri, Iceland will fly to Kulusuk, there meeting CPS’ Robin Abbott. Abbott will coordinate staging and delivery of fuel drums and cargo at depot locations near the GNET sites. To the latter, a team will use an AS350-B3 helicopter to visit the stations, alternating between field camping with the helicopter and/or lodging in communities located near sites. Kulusuk will serve as the team’s main base on the SE coast. Also in 2012, last minute approval was given to include visits to 8 stations in northern Greenland that require engineering maintenance within the GPS receiver. To maximize the logistics investment, the team also will visit several stations en route to upgrade firmware. (In May of 2013, a Twin Otter positioned at Thule to support Simpson/GLISN researchers also was able to support the GNET team by putting in fuel caches at sites in northwest Greenland planned for work in 2014.) In the latter half of August, 2013, researchers will return to Greenland to conduct light maintenance, repair, and wildlife hardening at nine stations located along the northeastern coast of Greenland, from Södalen in the south to Gronne Nunatak (south of Station Nord) in the north. Fuel and equipment caches will be established via Twin Otter prior to the main body of the work; researchers will conduct maintenance/repair/hardening of the GNET monuments themselves, using helicopter support. In 2014, the team will focus on stations in Northwest and North Greenland. In the early season, fuel drums will be purchased in Copenhagen, filled at Thule, and flown to Station Nord via Royal Danish Air Force concurrent with Station Nord refueling. A Twin Otter will place the drums at required fuel cache sites in late summer. For the service visits, after arriving in Kangerlussuaq in early Aug, the team will spend several weeks making site visits, flying via helicopter up the west coast and along northern Greenland. The researchers and pilot will lodge in local hubs. When the work is complete in early September, they will depart Greenland via commercial air. In addition, researchers will visit ~14 GNET stations in SE Greenland that lost communications capabilities in spring of 2014. They will visit these sites and replace the receiver flash cards, using helicopter support to access sites. In 2015, the focus and main tasks for the GNET technicians will take place at their sites along the east coast of Greenland. They will depart from Nuuk and fly south to Narsarsuaq, stopping to check one GNET site while enroute. They will then fly north nearly as far at Station Nord, where they will replace electronics boards in 12 stations. They also will replace one faulty compact flash memory card, 18 batteries, 6 wind generators, 1 solar panel, 1 antenna redome and 18 battery jumper cables at various stations. Twelve stations are in known risk of having antenna problems and will be monitored regularly prior to the fieldwork and replaced if necessary. In 2016, researchers will not visit the sites, but the instruments will continue to run and collect data. In 2017, researchers may return, instruments will continue running, details of the field season are TBD.

CPS will provide ANG coordination, helicopter and Twin Otter charters, fuel procurements, camping equipment, lodging in town and village sites, commercial air tickets within/to Greenland, communications and safety gear, and freight shipment costs within Greenland. UNAVCO will provide GPS receivers and technical support as the field team performs maintanence throughout Greenland, as well as ongoing support to permanent sites and data storage. DTU will provide logistics expertise for efficient helicopter and Twin Otter planning and will coordinate and pay for accommodations at some village sites, as well as arrange and pay for all permitting requirements. All other logistics will be paid by the researchers from the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2012Greenland - Astrup Kystland09 / 04 / 2012 09 / 04 / 20122
2012Greenland - Blaso08 / 20 / 2012 08 / 20 / 20122
2012Greenland - Constable Point08 / 18 / 2012 08 / 18 / 20122
2012Greenland - Daneborg08 / 20 / 2012 08 / 20 / 20122
2012Greenland - Danmarkshavn08 / 20 / 2012 08 / 20 / 20122
2012Greenland - Docker Smith Glacier09 / 03 / 2012 09 / 03 / 20122
2012Greenland - Harder Gletscher08 / 30 / 2012 08 / 30 / 20122
2012Greenland - Helheim Glacier08 / 22 / 2012 08 / 22 / 20122
2012Greenland - Hjornefjeldet08 / 20 / 2012 08 / 20 / 20122
2012Greenland - Ilulissat09 / 08 / 2012 09 / 08 / 20122
2012Greenland - Isortoq08 / 21 / 2012 08 / 21 / 20122
2012Greenland - Jorgen Bronlund Fjord08 / 28 / 2012 08 / 28 / 20122
2012Greenland - Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier08 / 23 / 2012 08 / 23 / 20122
2012Greenland - Kap Agassiz09 / 01 / 2012 09 / 01 / 20122
2012Greenland - Kap Morris Jessup08 / 29 / 2012 08 / 29 / 20122
2012Greenland - Kap Schoubye08 / 31 / 2012 08 / 31 / 20122
2012Greenland - Koge Bugt08 / 21 / 2012 08 / 21 / 20122
2012Greenland - Kullorsuaq09 / 04 / 2012 09 / 04 / 20122
2012Greenland - Kulusuk08 / 21 / 2012 08 / 21 / 20122
2012Greenland - L Bistrup Brae08 / 20 / 2012 08 / 20 / 20122
2012Greenland - Lynaes Peninsula08 / 21 / 2012 08 / 21 / 20122
2012Greenland - Mestersvig08 / 19 / 2012 08 / 19 / 20122
2012Greenland - Mikis Fjord08 / 24 / 2012 08 / 24 / 20122
2012Greenland - Narsarsuaq08 / 18 / 2012 08 / 19 / 20122
2012Greenland - Niviarsiat Nunatak North (NNVN)08 / 18 / 2012 08 / 18 / 20122
2012Greenland - Norske Oer08 / 20 / 2012 08 / 20 / 20122
2012Greenland - Nuuk08 / 15 / 2012 09 / 10 / 20122
2012Greenland - Pilagpik08 / 18 / 2012 08 / 23 / 20122
2012Greenland - Qaanaaq09 / 02 / 2012 09 / 02 / 20122
2012Greenland - Sermip Nunatak08 / 18 / 2012 08 / 18 / 20122
2012Greenland - Sodalen08 / 13 / 2012 08 / 23 / 20122
2012Greenland - Station Nord08 / 20 / 2012 08 / 26 / 20122
2012Greenland - Steenstrup Nordre Brae08 / 24 / 2012 08 / 24 / 20122
2012Greenland - Tasiilaq08 / 22 / 2012 08 / 22 / 20122
2012Greenland - Thule08 / 28 / 2012 09 / 01 / 20122
2012Greenland - Trefoldigheden Oer08 / 21 / 2012 08 / 21 / 20122
2012Greenland - Upernavik09 / 06 / 2012 09 / 06 / 20122
2012Greenland - Upper Timmiarmiut Glacier08 / 20 / 2012 08 / 20 / 20122
2013Greenland - Daneborg08 / 08 / 2013 08 / 08 / 20132
2013Greenland - Danmarkshavn08 / 08 / 2013 08 / 13 / 20132
2013Greenland - Daugaard-Jensens Glacier08 / 07 / 2013 08 / 07 / 20132
2013Greenland - Gamma O08 / 09 / 2013 08 / 09 / 20132
2013Greenland - Gronne Nunatak08 / 09 / 2013 08 / 09 / 20132
2013Greenland - Helheim Glacier08 / 05 / 2013 08 / 05 / 20132
2013Greenland - Hjornefjeldet08 / 04 / 2013 08 / 04 / 20132
2013Greenland - Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier08 / 06 / 2013 08 / 06 / 20132
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 06 / 2013 05 / 07 / 20131
2013Greenland - Kulusuk08 / 04 / 2013 08 / 05 / 20132
2013Greenland - L Bistrup Brae08 / 08 / 2013 08 / 08 / 20132
2013Greenland - Lynaes Peninsula08 / 04 / 2013 08 / 04 / 20132
2013Greenland - Mestersvig08 / 07 / 2013 08 / 07 / 20132
2013Greenland - Mikis Fjord08 / 05 / 2013 08 / 05 / 20132
2013Greenland - Narsarsuaq08 / 02 / 2013 08 / 04 / 20132
2013Greenland - Niviarsiat Nunatak North (NNVN)08 / 02 / 2013 08 / 02 / 20132
2013Greenland - Nuuk07 / 31 / 2013 08 / 22 / 20132
2013Greenland - Qaanaaq05 / 10 / 2013 05 / 13 / 20131
2013Greenland - Sermip Nunatak08 / 02 / 2013 08 / 02 / 20132
2013Greenland - Sodalen08 / 05 / 2013 08 / 06 / 20132
2013Greenland - Steenstrup Nordre Brae08 / 05 / 2013 08 / 05 / 20132
2013Greenland - Strindberg Land08 / 07 / 2013 08 / 08 / 20132
2013Greenland - Tasiilaq08 / 04 / 2013 08 / 04 / 20132
2013Greenland - Thule05 / 07 / 2013 05 / 15 / 20131
2013Greenland - Timmiarmiut08 / 03 / 2013 08 / 03 / 20132
2013Greenland - Trefoldigheden Oer08 / 04 / 2013 08 / 04 / 20132
2013Greenland - Ymer Nunatak08 / 10 / 2013 08 / 10 / 20132
2014Greenland - Astrup Kystland08 / 10 / 2014 08 / 10 / 20142
2014Greenland - Docker Smith Glacier08 / 10 / 2014 08 / 10 / 20142
2014Greenland - Jewell Fjord08 / 15 / 2014 08 / 15 / 20142
2014Greenland - Joe Oer08 / 13 / 2014 08 / 13 / 20142
2014Greenland - KAGA Jakobshavn08 / 08 / 2014 08 / 08 / 20142
2014Greenland - Kap Agassiz08 / 13 / 2014 08 / 13 / 20142
2014Greenland - Kap Morris Jessup08 / 15 / 2014 08 / 15 / 20142
2014Greenland - Kap Schoubye08 / 13 / 2014 08 / 13 / 20142
2014Greenland - Leffingwell Nunatak08 / 16 / 2014 08 / 16 / 20142
2014Greenland - Marie Glacier08 / 11 / 2014 08 / 11 / 20142
2014Greenland - Qaarsut08 / 08 / 2014 08 / 08 / 20142
2014Greenland - Rinks Isbrae08 / 09 / 2014 08 / 09 / 20142
2014Greenland - Sermip Nunatak08 / 09 / 2014 08 / 09 / 20142
2014Greenland - Thule08 / 11 / 2014 08 / 15 / 20142
2014Greenland - Upernavik08 / 09 / 2014 08 / 10 / 20142
2015Greenland - Constable Point08 / 17 / 2015 08 / 18 / 20152
2015Greenland - Daneborg08 / 22 / 2015 08 / 23 / 20152
2015Greenland - Danmarkshavn08 / 25 / 2015 08 / 25 / 20152
2015Greenland - Daugaard-Jensens Glacier08 / 18 / 2015 08 / 19 / 20152
2015Greenland - Gronne Nunatak08 / 25 / 2015 08 / 25 / 20152
2015Greenland - Hamberg Gletscher08 / 20 / 2015 08 / 21 / 20152
2015Greenland - Helheim Glacier08 / 12 / 2015 08 / 13 / 20152
2015Greenland - Hjornefjeldet08 / 07 / 2015 08 / 08 / 20152
2015Greenland - Isortoq08 / 10 / 2015 08 / 11 / 20152
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 03 / 2015 08 / 17 / 20152
2015Greenland - Koge Bugt08 / 09 / 2015 08 / 10 / 20152
2015Greenland - Kulusuk08 / 11 / 2015 08 / 12 / 20152
2015Greenland - L Bistrup Brae08 / 23 / 2015 08 / 24 / 20152
2015Greenland - Lynaes Peninsula08 / 08 / 2015 08 / 09 / 20152
2015Greenland - Mestersvig08 / 19 / 2015 08 / 20 / 20152
2015Greenland - Mikis Fjord08 / 15 / 2015 08 / 15 / 20152
2015Greenland - Narsarsuaq08 / 05 / 2015 08 / 06 / 20152
2015Greenland - Niviarsiat Nunatak North (NNVN)08 / 06 / 2015 08 / 06 / 20152
2015Greenland - Nuuk08 / 03 / 2015 08 / 26 / 20152
2015Greenland - Pilagpik08 / 14 / 2015 08 / 15 / 20152
2015Greenland - Sermip Nunatak08 / 05 / 2015 08 / 05 / 20152
2015Greenland - Sodalen08 / 15 / 2015 08 / 16 / 20152
2015Greenland - Steenstrup Nordre Brae08 / 13 / 2015 08 / 14 / 20152
2015Greenland - Timmiarmiut08 / 07 / 2015 08 / 07 / 20152
2015Greenland - Trefoldigheden Oer08 / 08 / 2015 08 / 08 / 20152
2015Greenland - Upper Timmiarmiut Glacier08 / 06 / 2015 08 / 07 / 20152
2015Greenland - Vestfjord Gletscher08 / 17 / 2015 08 / 17 / 20152
2015Greenland - Walterhausen Glacier08 / 21 / 2015 08 / 22 / 20152
2015Greenland - Ymer Nunatak08 / 24 / 2015 08 / 25 / 20152
2016Greenland - Constable Point0
2016Greenland - Daneborg0
2016Greenland - Danmarkshavn0
2016Greenland - Daugaard-Jensens Glacier0
2016Greenland - Gronne Nunatak0
2016Greenland - Hamberg Gletscher0
2016Greenland - Helheim Glacier0
2016Greenland - Hjornefjeldet0
2016Greenland - Isortoq0
2016Greenland - Koge Bugt0
2016Greenland - Kulusuk0
2016Greenland - L Bistrup Brae0
2016Greenland - Lynaes Peninsula0
2016Greenland - Mestersvig0
2016Greenland - Mikis Fjord0
2016Greenland - Narsarsuaq0
2016Greenland - Niviarsiat Nunatak North (NNVN)0
2016Greenland - Nuuk0
2016Greenland - Pilagpik0
2016Greenland - Sermip Nunatak0
2016Greenland - Sodalen0
2016Greenland - Steenstrup Nordre Brae0
2016Greenland - Timmiarmiut0
2016Greenland - Trefoldigheden Oer0
2016Greenland - Upper Timmiarmiut Glacier0
2016Greenland - Vestfjord Gletscher0
2016Greenland - Walterhausen Glacier0
2016Greenland - Ymer Nunatak0
2017Greenland - Constable Point0
2017Greenland - Danmarkshavn0
2017Greenland - Kulusuk0
 


Project Title: WATSON (Wireless Analysis Tool for Subsurface Observation of Northern-ice-sheets) project (Award# 14PSTAR1420027)

PI: Bhartia, Rohit (rohit.bhartia@jpl.nasa.gov)
Phone: 0(626) 390.9062 
Institute/Department: National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Mary Voytek (mary.voytek-1@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Space Physics\Astrobiology | Space Physics\Planetary Science |

Project Web Site(s):

Science Summary:
The WATSON project (Wireline Analysis Tool for Subsurface Observation of Northern-ice-sheets) integrates recent technological drilling advancements and instrumentation to enable spatially resolved in-situ detection and characterization of organics, microbes, and potential biosignatures in the subsurface ice record. In-situ characterization of subsurface ice will lead to a better understanding of life in ice and constrain our understanding of how it can survive and be preserved in the icy regions of planetary bodies (e.g. Mars poles, Europa, Enceladus). Detection of organic, microbes, and potential biosignatures on solar system bodies and their spatial distribution are fundamental capabilities required to meet NASA’s strategic goals. This capability was highlighted by the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team (SDT) report and subsequent Mars 2020 payload selection that incorporated instruments such as SHERLOC, PIXL, and SuperCam to use non-contact spectroscopic methods to assess the distribution of organics, minerals, key elements, and potential biosignatures. WATSON advances this capability to analyze layered subsurface ice deposits and is directly aligned with the recommendations of the 2013 Planetary Decadal Survey that stated, “the next step for in situ high-latitude ice studies is to explore the exposed [martian] polar layered deposits”. WATSON’s detection method is a (TRL 5) deep-UV native fluorescence instrument, a repackaged version of the recent SHERLOC instrument selected for Mars 2020 originally developed under NASA/ASTID and DoD programs. WATSON fits within the instrument bay of a wireline autonomous ice drilling system (TRL 5), developed initially by ASTID and recently refined and demonstrated under private funding. The WATSON project: •Enables a means to understand the patterns of organics, microbes, and potential biosignatures transferred through aeolian processes and preserved as layered deposits in ice sheets •Demonstrates that an analysis of a single geographical site provides this information over geological time scales and increases the probability of finding habitable environments and potential preserved biosignatures •Integrates high TRL hardware leveraging previous NASA/ASTID and NSF development funds •Reduces risk and demonstrates feasibility of instrument deployment to the layered deposits of the Mars polar ice caps The WATSON instrument will perform in-situ analysis of layered subsurface ice deposits in Greenland (GISP2). These have been selected as planetary analog sites because they are well-characterized, contain clear terrestrial paleoenvironmental records, are at high altitudes with high UV flux that could simulate higher radiation planetary surfaces, and have existing data on microbial density and diversity from current cores. By using these sites we will be able to map the in-situ derived distribution of microbial and organics, with limatological/environmental processes (volcanic, desertification, ocean chemistry, anthropogenic influences).

Logistics Summary:
Via this NASA PSTAR (Planetary Science and Technology Through Analog Research) program, researchers will develop an ice drill integrated with a deep-UV fluorescence analytical instrument combination. The ultimate goal of the project is to deploy the drill/instrument to Mars. The project will conduct tests of the drill at planetary analog sites in Greenland. In spring 2017 researchers will deploy via commercial air to Kangerlussuaq and then on to a location on the ice sheet near point 660 to test the drill and take some shallow cores. The team will base in Kanger and make day trips to the ice sheet. In 2018 and 2019 the project intends to deploy to Kangerlussuaq and Summit respectively to further test the drill’s capabilities, ultimately to a depth of 100m. These deployments are dependent on findings from the previous tests and funding.

In 2017 and 2018 CPS will provide ANG coordination for retro cargo, available equipment from Kanger CPS inventory, and planning, project management, cargo handling, and field equipment support. NSF will recoup these funds via an interagency transfer with NASA. The project will make all other arrangements, including passenger travel, commercial freight, KISS lodging, and truck rental themselves.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq03 / 27 / 2017 04 / 10 / 201711
2017Greenland - Point 66003 / 27 / 2017 04 / 10 / 201711
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq03 / 27 / 2018 04 / 10 / 20182
2018Greenland - Summit03 / 27 / 2018 04 / 10 / 20182
2019Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 20 / 2019 06 / 05 / 20192
2019Greenland - Summit05 / 20 / 2019 06 / 05 / 20192
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: GreenTrACS: a Greenland Traverse for Accumulation and Climate Studies (Award# 1417640)

PI: Birkel, Sean (sean.birkel@umit.maine.edu)
Phone: 0(207) 581.1484 
Institute/Department: U of Maine, Climate Change Institute 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Glaciology | Cryosphere\Ice Geochemistry | Cryosphere\Ice Penetrating Radar | Cryosphere\Ice Sheet Mass Balance |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://cgiss.boisestate.edu/data_downloads.php
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
The investigators plan a traverse in the Western Greenland percolation zone over two field seasons to develop continuous in-situ snow accumulation and firn density records using ground-based radar and shallow firn cores. The research objectives include: (1) determining the patterns, in time and space, of snow accumulation in Western Greenland over the past 20-40 years; (2) evaluating surface melt refreeze and englacial meltwater storage in the Western Greenland percolation zone over the past 20-40 years; and (3) quantifying the accumulation and surface melt biases of the most recent climate reanalysis models and their regional climate model counterparts. This project intends to advance knowledge and understanding by providing in-situ validation observations for both the mass gain (snow accumulation) and mass loss (surface melt) components of Western Greenland surface mass balance. Previous studies have shown that the western edge of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been losing mass at an accelerating rate since 2005, due mostly to decreasing surface mass balance. However, surface mass balance trends derived from regional climate models differ by a factor of ~2.5 in this region. Western Greenland firn core accumulation records, required for model validation, generally end in 1996-1998, before the most recent period of accelerated mass loss. The investigators will develop continuous records of Western Greenland snow accumulation over the last 20-40 years using ground-penetrating radar validated by frequent snow pits and firn cores (25-30 m) analyzed for chemistry. They will also use a multi-offset radar method to calculate firn density continuously along the traverse, providing a means to assess past surface melt, refreeze and current meltwater storage in glacier aquifers, as well as critical density-profile data for air- and spaceborne remote sensing work. Meltwater refreeze shows the largest variability in regional climate models among surface mass balance components, and thus validation observations are critically needed. The traverse route will crisscross the percolation zone, near-parallel to the steepest accumulation and surface melt gradients, which will increase the value of the dataset for model validation. The traverse will overlap previous traverse routes, IceBridge airborne radar flight paths, and reoccupy previously sampled sites to update firn core accumulation records by 18-20 years. In addition, the project will collect cores from new sites in data-poor regions at lower elevations, where both accumulation and surface melt increase and regional climate model validation is most needed. Surface mass balance validation of several climate reanalysis models will lead to more accurate assessments of current and future Greenland Ice Sheet mass balance trends, which is critical for accurately predicting future sea-level rise.

Logistics Summary:
This project, Greenland Traverse for Accumulation and Climate Studies (GreenTrACS), is a collaboration between Osterberg and Hawley (1417678, Dartmouth, LEAD), Birkel (1417640, U of Maine), and Marshall (1417921, Boise State). See 1417678 for logistic details.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2016Greenland - Raven0
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Reconstruction of climate at the Norse Settlements of Greenland over the last two millennia using organic biomarkers in lake sediments (Award# 1602973)

PI: Bradley, Raymond S (rbradley@geo.umass.edu)
Phone: 0(413) 545.2120 
Institute/Department: U of Massachusetts, Amherst, Department of Geosciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Anjuli Bamzai (abamzai@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...

Science Summary:
The climate in southern Greenland is a key area for reconstructions of the North Atlantic Oscillation, a major pattern of northern hemisphere climate, and is also linked to Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation changes, an important oceanic process controlling north Atlantic climate, which recent studies suggest has been weaker over recent decades than at any time in the last 1000 years. This is also the region where Norse settlements were abandoned by the early-15th century; many questions still remain about the causative factors. Although climate change is often cited as the reason for settlement failure, this explanation rests on a very poorly constrained scientific foundation and other explanations have also been proposed. Inferences about climatic conditions in the region often have been derived from far distant sources, generally at high elevations on the Greenland Ice Sheet, where climatic conditions are completely different. This project will produce records with multidecadal (15-25 year) resolution from the study region, spanning the last 1500-2000 years. This will be accomplished using new organic geochemical techniques and will contribute to the calibration and understanding of these methodologies. This project will partially support a productive young scientist (Prof. Isla Castaneda) during the formative years of her career. It will also provide support for the training of a graduate student. The principal investigators (PIs) will contribute to a University of Massachusetts summer program designed to engage 12 to 18 year old girls, most from under-represented or low income groups, in STEM fields. The PIs and the supported graduate student will participate in university-sponsored middle and high school teacher training programs. Finally, undergraduate honors students often participate in the activities of co-PI's lab. She expects that a number of honors theses and senior projects will result from the research associated with this project. All of this contributes to development of the nation's STEM workforce. The project will continue an established international collaboration with French scientists. The disappearance of the Norse communities in Greenland and its potential linkage to climate change have significant human interest upon which the PIs propose to capitalize. Their outreach activities include composing articles for popular science magazines and development of a project web site. It is also anticipated that the PI will continue his productive interactions with the local media, both print and electronic. This project will generate new high resolution, quantitative records of temperature and hydrology for the past 2,000 years from lakes in coastal regions of southern and southwestern Greenland, an area that has important links to the broader climate dynamics of the North Atlantic. It also will shed light on climatic fluctuations during the period of Norse settlement in the region. Novel organic geochemical techniques will be used for past temperature reconstruction (branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers) and for estimates of changes in evaporation (leaf wax deuterium isotopes) over time.

Logistics Summary:
This project will generate new high resolution, geochemical records of temperature and hydrology for the past 2,000 years from lakes in coastal regions of southern and southwestern Greenland, to shed light on climatic fluctuations during the period of Norse settlement and disappearance in the region. Research will include a sediment trap time series in southern lakes to collect organic biomarkers for temperature calibration and to apply the calibrations to material in previously collected cores from numerous lakes around southwestern Greenland. Cores will be provided at no cost to the project from collaborators. In summer of 2016 and 2017, three researchers will travel to Greenland to deploy and recover interval sediment traps from area lakes, and taking other environmental samples. In 2016 they will be travelling from Iceland to Narsarsuuaq, then by local transportation to their targeted lakes to perform this field work. In 2017, the field sites near Narsarsuaq will be revisited to recover instruments and samples, and further fieldwork in the Ivittuut area may be carried out.

All logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Narsarsuaq07 / 11 / 2016 07 / 27 / 20163
2017Greenland - Ivittuut07 / 19 / 2017 07 / 29 / 20173
2017Greenland - Narsarsuaq07 / 11 / 2017 07 / 18 / 20173
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Ice sheet sensitivity in a changing Arctic system - using Geologic data and modeling to test the stable Greenland Ice Sheet hypothesis (Award# 1504267)

PI: Briner, Jason P (jbriner@buffalo.edu)
Phone: 0(716) 645.4326 
Institute/Department: U at Buffalo, Department of Geology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
There is enough water in the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) that, were it to melt, it would raise sea level in most coastal cities significantly with huge consequences for society. In the face of accelerated ice sheet contribution to sea level rise, it remains uncertain how the GrIS will adjust to a warming Arctic, declining sea ice and related changing precipitation patterns. This is a concern, given that future sea level rise is strongly dependent on the GrIS response to arctic change. The scientific community is currently undecided between a model of a dynamic GrIS that becomes greatly reduced during warm periods and a model where it is relatively stable, even through periods warmer than today. This project addresses the idea that increased arctic precipitation offsets GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperature. The researchers will test this by contributing significant new information on arctic system change and related GrIS dynamics during past and ongoing warm periods, and employing an ice sheet modeling effort synthesizing all new data aimed at both past and future GrIS simulations. The researchers explicitly combine multiple scientific disciplines to provide a better understanding of how key arctic system components such as precipitation, temperature, sea-ice cover and GrIS mass balance are interconnected. The results will be of fundamental relevance to the fates of the arctic system, the GrIS and global sea level rise. The project will train six graduate students and one post-doctoral researcher. The cross-cutting research program is paralleled by the scope of the outreach plan, to develop a variety of deliverables, including development of an iBook and public outreach events. In addition the team will participate in public outreach events in Buffalo and New York City, where the public and scientists interact in a casual setting. Finally, this work has synergies with ongoing missions at NASA and other programs within the NSF. Due to recent advances in numerical ice sheet models and new sub-ice topography of Greenland, combined with finely-tuned field approaches and geochronologic techniques, the time is ripe for a coordinated, cross-disciplinary effort focusing on cryosphere variability in a warming Arctic; the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and sea ice constitute the largest, and most critical components of the arctic cryosphere. The hypothesis that increased arctic precipitation can counterbalance GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperatures stems from recent findings suggesting that it may be more stable than expected during interglacials. The researchers will generate new GrIS margin reconstructions during and since the mid-Holocene Thermal Maximum (9,000 to 5,000 years ago), with a powerful approach that combines lake sediment stratigraphy with new sub-ice topography and novel high-sensitivity cosmogenic isotope methods; develop new Holocene climate reconstructions of moisture, temperature and sea ice conditions from lake and ocean sediments and an advanced synthesis of existing arctic ice core and other paleoclimate data; and employ state-of-the-art numerical ice sheet modeling fueled by ice margin and climate reconstructions to test a range of climatic and dynamic controls on GrIS change. If the idea is supported, then it would suggest a relatively stable GrIS during warm periods. If, however, this project provides evidence that the GrIS retreated considerably during the warmer-than-present mid-Holocene and in turn, that the GrIS has reacted more sensitively to temperature than to precipitation change, the results would support a tightly coupled ice sheet size-temperature link and in turn, a much greater near-term GrIS contribution to sea level rise. Either result will be of fundamental relevance to the fates of the arctic system, the GrIS and global sea level rise.

Logistics Summary:
The collaboration of Briner (1504267, U of Buffalo), Steig (1503281, UW), Morlighem (1504230, UCI), Young (1503959, LDEO), and Johnson (1504457, U of Montana) will address the null hypothesis that increased Arctic precipitation offsets GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperature. The PIs will integrate new reconstructions of past ice sheet margin change during and since the mid-Holocene Thermal Maximum, new reconstructions of Holocene precipitation, temperature and sea-ice cover from ice cores, lake and ocean sediments, and an ice sheet modeling effort synthesizing all new data aimed at both past and future GrIS simulations. During each of three consecutive field seasons beginning in 2016, fieldwork will focus on a different location in Greenland: outside of Kangerlussuaq (2016), Nuuk (2017), and Paamiut (2018). Approximately five field team members will deploy to six different sampling locations (JB1-4 and NY1-2) supported by helicopter and/or vehicle access. A camp will be established at each sampling location for approximately ~ 4days/each and camp moves will be completed by helicopter. For the 2016 and 2017 seasons, researchers on this collaboration will combine field efforts with work advancing the science goals of a collaboration led by Young (NSF grant 1417675), for which Briner is on. In July 2016, six people total (both projects) will assemble in Kangerlussuaq, four via the Air National Guard logistics chain, and two via commercial air from Ilulissat. The group will prepare and then put-in by helicopter to the first of six camp sites in the Søndre-Strømfjord region. After working for four to five days, the base camp will move to the next site, again using helicopter support, establishing the basic logistics effort for the five to six week field campaign. Helicopter-supported camp moves will facilitate personnel change-outs as well as ground stops for more sampling. Once during the field season, the team will return to Kangerlussuaq for a more thorough camp resupply effort. The final camp put-in will be accessed by driving to Point 660, from which the team will then proceed to their last sampling site on foot. When the work is finished, the team will return to Kangerlussuaq. Some will depart via the ANG, while others depart on commercial flights. For the 2017 field season, the Briner and Young teams will again work together, this time outside of Nuuk. A team of four researchers will travel to Nuuk via Kangerlussuaq to a site at the terminus of the Kangiata Nunaata Sermia (SMS) Glacier, approximately 100 km east of Nuuk. Helicopters will be utilized to reach field sites and conduct sampling. Six field sites will be visited and are labeled JBCamp-2 1-4, Long Lake and Target Lake.

CPS will provide cargo and passenger transport via the Air National Guard, passenger and cargo transport via commercial air flights from Kanger<>Nuuk, KISS user days in Kangerlussuaq, lodging in Nuuk, camping and safety equipment, truck rental in Nuuk, and AirGL helicopter support. All other logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - JB107 / 13 / 2016 07 / 18 / 20166
2016Greenland - JB207 / 18 / 2016 07 / 22 / 20165
2016Greenland - JB307 / 22 / 2016 07 / 28 / 20163
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 10 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20167
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-107 / 24 / 2017 07 / 30 / 20173
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-207 / 30 / 2017 08 / 05 / 20173
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-308 / 05 / 2017 08 / 08 / 20173
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-408 / 08 / 2017 08 / 13 / 20172
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-5 (Long Lake)08 / 13 / 2017 08 / 18 / 20172
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-6 (Target Lake)08 / 18 / 2017 08 / 25 / 20172
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 21 / 2017 08 / 28 / 20174
2017Greenland - Nuuk07 / 22 / 2017 08 / 26 / 20174
2018Greenland - Paamiut5
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Science coordination office for Summit Station/ISI Observatory and the Greenland Traverse (Award# 1637209)

PI: Burkhart, John F (jburkhart@ucmerced.edu)
Phone: 0(209) 658.7142 
Institute/Department: U of California, Merced, School of Engineering 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL
Program Manager: Dr. William Ambrose (wambrose@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Data Management | Education and Outreach | Legacy Projects | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
The Office of Polar Programs has been funding substantial scientific activities at Summit Station, Greenland for over twenty years. Summit Station hosts the Greenland Environmental Observatory (GEOSummit), a cooperation between the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration with permission from the Danish Commission for Scientific Research in Greenland to provide long-term environmental measurements. Summit is the only high-elevation, free-tropospheric, inland environmental observatory in the Arctic which is manned throughout the year. Summit therefore fills a unique niche in the international scientific community’s global measurement capability. The Science Coordination Office (SCO) for Summit Station and the Greenland Ice Sheet serves in an advisory capacity to NSF’s Arctic Research Support and Logistics Program. SCO’s primary role is to present the needs and desires of the science community working on the Greenland Ice Sheet in discussions and decision making processes involving NSF, its primary logistics support contractor, and other stakeholders. The SCO also works with NSF, NSF’s contractor, and science teams to work out equitable and efficient use of resources, and strives to ensure that the wide range of science and support activities impact the pristine character of Summit as lightly as possible. SCO shares in the long-range goal of redeveloping Summit infrastructure in ways that will reduce long-term operation and maintenance costs, and reduce the emissions of pollutants by facilities on the station and the aircraft and traverse vehicles that visit. The SCO also helps coordinate visits to Summit for educational groups at all levels, from high school to post-graduate. The SCO will work closely with NSF and all relevant stakeholders in the design of a revitalized Summit Station where reducing operational and maintenance effort (and costs) will preserve the site for future science by reducing emissions. Additional scientific communities, including astronomy and astrophysics, have recently expressed interest in using Summit Station as an Arctic base for new observations. SCO will actively participate in discussions with all interested parties to develop a site plan to accommodate an influx of additional research activities while maintaining long-standing focus on climate-relevant research which requires clean air and snow conditions. SCO’s website is a keystone of communication to the science community, with several new features added over the past few years, including; a Google Earth based GIS recording activity in the region over the past 9 years, a virtual tour using Streetview images, a new ‘Working at Summit’ section that targets new investigators, a comprehensive bibliography of published work near Summit, and a quarterly newsletter. SCO will conduct a comprehensive overhaul of the web site to improve navigation, and will continue to add new features.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Hawley (Dartmouth, 1637003, LEAD), Dibb (UNH, 1637006), and Burkhart (UC Merced, 1637209)—will continue support for the Summit Science Coordination Office (SCO) begun under NSF grants, 1042410 and 0455623. The SCO was established to coordinate measurements between investigators; to optimize the sharing of facilities and personnel on-site; to provide scientific requirements to NSF, its support contractor and European partners as the facility is developed; and to stimulate sharing of data among science projects. See 1637003 for logistic details.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Summit0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2018Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: High Arctic Institute: Thule and Kangerlussuaq, Greenland Field Project (Award# Peregrine)

PI: Burnham, Kurt Kristopher (kburnham@higharctic.org)
Phone: 0(309) 526.3355 
Institute/Department: High Arctic Institute,  
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Foundation\High Arctic Institute
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.higharctic.org

Science Summary:
The High Arctic Institute (HAI) continues Peregrine Falcon and Gyrfalcon research started in the early 1970’s by the Greenland Peregrine Falcon Survey. This research began in response to declining Peregrine populations across the globe as a result of the pesticide DDT. In 1974 research efforts transferred to The Peregrine Fund. In 1997 The Peregrine Fund established the High Arctic Institute at Thule, Greenland and in 2007 the Peregrine Fund was absorbed into the HAI. The HAI monitors Gyrfalcon and Peregrine Falcon populations breeding in the Thule and Kangerlussuaq areas. The HAI’s goal in Greenland is the understanding and conservation of Gyrfalcon and Peregrine Falcon populations and their environments, including prey species and habitat.

Logistics Summary:
The High Arctic Institute (HAI) is a non-profit conservation, research, and education organization that focuses on the study and conservation of birds in Greenland. Founded in 2006, the HAI takes over research initially begun in Greenland in 1972 on Peregrine Falcons and Gyrfalcons. While still conducting long-term studies and monitoring on both species of falcons, research scope has expanded to now include more than 25 different species. Currently the HAI focuses its field work in the Thule area, in northwest Greenland. This High Arctic region is home to tens of millions of birds and is one of the most unique and pristine habitats left in the world, with many of the species that occur in the area at the very northern limit of their range. Current research projects focus on the likely effects of climate change on these species and their response, including changes in nesting chronology, breeding ranges, and density. In 2016, two researchers will visit Thule during the months of July and August. They will base their work out of Thule Air Base (TAB) where they will take day trips via a combination of boat, truck, and foot to field sites. In 2017, three researchers will visit Thule during the months of July and August. They will base their work out of Thule Air Base (TAB) where they will take day trips via a combination of boat, truck, and foot to field sites. Researchers will return in 2018. Details are TBD.

CPS will provide project manager assistance, lodging in building 353, safety and communications equipment, and access to cold storage in Thule. NSF will recoup costs associated with this support directly from HAI. All other support with be organized and paid for by HAI.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2000Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 10 / 2000 08 / 20 / 20008
2001Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 23 / 2001 08 / 18 / 200111
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 09 / 2002 08 / 17 / 200210
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 02 / 2003 08 / 16 / 200313
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 17 / 2004 07 / 29 / 20045
2004Greenland - Thule07 / 12 / 2004 4
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 11 / 2005 2
2005Greenland - Thule07 / 12 / 2005 2
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 05 / 2006 06 / 14 / 20064
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 07 / 2008 07 / 09 / 20084
2008Greenland - Thule07 / 09 / 2008 08 / 21 / 20084
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 01 / 2009 08 / 08 / 20095
2009Greenland - Thule07 / 01 / 2009 08 / 08 / 20095
2010Greenland - Thule07 / 01 / 2010 07 / 30 / 20106
2011Greenland - Thule06 / 30 / 2011 08 / 12 / 20115
2012Greenland - Thule06 / 28 / 2012 08 / 10 / 20126
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 09 / 2013 08 / 21 / 20134
2013Greenland - Thule07 / 16 / 2013 08 / 02 / 20134
2014Greenland - Thule06 / 26 / 2014 08 / 08 / 20146
2015Greenland - Thule1
2016Greenland - Thule07 / 06 / 2016 08 / 10 / 20162
2017Greenland - Thule06 / 29 / 2017 08 / 11 / 20173
2018Greenland - Thule06 / 29 / 2018 08 / 11 / 20183
 


Project Title: NOAA Summit Clean Air Program (Award# NOAASummit)

PI: Butler, James H (James.H.Butler@noaa.gov)
Phone: 0(303) 497.6898 
Institute/Department: National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, Global Monitoring Division 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\DOC\NOAA
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aero/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/hats/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/
Institute: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ozwv/
Media: http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2005/s2393.htm

Science Summary:
Researchers at NOAA’s Earth System Research Lab (ESRL) Global Monitoring Division (GMD) conduct continuous measurements of atmospheric composition at Summit Station to better understand changes occurring in the Arctic and Earth system. Continuous measurements include: 1. Halocarbon and other Atmospheric Trace Gases (HATS) Flasks: weekly to biweekly air sampling collection to measure trace gases that are important components of global halocarbon chemistry. These measurements have been ongoing since 2004. 2. Carbon Cycle Greenhouse Gas (CCGG) Flasks: weekly air sampling experiment to analyze levels of trace gases that are part of the global carbon cycle. These measurements were taken during winter of 1997-1998, 2000-2001, 2001-2002, and have been on-going since the 2003-2004 winter period. 3. In-situ Aerosol Sampling Suite: continual measurements of aerosol optical properties to determine aerosol radiative effects. These measurements were initiated in 2003 with an updated suite of instruments in 2009. 4. Surface ozone measurements: continual tropospheric air sampling efforts for ozone levels. These measurements were taken from 2000 to 2002, and from 2003 on. 5. Balloon-borne ozonesondes: measurements of year-round ozone atmospheric profiles. These measurements were first conducted during the late-winter of 2005. 6. In-situ Monitoring with the Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species (CATS): a three-channel gas chromatograph performs hourly measurements of ozone depleting gases identified in the Montreal Protocol and amendments including nitrous oxide, sulfur hexafluoride, CFC-12, CFC-11, CFC-113, chloroform, methyl chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride. These measurements began in 2007. 7. Surface Meteorology: continuous measurements of surface meteorological properties to support both science and flight operations. These measurements have been continuous since summer 2005. 8. Surface Solar Radiation: continuous measurements of broadband solar and thermal radiation. These measurements began in 2013 with additional instruments added in 2016.

Logistics Summary:
For this NOAA program, on-site science technicians maintain a suite of year-round measurements on behalf of NOAA researchers. These measurements began in the mid 1990s and are ongoing (part of GEOSummit since 2003). NOAA representatives visit Summit Station annually to install / maintain instruments, train science technicians, and conduct measurements. Starting in 2005, NOAA began staffing science technician rotations as Summit Station during the winter phases. Beginning in 2008 NOAA increased staffing to be year-round. Monitoring projects on site include: carbon cycle gas sampling flasks, black carbon measurement, halocarbons and trace species flask sampling, meteorology suite, stratospheric ozonesondes, aerosol measurements, surface ozone measurements, and an in-situ gas chromatograph for greenhouse gas measurements. NOAA will continue to collaborate with Georgia Tech on activities related to the aerosol instrument suite that was previously installed and maintained by the Bergin project (NSF grant #1023227). NOAA program highlights at Summit Station over the last few years include: - During summer 2007 a four channel gas chromatograph was added to the suite of NOAA instruments. - During summer 2008, in addition to ongoing work, researchers extended the ozonesonde experiment by launching about 20 additional balloons in April and again in July for an intensive field campaign. - In February 2009, a NOAA staff member flew to Summit Station via the Twin Otter on a crew turnover flight to repair an instrument, departing the station on the return flight approximately one week later. - During August 2009, the NOAA field coordinator attended an on-site planning meeting. - In 2010, in addition to ongoing measurements, CPS staff relocated the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory (TAWO) and instrument tower (where the NOAA instruments are mounted) to approximately 1 km south of Summit Station. - During 2011 and 2012 the NOAA field coordinator made a routine visit to Summit Station for instrument maintenance. - During 2013 the TAWO building was lifted and the TAWO tower was extended. The on-site science technicians coordinated with the Boulder-based NOAA team to support the instrumentation during the transition. - Also during 2013, the NOAA ESRL GMD deputy director traveled to Summit Station in late June for a site visit. During 2014, one NOAA researcher will travel to Summit in June for maintenance and upgrade activities. NOAA will continue to hire and deploy science technicians for all the three staffing phases. During 2015, three researchers will travel to Summit in June, July, and August for maintenance and upgrade activities. These include upgrading the meteorological sensor suite, assisting with the science impacts from the TAWO facility raise project, and performing a quality control visit to evaluate the setup of the aerosol measuring suite of instrumentation. In 2016, NOAA researchers will travel to Summit to relocate the meteorological suite of instruments from the TAWO tower to the 50m tower, install broadband solar radiometers to inter-compare with existing solar measurements from Summit station, reinstall instrument inlets on the TAWO inlet mast, and potentially reconfigure the TAWO interior layout of instruments to optimize the available footprint. Additionally, NOAA is planning to modify the CATS GC to eliminate methane containing P5 carrier gas to directly address concerns about elevated methane levels within the facility. In 2017 a field team of two will demobilize a portion of the NOAA project activities including the ozonesonde system and materials, the CATS GC, and the solar radiation suite (contingent on the timing of calibrated radiometers being returned by the Steffen/NASAAWS project). The field team will also recover components of the meteorological suite from the failed 50m tower and re-install met instruments on the TAWO tower which was relocated 80m south TAWO during June 2017. The science technician position provided via inter-agency transfer will be ended on or about 28 August 2017. Researchers may return in 2018, details are TBD.

CPS will coordinate personnel and cargo transport to and from Summit, provide access to Summit Station infrastructure, Summit user days, Kangerlussuaq user days, and science technician support with tasking shared between the NOAA and CPS year-round technicians. The PI will arrange and pay for all other logistics through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
1997Greenland - Summit0
1998Greenland - Summit0
2000Greenland - Summit0
2001Greenland - Summit0
2002Greenland - Summit0
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 28 / 2003 08 / 16 / 20032
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 29 / 2003 08 / 14 / 20032
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 13 / 2004 06 / 26 / 20041
2004Greenland - Summit06 / 14 / 2004 06 / 24 / 20041
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 09 / 2005 12 / 31 / 20054
2005Greenland - Summit02 / 11 / 2005 12 / 31 / 20054
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2006 12 / 31 / 20063
2006Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2006 12 / 31 / 20063
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2007 07 / 27 / 20073
2007Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2007 07 / 26 / 20073
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 04 / 2008 11 / 13 / 20086
2008Greenland - Summit02 / 15 / 2008 11 / 13 / 20086
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 05 / 2009 10 / 30 / 20094
2009Greenland - Summit02 / 09 / 2009 08 / 21 / 20093
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 02 / 2010 12 / 31 / 20108
2010Greenland - Summit02 / 02 / 2010 12 / 31 / 20108
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2011 11 / 08 / 20116
2011Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2011 12 / 31 / 20116
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2012 08 / 22 / 20125
2012Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2012 12 / 31 / 20126
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 21 / 2013 08 / 21 / 20135
2013Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2013 12 / 31 / 20137
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 02 / 2014 06 / 30 / 20143
2014Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2014 12 / 31 / 20144
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 29 / 2015 08 / 22 / 20154
2015Greenland - Summit01 / 01 / 2015 10 / 16 / 20155
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 23 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20163
2016Greenland - Summit06 / 25 / 2016 08 / 17 / 20163
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 19 / 2017 08 / 01 / 20172
2017Greenland - Summit07 / 21 / 2017 07 / 30 / 20172
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq2
2018Greenland - Summit2
 


Project Title: Collection and Analysis of GEOSummit Aerosols (Award# 1638402)

PI: Cahill, Thomas (tacahill@ucdavis.edu)
Phone: 0(530) 752.4674 
Institute/Department: U of California, Davis, Department of Physics 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Fine particles directly scatter and absorb sunlight, and depending on their size and composition can either heat or cool the Earth. They come from both natural sources like volcanoes, dust storms, and forest fires, and from man-made sources like industry, power plants and vehicles. Since a signature of their origin is imbedded in their composition, they can be tracked back to sources even thousands of miles away using meteorological models. Understanding the composition and sources of these fine particles is critical to developing better models of global climate change, but requires many years of observation. One of the best places to measure these fine particles in the atmosphere is at the Greenland Summit research station because the site is not near populated areas or the ocean which are sources of these particles. This renewal of an Arctic Observing Network project will extend sampling of these fine particles at the Greenland Summit site another 5 years. The results will be of value to global climate modelers and to atmospheric scientists. Undergraduate students will be involved in sample analysis. This program is unique in that the Greenland Summit site is the only high elevation Arctic site and thus responds to aerosols in the free troposphere, the region of the atmosphere that dominates long range transport. Since 2003, aerosols have been collected continuously in 8 size modes, 15 µm to 0.09 µm, on slowly rotating drums that allow for 12 hr. time resolution and an excellent match to the various transport patterns that bring aerosols into the Arctic. Since there is very little mass to analyze, the large synchrotron x-ray source at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Advanced Light Source has been used to make the compositional analyses, yielding the lowest values of many aerosol species ever measured in the ambient atmosphere. The new program has several enhancements. Optical back scattering will allow measurement of the global albedo, which is important since aerosols are roughly responsible for 2/3 of the total uncertainty in global climate models. A new method has been added for measuring aerosol organic matter that will allow mass closure. In this protocol, the sum of all species equals the total mass present in each of the 8 size modes so that all aerosol mass can be accounted for in determination of the optical properties. The higher energy beams at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Light Source will now also be included, allowing the program to access heavier elements to better identify industrial sources. These data will be compared with other high elevation sites like the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii to better track long-range transport of aerosols in the Northern hemisphere. A further benefit of these data is that they allow a measurement of how airborne particles get imbedded in the snow pack and eventually the ice cores collected at the Summit site. Thus, these measurements help explain the dust present over the past millennia, during both warm periods and ice ages.

Logistics Summary:
This grant funds a five-year continuation (2016-2020) of baseline measurements, some of which have been ongoing since 2003 as part of the Greenland Environmental Observatory at Summit Station. This project focuses on continuing the record of year-round aerosol collection and analysis (previously funded under NSF grant 0856845, McConnell, Desert Research Institute, lead PI). The PI will extend fine particle sampling and enhance the existing continuous record of aerosols with instruments currently running at Summit Station, Greenland. No planned researcher deployments to Summit Station will occur in 2017. The PI will oversee shipment of necessary replacement parts for a Davis Rotating-drum Unit for Monitoring (or DRUM) apparatus and utilize on-site support from the Summit science technicians to maintain the instruments.

CPS will provide Air National Guard coordination for cargo, power for the DRUM sampler, and Summit science tech support. All other logistics will be organized by the researcher and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Summit0
2018Greenland - Summit0
2019Greenland - Summit0
2020Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Understanding GrIS moulin hydrology and links to ice motion (Award# 1603835 )

PI: Covington, Matthew D (mcoving@uark.edu)
Phone: 0(479) 575.3876 
Institute/Department: U of Arkansas, Department of Geosciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The melting of the Greenland ice sheet is not a simple issue of warmer air temperatures melting the surface ice, which then flows into the ocean. Surface meltwater can flow deep into the glacier through natural pipes known as moulins. These subsurface channels not only transmit water to some outlet, where it flows into the ocean, but may also influence the downslope sliding of the glacier toward the ocean. To better understand the controls that govern glacier sliding, the researchers will conduct field and model studies on the Greenland ice sheet. Researchers will instrument a number of moulins with pressure sensors. Glacier velocity will be measured with GPS sensors. Discharge will be monitored through dye tracing. Simulations will be conducted to integrate the observations with a number of simple ‘conduit’ models in the hope of providing a better and more comprehensive understanding of the processes that govern glacier sliding. Beyond the training of graduate and undergraduate students, the researchers will work with a journalism student at the University of Arkansas to produce a documentary about their field experience. This collaboration provides a unique opportunity to communicate to the general public. It is thought that increased channelization reduces subglacial water pressure and acts to buffer the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) against large increases in ice velocity. However, few measurements of water pressure have been made in channelized subglacial drainage systems to test this hypothesis. The researchers will obtain synoptic supraglacial stream discharge data, moulin water level and ice velocity at two moulin sites along an ice flow line in the Paakitsoq Region of the GrIS. Data will be analyzed, and used to parameterize model experiments, to determine the degree to which: 1) local versus regional inputs of melt water control moulin water levels; 2) changes in effective pressure that occur along ice flow paths affect local relationships between subglacial water pressure and ice velocity.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Gulley (1604022, USF) and Covington (1603835, U ARK) will study the large role that moulins have in meltwater delivery to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). They will examine the hydrological processes in moulins and how they impact relationships between glacier hydrology and ice velocity. Logistics details under 1604022.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Greenland - Ilulissat0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2018Greenland - Ilulissat0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
 


Project Title: East Greenland Ice-core Project (Award# EGRIPCPH)

PI: Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe (ddj@nbi.ku.dk)
Phone: 45(353) 20556 
Institute/Department: U of Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Institute, Ice and Climate 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: DK\Research/Higher Ed\U. Copenhagen
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://eastgrip.org/

Science Summary:
In Greenland, fast-flowing ice streams discharge into the ocean, amounting to about half the loss of Greenland’s ice sheet mass. Many of these streams have doubled their rates of flow in the last decade. The biggest ice stream begins at the central ice divide and cuts through the ice sheet in a wedge shape to feed into the ocean through three large ice streams in northeast Greenland (Nioghalvfjerds isstrømmen, Zachariae isbræ and Storstrømmen). The North East Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) begins on the ice divide, which is believed to be caused by strong melting at the base, and reaches velocities of over 100 meters per year about 200 kilometers (km) from the ice divide, a region that is still 500 km from the coast where the ice is heavily crevassed and therefore dangerous. Researchers on the international East Greenland Ice Sheet Project (EGRIP) will establish a field camp in the area 200 km from the ice divide and drill an ice core down to bedrock, about 2550 meters in depth. Researchers have two (three) primary research objectives: • Study the dynamics of the ice flow in an ice stream by ice rheology and deformation studies of the ice core. • Study the dynamics of the ice flow by borehole observations of basal sliding, borehole deformation, and basal water processes. • Obtain the highest quality brittle zone (650 m – 1250 m depth) ice core possible to allow for continuous analysis of climate parameters and greenhouse gases and ice core dating in the early Holocene. Information gleaned from the ice core, combined with information from borehole observations, will help scientists better understand the flow dynamics of NEGIS, and by extrapolation, of other ice streams. When results are reflected in ice sheet models, they will enable predictions of future loss of mass from the ice streams, thus improving estimates of future sea level rise

Logistics Summary:
The East Greenland Ice core Project (EGRIP), an international collaboration between Greenland, Denmark, the United States, Germany, Norway and Japan, aims to characterize ice flow dynamics of the North East Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS). This information will help constrain models predicting future mass loss from ice streams, thus improving estimates of future sea level rise. During five years of field work (2015-2020), an international, Danish-led team of scientists will assemble in Greenland to advance the goal of harvesting an ice core through the ice sheet to bedrock, about 2550 meters total, from an active flow area of NEGIS. They also will make borehole observations. In 2015, researchers retrieved infrastructure needed to establish the EGRIP camp from NEEM, former site of an international Danish led borehole project that was conducted from 2007-2012 as part of the IPY. Researchers excavated and/or prepared for transport heavy sleds with cargo, the iconic NEEM dome, and two garages. Everything was hauled 460 km by traverse train in May to the NEGIS site. At EGRIP, the dome was parked, the two garages were built and outfitted, and the rest of the cargo was stored on sledges. In 2016 EGRIP camp preparations continued. The field team completed construction of a fully operational drilling camp with ice core storage facilities, science trench, drill trench, workshops, warm laboratories and housing for 35 people. In 2017 EGRIP will begin scientific drilling. The overall U.S. contribution to the EGRIP effort involves provision of Air National Guard (ANG) airlift to support the camp. In exchange, the following NSF and NASA-funded research groups will have access to EGRIP as a logistical hub: Abdalati (NNX15AC62G) and Detrick (1304011). Five researchers will fly via the ANG to EGRIP from Kangerlussuaq.

CPS will provide assistance in the form of occasional ground support in Kanger, use of NSF loader in Kanger, and coordination assistance with the NSF sponsored NYANG 109th LC-130 flights to/from EGRIP. NSF will coordinate directly with the Danish team on payment. All other logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Greenland - EGRIP04 / 26 / 2017 07 / 29 / 20175
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 25 / 2017 08 / 01 / 20175
2018Greenland - EGRIP1
 


Project Title: Rockwell Kent and Early 1930’s Greenland: A Comparative View of Environmental, Social and Cultural Change in Contemporary Greenland (Award# 1524176)

PI: Defibaugh, Denis (dldpph@rit.edu)
Phone: 0(585) 475.7525 
Institute/Department: Rochester Institute of Technology,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ASSP
Program Manager: Dr. Anna Kerttula (akerttul@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Social and Human Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://scholarworks.rit.edu/
Data: http://www.arkiv.gl/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://www.groenlandica.gl/web/arena

Science Summary:
This project combines visual, historical, and anthropological methodologies to approach social, cultural and environmental change in four Greenlandic communities. The project centers around the work of Rockwell Kent, an American artist and writer, who resided in Greenland in the early 1930s and produced photographs, art, and literature about his time in the country. Kent’s rare historic lantern slides, not viewed in Greenland since their production, will be displayed and discussed with contemporary community members in the four locations where they were originally taken, Illorsuit, Sisimiut, Nuuk, and Uummannaq. Community members will be interviewed about Kent and changes that have occurred in these communities since the 1930s. In keeping with Arctic Social Sciences Program initiatives, the project provides comparative study, research partnerships, and educational and interactive collaboration with community residents. Workshops will be held with students in each community, during which pupils will be taught photographic techniques to produce their own images. PI Denis Defibaugh, RIT Professor of Photography, in collaboration with Co-PIs Jette Rygaard, Lecturer in Literature and Media at Ilisimatusarfik (University of Greenland), Axel Jeremiassen, PhD student at Ilisimatusarfik, and Susan Vanek, PhD student in anthropology at Binghamton University will produce an ethnographic study with still photographs and video incorporating both oral histories and archival materials. The research will provide insight into how Inuit communities in Greenland define themselves during a period of rapid social, cultural, and environmental change incurred by modernization efforts, political transitions, economic shifts, and the construction of regional and national identities. The project will further the development of community-based participatory research methodologies and will have a crucial student research training and capacity-building aspect in the form of collaboration with Ilisimatusarfik/University of Greenland.

Logistics Summary:
This project centers around the work of Rockwell Kent, an American artist and writer, who resided in Greenland in the early 1930s and produced photographs, art, and literature about his time in the country. Kent’s rare historic lantern slides, not viewed in Greenland since their production, will be displayed and discussed with contemporary community members in the four locations where they were originally taken, Illorsuit, Sisimiut, Nuuk, and Uummannaq. During 2016 and 2017 a field team of 1-4 will conduct numerous workshops and semi-structured interviews, both about Kent and about changes that have occurred in these communities since Kent last visited in the 1930s.

CPS will provide ANG coordination for some of the participants, intra-Greenland travel between the communities, and lodging in Nuuk, Sisimiut, and Uummannaq. All other logistics, including lodging in Illorsuit and some longer term options in Nuuk, will be provided and arranged by the researchers from the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Illorsuit05 / 25 / 2016 10 / 17 / 20165
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq03 / 08 / 2016 08 / 15 / 20165
2016Greenland - Nuuk04 / 21 / 2016 11 / 10 / 20164
2016Greenland - Sisimiut06 / 03 / 2016 10 / 21 / 20165
2016Greenland - Uummannaq05 / 20 / 2016 10 / 17 / 20165
2017Greenland - Illorsuit03 / 08 / 2017 09 / 13 / 20173
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 04 / 2017 08 / 16 / 20172
2017Greenland - Nuuk02 / 02 / 2017 06 / 08 / 20171
2017Greenland - Sisimiut05 / 16 / 2017 09 / 21 / 20174
2017Greenland - Uummannaq02 / 27 / 2017 09 / 05 / 20173
 


Project Title: Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN) Operations (Award# 1304011)

PI: Detrick, Robert S (detrick@iris.edu )
Phone: 0(202) 682.2220 
Institute/Department: Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Cryosphere\Glaciology | Cryosphere\Ice Sheet Dynamics | Geological Sciences\Climate | Geological Sciences\Seismology | Instrument Development |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://ds.iris.edu/ds/nodes/dmc/
Project: http://www.iris.edu/aed2/index.phtml?code=GLISNNUU...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=13...

Science Summary:
Greenland and the Arctic are changing rapidly, as dramatically manifested in the loss of ice from the Greenland Ice Sheet and rapid variations in the dynamic behavior of its outlet glaciers. Ice lost from Greenland contributes directly to changes in sea level, and influences climate indirectly through perturbations to ocean circulation and Earth's albedo. Investigations of the causes and consequences of changes in the Greenland Ice Sheet increasingly highlight the links between the solid Earth and the ice, ocean, and atmosphere systems. The Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN) is a broadband, multi-use seismological network, enhanced by selected geodetic observations, designed with the capability to allow researchers to understand the changes currently occurring in the Arctic, and with the operational characteristics necessary to enable response to those changes as understanding improves. GLISN was established through an international collaboration, with 10 nations coordinating their efforts to develop the current 32-station observing network during the last four years. In the U.S., the GLISN development effort has been undertaken on behalf of the seismological community by the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), a community-governed consortium, with funding from an NSF MRI award; IRIS has also provided leadership for the International GLISN project. All data from the network are freely and openly available, with complete metadata, via the IRIS Data Management Center and additional data centers in Europe. Of the 32 GLISN stations, 26 have commitments of long-term operational support from international partners. This proposal requests support for continued operations of six key stations of the network, as well as data quality control and data-management for the network. It also requests support for improvements to the telemetry capability at remote stations to maximize the scientific utility of the data, reduce data latency, and reduce logistics costs. Continued leadership by IRIS in the management and coordination of the International GLISN effort will ensure continued return of high-quality data from the full 32-station network.

Logistics Summary:
This project continues the International partnership started with funding under NSF grant 0922983 that created a seismic and geodetic real time Arctic observing network to monitor glacier earthquakes in Greenland. Named the Greenland Ice Sheet Monitoring Network (GLISN), this capability was established through the collaboration between 10 nations for a new broadband seismic capability. Under this grant, researchers continue the operations of the remaining 6 key stations of the GLISN network (DBG, DY2G, ICESG, NEEM, NUUK, SOEG), to continue telemetry support for a seventh remote station (NOR), as well as data quality control and data-management for 5 years. From 2014-2018, researchers will make annual trips to each of the remote sites to collect data, provide upgrades, perform preventive maintenance and repairs, and upgrade telemetry systems. They will set up remote camps for some of the annual visits. Colleagues from the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) will maintain sites at Thule, Narsarsuaq, Tasiilaq, Ittoqqortoormiit, Station Nord, Isortoq, and in 2017, Nuuk and Daneborg, arranging all of their own logistics. In 2016 a team of four will conduct the work during a month-long deployment. In late July, two researchers will meet in Iceland and fly on to Nuuk, where they will maintain the nearby station. They will then depart for Kangerlussuaq, where they will prepare for the installation of a station near DYE-2. Two additional researchers will arrive several days later, and all four will deploy to the installation site via LC-130. When that work is completed, they will all return to Kangerlussuaq via Twin Otter. One will depart Greenland. The other three will continue north to visit stations near Ilulissat and the NEEM ice camp before crossing the island to visit east coast sites. As the work allows, the team will drop from three to two. They will redeploy via Iceland. In 2017, a team of three (two researchers and one bear guard) will fly via Twin Otter from Akureyri, Iceland visiting one of their east coast seismometer sites at Sodalen (SOEG). They will then return to AEY where they will install skis on the Twin Otter and meet up with their third science team member. The following day they will fly back to Greenland to visit their ice sites: DY2G, ICESG, and NEEM with some overnight stops also in Kangerlussuaq, Ilulissat and possibly EGRIP. They will not visit their Nuuk (NUUK) and Daneborg (DBG) sites where instruments continue to run well. GEUS collaborators will download the data for the project.

CPS will provide ANG flight coordination for cargo to/from Greenland and Camp Raven, air charters to access remote sites, transport of CPS gear to Akureyri, lodging, and camping/communications/safety gear. IRIS/PASSCAL will provide instrument development and management of installations. UNAVCO will provide consultation and remote data recovery support for the three on-ice GPS stations. The investigators will arrange and pay for all other logistics from the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - Daneborg08 / 18 / 2014 08 / 23 / 20142
2014Greenland - DYE-208 / 09 / 2014 08 / 10 / 20142
2014Greenland - GLISN ICE-S08 / 11 / 2014 08 / 12 / 20142
2014Greenland - NEEM08 / 13 / 2014 08 / 15 / 20142
2014Greenland - Sodalen08 / 17 / 2014 08 / 18 / 20142
2015Greenland - Daneborg08 / 15 / 2015 08 / 20 / 20151
2015Greenland - DYE-205 / 16 / 2015 05 / 19 / 20153
2015Greenland - GLISN ICE-S05 / 08 / 2015 05 / 13 / 20153
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 24 / 2015 05 / 30 / 20154
2015Greenland - NEEM04 / 29 / 2015 05 / 05 / 20152
2015Greenland - Nuuk05 / 22 / 2015 05 / 30 / 20151
2016Greenland - Daneborg08 / 23 / 2016 08 / 24 / 20162
2016Greenland - DYE-208 / 06 / 2016 08 / 10 / 20164
2016Greenland - GLISN ICE-S08 / 11 / 2016 08 / 12 / 20163
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 01 / 2016 08 / 12 / 20164
2016Greenland - NEEM08 / 14 / 2016 08 / 16 / 20163
2016Greenland - Nuuk07 / 30 / 2016 08 / 01 / 20162
2016Greenland - Sodalen08 / 18 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20164
2017Greenland - Daneborg0
2017Greenland - DYE-208 / 06 / 2017 08 / 07 / 20173
2017Greenland - GLISN ICE-S08 / 08 / 2017 08 / 09 / 20173
2017Greenland - Ilulissat08 / 09 / 2017 08 / 10 / 20173
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 07 / 2017 08 / 08 / 20173
2017Greenland - NEEM08 / 10 / 2017 08 / 11 / 20173
2017Greenland - Nuuk0
2017Greenland - Sodalen08 / 03 / 2017 08 / 04 / 20173
2017Iceland - Akureyri07 / 29 / 2017 08 / 16 / 20173
2018Greenland - Daneborg08 / 07 / 2018 08 / 14 / 20181
2018Greenland - DYE-205 / 18 / 2018 05 / 23 / 20183
2018Greenland - GLISN ICE-S05 / 18 / 2018 05 / 23 / 20183
2018Greenland - NEEM05 / 08 / 2018 05 / 15 / 20182
2018Greenland - Nuuk06 / 11 / 2018 06 / 13 / 20181
2018Greenland - Sodalen07 / 29 / 2018 08 / 01 / 20182
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Science coordination office for Summit Station/ISI Observatory and the Greenland Traverse (Award# 1637006)

PI: Dibb, Jack E. (jack.dibb@unh.edu)
Phone: 0(603) 862.3063 
Institute/Department: U of New Hampshire, Glacier Research Group 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL
Program Manager: Dr. William Ambrose (wambrose@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Data Management | Education and Outreach | Legacy Projects | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
The Office of Polar Programs has been funding substantial scientific activities at Summit Station, Greenland for over twenty years. Summit Station hosts the Greenland Environmental Observatory (GEOSummit), a cooperation between the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration with permission from the Danish Commission for Scientific Research in Greenland to provide long-term environmental measurements. Summit is the only high-elevation, free-tropospheric, inland environmental observatory in the Arctic which is manned throughout the year. Summit therefore fills a unique niche in the international scientific community’s global measurement capability. The Science Coordination Office (SCO) for Summit Station and the Greenland Ice Sheet serves in an advisory capacity to NSF’s Arctic Research Support and Logistics Program. SCO’s primary role is to present the needs and desires of the science community working on the Greenland Ice Sheet in discussions and decision making processes involving NSF, its primary logistics support contractor, and other stakeholders. The SCO also works with NSF, NSF’s contractor, and science teams to work out equitable and efficient use of resources, and strives to ensure that the wide range of science and support activities impact the pristine character of Summit as lightly as possible. SCO shares in the long-range goal of redeveloping Summit infrastructure in ways that will reduce long-term operation and maintenance costs, and reduce the emissions of pollutants by facilities on the station and the aircraft and traverse vehicles that visit. The SCO also helps coordinate visits to Summit for educational groups at all levels, from high school to post-graduate. The SCO will work closely with NSF and all relevant stakeholders in the design of a revitalized Summit Station where reducing operational and maintenance effort (and costs) will preserve the site for future science by reducing emissions. Additional scientific communities, including astronomy and astrophysics, have recently expressed interest in using Summit Station as an Arctic base for new observations. SCO will actively participate in discussions with all interested parties to develop a site plan to accommodate an influx of additional research activities while maintaining long-standing focus on climate-relevant research which requires clean air and snow conditions. SCO’s website is a keystone of communication to the science community, with several new features added over the past few years, including; a Google Earth based GIS recording activity in the region over the past 9 years, a virtual tour using Streetview images, a new ‘Working at Summit’ section that targets new investigators, a comprehensive bibliography of published work near Summit, and a quarterly newsletter. SCO will conduct a comprehensive overhaul of the web site to improve navigation, and will continue to add new features.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Hawley (Dartmouth, 1637003, LEAD), Dibb (UNH, 1637006), and Burkhart (UC Merced, 1637209)—will continue support for the Summit Science Coordination Office (SCO) begun under NSF grants, 1042410 and 0455623. The SCO was established to coordinate measurements between investigators; to optimize the sharing of facilities and personnel on-site; to provide scientific requirements to NSF, its support contractor and European partners as the facility is developed; and to stimulate sharing of data among science projects. See 1637003 for logistic details.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Summit0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2018Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Direction and Mechanisms of Seasonal Change in Arctic Microbial Communities (Award# 1203857)

PI: Epstein, Slava S (slava@neu.edu)
Phone: 0(617) 640.1095 
Institute/Department: Northeastern University, Department of Biology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology\Microbial Ecology | Biology\Microbiology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://jcvi.org/metarep/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This project focuses on the characteristics and mechanisms of microbial succession in the high Arctic. Empirical observations suggest that seasonal change could be viewed as consisting of two phases, with simpler communities gradually replaced by more complex assemblages. The researchers hypothesize that life histories of the early colonizers include metabolic versatility and ability to expand quickly, which leads to communities characterized more by interspecies chemical warfare than intricate species integration. They also hypothesize that at later stages, species develop multiple synergies, their communities become more complex, and integrated by a signaling and regulatory network. A corollary of these traits is that the first phase is populated with species that are relatively easy to cultivate in pure culture, whereas species dominating at later stages may appear "uncultivable" in pure culture due to their dependencies on other species. Researchers will test these hypotheses in a study of a microbial community in the Thule Area in Northern Greenland. This environment offers a range of communities from simple to more complex with tractable (short) seasonal succession and constitutes a pristine and endangered community. Intellectual merit of this study is two-fold. The first is about bringing together in one study culture- dependent and culture-independent approaches, enabling us to relate microbial diversity and function in the most general sense. The enabling technology is important for general microbial ecology because it identifies functions expressed by the community with specific microbial players, and deciphers the roles of individual species, spatially and temporally. It has the potential to transform the study of arctic and other environmental microorganisms by informing us what key species are present, what functions they perform, and how the structure-function relationship changes over time. Second is the application of this platform to the ecology of arctic microorganisms, whereby they will test specific hypotheses related to the direction and aspects of microbial seasonal succession, aiming at their mechanistic explanation. Regardless of whether the hypotheses stand, they will assess the importance of community-level microbial interactions that are based on production of bioactive compounds, how these interactions change over the course of seasonal succession, and whether trajectory of the microbial seasonal succession can be manipulated in a predictable fashion. This approach may become useful in human and animal microbiome research helping establish roles of species implicated in a range of diseases; in bioremediation efforts by explaining roles of individual species in biotransformation of pollutants; and drug discovery since bioactive compounds are often produced in a community setting but not in isolation. These cultivation approaches are already used in biotechnology efforts, and are licensed to a biotech startup company. The project will provide opportunities for undergraduate and graduate training in a multidisciplinary setting.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Epstein (1203857, Northeastern, lead) and Nelson (1203831, J. Craig Venter) focuses on the characteristics and mechanisms of microbial growth succession in the High Arctic. Starting in 2013, a field team of 2- 4 (with rotations) will deploy to Thule, Greenland for approximately 60 days each year to collect samples for study at the home institutes. The researchers will collect samples during several sessions, each lasting several weeks, from spring through fall. They will reach sample locations via truck, and process them in the Thule laboratory. In 2013, researchers will make sampling excursions in May, July/August and December, with a trip routed through Ilulissat for reconaissance/sampling during July. Samples—both live and frozen—will be prepared and stored for Air National Guard shipment to Scotia, New York at several points in the season. In 2014, researchers will make sampling excursions May – August and in October. Samples, both live and frozen, will be prepared and stored for both Air National Guard shipment to Scotia, New York as well as via Air Mobility Command (AMC) cargo and as hand carry at several points in the season. The 2015 season will be deferred to 2016. In 2016, field team members will visit Thule on a staggered schedule, with up to four people at a time, from late June to mid-August. Members will travel to and from the station on Embassy and Air Mobility Command flights. Researchers will base from Thule and make day trips via truck to local areas for sampling. They will work with samples in the Thule labs, processing some for shipment to the home institute. Prior to departing, the researchers will ensure all project cargo is packed and ready for retrograde shipment. There will be no field deploment in 2017 but samples continued to be stored in Thule for the projects. Samples may be shipped back to the US by CPS in 2017.

CPS will provide Air National Guard (ANG) coordination for cargo (including samples) NY><Kangerlussuaq, AMC ticketing and cargo Thule><BWI, Embassy travel, lodging at TSAR in Thule with access to Thule infrastructure/services, en-route lodging in Kangerlussuaq as needed, and safety/communications equipment. In 2017 CPS will provide storage for samples and may be shipping samples back to US for the project. All other costs associated with this project will be paid by the PI through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2013Greenland - Ilulissat07 / 18 / 2013 07 / 22 / 20131
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 20 / 2013 08 / 22 / 20131
2013Greenland - Thule05 / 09 / 2013 10 / 04 / 20133
2014Greenland - Thule05 / 29 / 2014 10 / 10 / 20147
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 29 / 2016 07 / 29 / 20163
2016Greenland - Thule06 / 30 / 2016 08 / 10 / 20166
2017Greenland - Thule0
 


Project Title: CryoSat Validation Experiment (Award# CryoVEx)

PI: Forsberg, Rene (rf@spacecenter.dk)
Phone: 45(5719) 3532 
Institute/Department: Danish National Space Center,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: DK\Research/Higher Ed\DTU\DNSC
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):

Science Summary:
The Danish National Space Institute is part of the CRYOVEX campaign, the object of which is to provide pre-launch reference datasets for Cryosat2. NSI researchers undertake measurements of sea ice thickness and make Ice Profiles from measurements with altimeters from helicopters. The campaign is aimed in particular at understanding miscellaneous sources of error: snow loading, ice density, preferential sampling and various freeboard measurement errors. These experiments are critical in two ways. Firstly, independent ice-thickness measurements provide a means by which ESA can test CryoSat-2's performance, guaranteeing that the measurements are correct. Secondly, the results from the ground experiments will be used to correct errors in CryoSat-2 data, which can arise due to the complexity and variability of natural ice surfaces. CryoSat-2 is aimed at observing changes in the Earth’s cryosphere, i.e. changes to the ice- and snow-covered parts of the Earth. Extensive validation campaigns to gather a multitude of ground truth measurements were carried out in the Arctic prior to the launch of the first CryoSat mission and now continue for CryoSat-2. The CryoSat2 Validation Experiment, CRYOVEX, is a joint effort of the National Space Institute and the European Space Agency ESA in cooperation with the Alfred Wegener Institute.

Logistics Summary:
The Canadian Arctic Sea Ice Mass Balance Observatory (CASIMBO) is a long-term measurement programme carried forward by the University of Alberta in continuation of earlier activities in the framework of the European/ESA Greenice and CryoVEx projects. It involves systematic, large-scale in-situ and airborne snow and ice measurements which will provide important input for CryoSat-2 validation. CryoVex activities address the different components of the sea ice thickness profile, i.e. ice thickness, snow thickness, ice freeboard, and snow surface elevation, which are sensed differently by the different sensors. EM sounding is the only method to obtain direct ice thickness estimates, and therefore is essential for the validation of CryoSat-2 thickness retrievals, which are derived from freeboard measurements and assumptions of the isostatic balance for which the densities of snow and ice need to be known. However, obtained thicknesses represent total sea ice thickness, i.e. ice plus snow thickness. Therefore, differences between EM and CryoSat-2 thickness retrievals are expected and will be resolved by additional snow thickness measurements using the combination of airborne laser and radar altimetry, ground penetrating radar, and in-situ snow thickness profiling. The project will be conducting aerial surveys with 2 Twin Otters and a BT-67. The Danish Space Center planned a number of campaigns in spring/summer of 2008, including DAMOCLES/Tara, an IPY Arctic Ocean project that looks at the physical and ecological environment north of Greenland and the ESA's CRYOSAT cal /val effort.The CRYOSAT work is completed in collaboration with Liz Morris from Scott Polar Research in Cambridge. The airborne part of the campaign was carried out by DTU Space (former Danish National Space Center, DNSC) using a Twin Otter chartered from Air Greenland. The main purpose was to collect coincident ASIRAS and laser elevation data form validation sites on land and sea ice and in addition offer logistical support to ground teams. Overflights of corner reflectors were done at main validation sites in order to calibrate the ASIRAS data. The datasets from this campaign will be important for understanding the CryoSat-2 radar signals. The airborne part of CryoVEx 2008 was successfully carried out between April 15 and May 8 and the datasets have been stored and secured at DTU Space and Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI). Afterwards extensive data processing has been done by DTU Space and AWI in cooperation. In 2009, the LOMGRAV (Lomonosov Ridge airborne gravity survey) an airborne geophysical survey of the area north of Ellesmere Island and Greenland, was carried out by 3 scientists (2 Danish, 1 Canadian), and an air crew of 3. A tentative time plan was formulated to avoid operations from CFS Alert during operation BoxTop, with a change of scientists planned for late April at Eureka. PCSP-coordinated fuel arrangements for LOMGRAV. Partial fuel at Alert was flown in by the US Air Force in March 2009. PCSP provided aircraft charter arrangements, lodging at Resolute Bay and Eureka, and the coordination of fuel. In addition, in 2009, the GreenArc camp an international and interdisciplinary science ice camp north of Greenland was surveyed mid to late April. From the ice camp climate-related science in the areas of sea-ice structure and drift, oceanography, carbon exchange and shallow sub-bottom sediment coring was carried out. Ice conditions and thickness in a wider area north of Greenland and Canada was also surveyed by airborne lidar and radar methods, by lidar and radar measurements from Twin-Otter and a NASA P-3 aircraft. Researchers will continue air operations each year. The National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU-Space), in cooperation with York University and Environment Canada, continue its validation and monitoring program for sea ice and land ice in the Arctic Ocean north of Canada and in Greenland in March/April 2017, following similar coordinated activities in 2014. The 2017 flights will be closely coordinated with the PanArcMip EC/AWI flight program using the Polar-5 DC3 aircraft, as well as sea-ice flights of the EU ICE-ARC project, led by the British Antarctic Survey. The 2017 CryoVEx program falls in two separated campaigns, to ease load on CFS Alert, and to secure coordinated laser and radar flights with Polar-5 and NASA IceBridge. CryoVEx-2017 Phase 1: March 2017 March 20-31 will involve operations with laser, Ku- and Ka- band radar operations with Norlandair, Iceland, Twin-Otter TF-POF over sea ice north of Greenland and Canada, and flights over sea ice in the Baffin Bay the Greenland Ice Sheet. CryoVEx-2017 Phase 2: April 5-23 will involve sea ice flights from Cambridge Bay (April 7-9), CFS Alert (April 10-19), and Svalbard/Station Nord, as well as an intensive sea-ice in-situ program with landings on sea ice along CryoSat tracks north of CFS Alert. Two aircraft will be used: A Twin-Otter from Kenn Borek Air, Calgary, for sea-ice landings, and a British Antarctic Survey Twin-Otter VP-FAZ, functioning as safety back-up for the sea ice landings, as well as a supplementary lidar/radar measurement aircraft. This phase of the project will also include measurements over land and sea ice in Svalbard, in cooperation with the Norwegian Polar Institute and Univ. of Oslo. The CryoVEx-2017 project is funded by the European Space Agency and involves Canadian, Danish, British and Norwegian research teams, as well as Dutch radar company MetaSensing BV. Fuel for the operations at CFS Alert will be provided by the US Air National Guard, in cooperation with the US National Science Foundation.

CPS will provide scheduling, coordination, and billing support for flight and fueling operations at CFS Alert as routed through Thule Air Base. The NSF will recoup the cost of this support via a direct-bill arrangement with the PI's institution. The researchers will arrange and pay for all other logistics.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2008Greenland - Thule0
2009Greenland - Thule0
2011Greenland - Thule0
2012Greenland - Thule0
2014Greenland - Thule0
2017Canada - Alert, Ellesmere Island03 / 21 / 2017 04 / 18 / 20171
2017Greenland - Thule0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: The Greenland Firn Aquifer Impacts on Ice Sheet Hydrology: Characterizing Volume, Flow, and Discharge (Award# 1417987)

PI: Forster, Richard (Rick) R (rick.forster@geog.utah.edu)
Phone: 0(801) 581.3611 
Institute/Department: U of Utah, Department of Geography 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://neptune.gsfc.nasa.gov/csb/index.php?section...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
This project will follow up on the serendipitous recent discovery that liquid water is present year-round within the firn layer of the southern Greenland Ice Sheet. This discovery complicates understanding of the relationship of surface melting on the ice sheet to sea level rise by revealing another pathway for meltwater to take. Even the most fundamental questions about the firn aquifer remain unanswered. This project will address three essential research questions: 1. What are the pathways and connections of the firn aquifer with the broader Greenland hydrologic system and what is the aquifer's effect on sea level rise? 2. What is the mass/volume of the liquid water stored in the Greenland firn aquifer? 3. What are the rates and patterns of water flow in the aquifer? These questions will be addressed using standard groundwater sampling techniques, seismic sounding, nuclear magnetic resonance, and ice core measurements. This research will advance knowledge of the Greenland firn aquifer guided by two end member hypotheses that present possible pathways for this stored water to exit the aquifer. 1: The aquifer is connected to a well-developed englacial hydrologic network, including crevasses and moulins, that drain some portion of the aquifer at a relatively constant rate (seasonally) to the bed, similar to surface melt in western Greenland. or 2: The aquifer is primarily storing water in available firn pore space and will not release water until the pore space is completely saturated and/or a threshold is met leading to a release event. It is likely that some proportion of each mechanism is relevant depending upon location on the ice sheet. The field studies along with local and regional modeling studies focused along an elevation gradient of an ice flow line into Helheim Glacier are aimed at determining the relative contribution of each pathway. This knowledge is required to accurately measure and predict the Greenland ice sheet’s present and future contribution to sea level rise. Additionally this research verifies ground hydrology and seismic techniques for measuring englacial water volume and flow providing new multi-disciplinary techniques for future research.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Forster (1417987, U of Utah) and Schmerr (1417993, Univ of Maryland) builds on earlier work funded by NSF grant 1311655. The research will advance knowledge of the Greenland firn aquifer and help further understanding of the Greenland ice sheet’s potential impact on sea level rise. Researchers will analyze information collected using standard groundwater sampling techniques, seismic sounding, nuclear magnetic resonance, ice core measurements, and computer modeling. From 2015 to 2016, researchers will visit the island to work along the southeastern edge of the Greenland Ice Sheet near Kulusuk. Gear will be transported to Kulusuk on LC-130 and then via helicopter from Kulusuk to the ice sheet. Transport on the ice sheet will be via snowmobile. The first field campaign, in April 2015, will involve eight team members in an effort lasting about 25 days. After putting in to their field site and establishing a tent camp, the team will drill four firn cores along an elevation gradient through the firn aquifer. The boreholes will be instrumented with thermistor strings and pressure transducers and left in place to make measurements until spring of 2016. The researchers will also measure water volume with a Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) platform, perform radar monitoring, and obtain seismic imaging of the water table. Later, in July/August, a team of five will return to continue MRS, radar, and seismic sampling. Thermistors will be serviced as needed. The final field campaign will take place in 2016. In late July/early August, four to five field team members will continue radar monitoring and service the thermistor strings as needed. The instruments will stay in place through the summer of 2017, with no particpant travel to Greenland. The instruments will the be removed with the assistance of a colleague that will be in Greenland on a different project (details TBD).

CPS will provide Air National Guard coordination for transport of people and cargo, including dedicated C-130 flights between Kangerlussuaq and Kulusuk; KISS user days; lodging in Kulusuk; helo support out of Kulusuk; fuel; snowmachines; and camp/safety gear. IDDO will provide a drill system and one driller (2015 only). UNAVCO will provide GPS support. IRIS/PASSCAL will provide training and instrumentation. All other logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Greenland - Forster Camp 104 / 10 / 2015 08 / 14 / 20158
2015Greenland - Forster Camp 204 / 06 / 2015 08 / 14 / 20158
2015Greenland - Forster Camp 304 / 15 / 2015 08 / 14 / 20158
2015Greenland - Forster Camp 404 / 18 / 2015 08 / 14 / 20158
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq03 / 27 / 2015 03 / 29 / 20156
2015Greenland - Kulusuk03 / 29 / 2015 08 / 14 / 20158
2016Greenland - Forster Camp 107 / 20 / 2016 08 / 10 / 20166
2016Greenland - Forster Camp 207 / 20 / 2016 08 / 10 / 20166
2016Greenland - Forster Camp 307 / 20 / 2016 08 / 10 / 20166
2016Greenland - Forster Camp 407 / 20 / 2016 08 / 10 / 20166
2016Greenland - Kulusuk07 / 16 / 2016 08 / 14 / 20166
2017Greenland - Forster Camp 10
2017Greenland - Forster Camp 20
2017Greenland - Forster Camp 30
2017Greenland - Forster Camp 40
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Understanding GrIS moulin hydrology and links to ice motion (Award# 1604022)

PI: Gulley, Jason D. (jdgulley@usf.edu)
Phone: 0(813) 974.0323 
Institute/Department: U of South Florida, School of Geosciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The melting of the Greenland ice sheet is not a simple issue of warmer air temperatures melting the surface ice, which then flows into the ocean. Surface meltwater can flow deep into the glacier through natural pipes known as moulins. These subsurface channels not only transmit water to some outlet, where it flows into the ocean, but may also influence the downslope sliding of the glacier toward the ocean. To better understand the controls that govern glacier sliding, the researchers will conduct field and model studies on the Greenland ice sheet. Researchers will instrument a number of moulins with pressure sensors. Glacier velocity will be measured with GPS sensors. Discharge will be monitored through dye tracing. Simulations will be conducted to integrate the observations with a number of simple ‘conduit’ models in the hope of providing a better and more comprehensive understanding of the processes that govern glacier sliding. Beyond the training of graduate and undergraduate students, the researchers will work with a journalism student at the University of Arkansas to produce a documentary about their field experience. This collaboration provides a unique opportunity to communicate to the general public. It is thought that increased channelization reduces subglacial water pressure and acts to buffer the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) against large increases in ice velocity. However, few measurements of water pressure have been made in channelized subglacial drainage systems to test this hypothesis. The researchers will obtain synoptic supraglacial stream discharge data, moulin water level and ice velocity at two moulin sites along an ice flow line in the Paakitsoq Region of the GrIS. Data will be analyzed, and used to parameterize model experiments, to determine the degree to which: 1) local versus regional inputs of melt water control moulin water levels; 2) changes in effective pressure that occur along ice flow paths affect local relationships between subglacial water pressure and ice velocity.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Gulley (1604022, USF) and Covington (1603835, U ARK) will study the large role that moulins have in meltwater delivery to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS). They will examine the hydrological processes in moulins and how they impact relationships between glacier hydrology and ice velocity. Researchers will establish two primary research camps on the GrIS, near Ilulissat during the 2017 and 2018 mid-summer melt seasons. Low (Thin Ice) Camp will be located ~20 km from the ice margin and High Camp (Thick Ice) will be established near Swiss Camp. The exact locations of each camp will be determined following scouting missions looking for “new” moulins, to be conducted in summer 2017 immediately before the establishment of the camps. Low camp will consist of four persons. High camp will consist of three persons. Both camps will be operational for approximately four weeks. Additional GPS units will be installed between the Thick and Thin Ice camps along the same ice flow line by a team of two GPS specialists. A field team of two will conduct additional field trips in October 2017, April 2018, October 2018 and July 2019 to maintain and subsequently pull-out field instrumentation. The maintenance will be conducted during day trips via helicopter out of Ilulissat. Researchers will return in October 2017, details are TBD.

CPS will provide Air National Guard coordination for passengers and cargo, in-transit KISS user days, rental truck in Ilulissat, intra-Greenland commercial ticketing/freight between Kangerlussuaq & Ilulissat, shipping of a large amount of science cargo to Ilulissat via commercial air and vessel cargo, helicopter charters out of Ilulissat, lodging and storage space in Ilulissat, and camp/safety equipment from CPS inventory. UNAVCO will provide dGPS Trimble sites and kinematic roving systems. The PIs will make all other arrangements and pay for them through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Greenland - Gulley High Camp07 / 25 / 2017 10 / 12 / 20175
2017Greenland - Gulley Low Camp07 / 01 / 2017 10 / 12 / 20177
2017Greenland - Ilulissat06 / 25 / 2017 10 / 12 / 201711
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 23 / 2017 08 / 28 / 20179
2018Greenland - Gulley High Camp04 / 01 / 2018 10 / 12 / 201812
2018Greenland - Gulley Low Camp04 / 01 / 2018 10 / 12 / 201812
2018Greenland - Ilulissat04 / 01 / 2018 10 / 12 / 201812
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 01 / 2018 07 / 21 / 201810
2019Greenland - Gulley High Camp04 / 01 / 2019 07 / 21 / 201910
2019Greenland - Gulley Low Camp04 / 01 / 2019 07 / 21 / 201910
2019Greenland - Ilulissat07 / 01 / 2019 07 / 10 / 20192
2019Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 01 / 2019 07 / 10 / 20192
 


Project Title: FTS-IR (Infra-Red Fourier Transform Spectrometer) Observations as part of the NDSC (Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change) (Award# NCARFTSIR)

PI: Hannigan, James (jamesw@ucar.edu)
Phone: 0(303) 497.1853 
Institute/Department: National Center for Atmospheric Research, Atmospheric Chemistry Division 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NCAR
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.ndsc.ncep.noaa.gov/

Science Summary:
The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) solar-viewing Infra-Red Fourier Transform spectrometer is deployed at Thule, Greenland as part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). It provides total columns of approximately 20 atmospheric trace gases important to understanding the mechanisms of climate change and Arctic ozone loss. It also can retrieve information on the vertical distribution of a subset of those gases at a moderate vertical resolution. The instrument operates autonomously on a daily basis from late February to late October. The NDACC is a global network of high-quality remote-sounding research stations for observing and understanding the physical and chemical state of the atmosphere and its change through time. Data are also key components to satellite validation efforts and are archived for use by researchers worldwide. The NDACC is a major component of the international upper atmosphere research effort and has been endorsed by national and international scientific agencies, including the International Ozone Commission, the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO).

Logistics Summary:
The NCAR FTS-IR spectrometer is deployed at Thule, Greenland. Site visits are required at least yearly to maintain and upgrade the instruments. CPS assists the project in making AMC travel and hotel arrangements, and occasionally in the provision of liquid nitrogen or use of a truck.

In 2015, CPS will provide Air National Guard (ANG) coordination for cargo NY><Thule, AMC ticketing Thule><BWI, lodging arrangements at North Star Inn (project paid), and CPS vehicle use when available. NSF will recoup the costs of AMC travel via an interagency funds transfer NASA>NSF. All other costs associated with this project will be paid by the PI through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2000Greenland - Thule1
2001Greenland - Thule1
2002Greenland - Thule1
2003Greenland - Thule1
2004Greenland - Thule03 / 04 / 2004 10 / 08 / 20042
2005Greenland - Thule03 / 01 / 2005 05 / 31 / 20051
2006Greenland - Thule03 / 01 / 2006 03 / 10 / 20061
2007Greenland - Thule03 / 01 / 2007 03 / 21 / 20082
2008Greenland - Thule02 / 28 / 2008 08 / 08 / 20081
2009Greenland - Thule03 / 01 / 2009 03 / 07 / 20091
2010Greenland - Thule03 / 11 / 2010 08 / 06 / 20102
2011Greenland - Thule03 / 03 / 2011 04 / 15 / 20112
2012Greenland - Thule02 / 23 / 2012 03 / 02 / 20121
2013Greenland - Thule02 / 28 / 2013 04 / 05 / 20132
2014Greenland - Thule02 / 27 / 2014 10 / 03 / 20142
2015Greenland - Thule04 / 30 / 2015 05 / 15 / 20153
2016Greenland - Thule03 / 03 / 2016 10 / 14 / 20161
2017Greenland - Thule02 / 16 / 2017 04 / 14 / 20172
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: In Situ Borehole Measurements To Partition The Velocity Of The Greenland Ice Sheet Into Ice Deformation And Basal Sliding Components (Award# 1203418)

PI: Harper, Joel T (Joel@mso.umt.edu)
Phone: 0(406) 243.5867 
Institute/Department: U of Montana, Department of Geosciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Sliding of an ice mass along its basal boundary is a fundamental component of motion where bed conditions are wet. Estimates of basal sliding generally result from an inverse analysis of observed surface motion using a model assuming Glen's generalized constitutive law for isotropic ice. Evidence suggests that this law does not adequately represent ice deformation, due to a variety of issues including ice thermal variations, preferred fabric, and chemical impurities in the ice. The PIs will use an innovative experimental design to improve our understanding of the ice deformation and sliding. A grid of 9 boreholes, each approximately 750 m in depth and extending to the bed, will be drilled through the Greenland Ice Sheet and instrumented with more than 675 sensors to observe ice temperature, ice deformation, and basal sliding. Analysis of the resulting data set will yield the full 3D velocity field and full stress and strain rate tensors for a 420x106 m3 block of ice. The results will be used to assess and improve the constitutive law and will provide a data set for testing inversion methodologies. The Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets contain enough water to cause massive inundation of heavily populated coastal regions and associated infrastructure, if they were to degrade significantly through melting or delivery of icebergs to the coastal ocean. Our ability to predict future sea level rise is hampered by an inability to accurately model glacier dynamics that connect these ice sheets to the ocean. This project will provide data sets and consequent insight into processes that will lead to improved models of glacier dynamics.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Harper (1203418, U of MT, Lead) and Humphrey (1203451, U of WY) continues work begun under NSF grant 0909495, and centers on a detailed study of ice deformation in Western Greenland near Pt 660 and Kangerlussuaq. Researchers will drill and instrument a grid of 9 boreholes, each ~750 m and extending to the bed. Sensors will be installed in the boreholes for measuring ice temperature, deformation and basal sliding, and will make other supporting measurements such as surface velocity and basal water pressure. From 2014 through 2017, a field team of ~8 will spend time each summer on the ice sheet east of Kangerlussuaq. In July 2014, a team of five will travel by commercial air to Kangerlussuaq to prepare for the field work. Activities will include staging fuel, camp supplies, and science equipment/gear at Point 660 near the edge of the ice sheet. When all cargo is positioned and the remainder of the team arrives via ANG in Kanger and positions at Point 660, a helicopter ferried from Nuuk will shuttle all researchers and the camp to the field site. Drilling and instrument installation will continue until early August, when the team will be taken out via helicopter. After storing project gear in Kangerlussuaq, they will depart Greenland via commercial air. In late September, four team members will return to Greenland via commercial air from Copenhagen. They will fly by helicopter to their field study site, GL-14-S1 and spend 5-6 hours downloading data and reconfiguring instruments for over-winter operations. When this work is completed, the researchers will depart, again via commercial air. 2015 features plans for three deployments. In late April, four team members will return to Greenland via commercial air from Copenhagen. They will fly by helicopter to their field study site, GL-14-S1, and spend 5-6 hours downloading data and checking their instruments prior to summer season. When this work is completed, the researchers will depart via commercial air. At the end of June, five researchers will travel via the 109th Air Guard, and three will fly on a commercial flight, to Kangerlussuaq to prepare for their upcoming field work. When all cargo is positioned at Pt 660, the team of eight will also camp there prior to the arrival of a Bell 212 helicopter ferried from Ilulissat, which will shuttle all researchers and the camp gear to the field site. Drilling and instrument installation will continue until the end of July, when the team will be taken out via helicopter to Pt 660, and shuttled back to Kangerlussuaq again. After completing shipping preparations and storing project gear in Kangerlussuaq, the researchers will depart Greenland via the 109th Air Guard. Finally, in late September, four researchers will return to Greenland via commercial air from Copenhagen. They will fly by helicopter to their field study site and spend 5-6 hours downloading data and reconfiguring instruments for over-winter operations. When this work is completed, the researchers will depart, again via commercial air. In 2016 the team will make two deployments. In late April, four team members will travel to Greenland via an ANG 109th Air Guard flight. They will fly by Sikorsky helicopter to their field study site, GL-14-S1, and spend 5-6 hours downloading data and checking their instruments to ensure readiness for the summer melt season. When this work is completed, the researchers will depart via commercial air. In mid-August, a team of six will assemble in Kangerlussuaq, five travelling via the 109th, and one travelling via commercial air. The researchers will spend a day or so in Kangerlussuaq, using the NSF-leased warehouse spaces to prepare for their field work. They will put in to their field site by helicopter and will depart Greenland the same way that they arrived. Under NSF Supplement #1660567, six researchers will return to the GL-14-S1 field site in 2017 for their final year of field work traveling via Commercial Air and Air National Guard. An NPR reporter will join the team in the field, traveling via Commercial Air. The team will remove all of the instruments, including the UNAVCO equipment, at the end of the visit.

In 2014-2016, CPS will provide Air National Guard (ANG) coordination for passengers and cargo between NY and Kangerlussuaq, KISS user days, rental truck (HiLux), helicopter charters, access to warehouse space, over-winter container storage, fuel, camp gear and equipment allocations, communication & safety gear. UNAVCO will provide GPS equipment. All other logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant. In 2017, CPS will provide Air National Guard coordination for passengers and cargo between NY and Kangerlussuaq, assistance with obtaining the gate key (for access to Pt. 660), camp gear and equipment allocations, assistance with lodging and truck rentals, and safety/comms gear. UNAVCO will provide GPS equipment. All other logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant to include commercial air travel to and from Greenland, helicopter support, truck rental, lodging and meals.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - GL-14-S107 / 05 / 2014 08 / 06 / 20148
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 05 / 2014 09 / 26 / 20148
2014Greenland - Point 66007 / 05 / 2014 08 / 06 / 20148
2015Greenland - GL-14-S104 / 22 / 2015 07 / 23 / 20158
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 21 / 2015 07 / 27 / 20158
2015Greenland - Point 66007 / 01 / 2015 07 / 24 / 20158
2016Greenland - GL-14-S104 / 20 / 2016 08 / 17 / 20166
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 19 / 2016 08 / 20 / 20166
2016Greenland - Point 66004 / 21 / 2016 08 / 18 / 20166
2017Greenland - GL-14-S107 / 21 / 2017 07 / 25 / 20177
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 18 / 2017 07 / 28 / 20177
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Science coordination office for Summit Station/ISI Observatory and the Greenland Traverse (Award# 1637003)

PI: Hawley, Robert Lyman (robert.l.hawley@dartmouth.edu)
Phone: 0(603) 646.1425  
Institute/Department: Dartmouth College, Department of Earth Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL
Program Manager: Dr. William Ambrose (wambrose@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Data Management | Education and Outreach | Legacy Projects | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://www.geosummit.org/
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
The Office of Polar Programs has been funding substantial scientific activities at Summit Station, Greenland for over twenty years. Summit Station hosts the Greenland Environmental Observatory (GEOSummit), a cooperation between the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration with permission from the Danish Commission for Scientific Research in Greenland to provide long-term environmental measurements. Summit is the only high-elevation, free-tropospheric, inland environmental observatory in the Arctic which is manned throughout the year. Summit therefore fills a unique niche in the international scientific community’s global measurement capability. The Science Coordination Office (SCO) for Summit Station and the Greenland Ice Sheet serves in an advisory capacity to NSF’s Arctic Research Support and Logistics Program. SCO’s primary role is to present the needs and desires of the science community working on the Greenland Ice Sheet in discussions and decision making processes involving NSF, its primary logistics support contractor, and other stakeholders. The SCO also works with NSF, NSF’s contractor, and science teams to work out equitable and efficient use of resources, and strives to ensure that the wide range of science and support activities impact the pristine character of Summit as lightly as possible. SCO shares in the long-range goal of redeveloping Summit infrastructure in ways that will reduce long-term operation and maintenance costs, and reduce the emissions of pollutants by facilities on the station and the aircraft and traverse vehicles that visit. The SCO also helps coordinate visits to Summit for educational groups at all levels, from high school to post-graduate. The SCO will work closely with NSF and all relevant stakeholders in the design of a revitalized Summit Station where reducing operational and maintenance effort (and costs) will preserve the site for future science by reducing emissions. Additional scientific communities, including astronomy and astrophysics, have recently expressed interest in using Summit Station as an Arctic base for new observations. SCO will actively participate in discussions with all interested parties to develop a site plan to accommodate an influx of additional research activities while maintaining long-standing focus on climate-relevant research which requires clean air and snow conditions. SCO’s website is a keystone of communication to the science community, with several new features added over the past few years, including; a Google Earth based GIS recording activity in the region over the past 9 years, a virtual tour using Streetview images, a new ‘Working at Summit’ section that targets new investigators, a comprehensive bibliography of published work near Summit, and a quarterly newsletter. SCO will conduct a comprehensive overhaul of the web site to improve navigation, and will continue to add new features.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Hawley (Dartmouth, 1637003, LEAD), Dibb (UNH, 1637006), and Burkhart (UC Merced, 1637209)—will continue support for the Summit Science Coordination Office (SCO) begun under NSF grants, 1042410 and 0455623. The SCO was established to coordinate measurements between investigators; to optimize the sharing of facilities and personnel on-site; to provide scientific requirements to NSF, its support contractor and European partners as the facility is developed; and to stimulate sharing of data among science projects. For two years of field work (2017 and 2018), SCO members will make regular trips to Summit, often combined with already-planned fieldwork in support of other grants. CPS will work closely with the SCO to develop and implement plans for Summit and the Greenland Traverse (GrIT) that meet the evolving needs of the science community. In 2017, Co-PI Zoe Courville will make a site visit to Summit to review construction projects, station status, and existing science projects’ status. Final StrainNet survey measurements were performed in June in concert with Bob Hawley’s arrival to Summit as part of the Osterberg Traverse. CPS will work closely with the SCO to develop and implement plans for Summit and the Greenland Traverse (GrIT) that meet the evolving needs of the science community. Courville will conduct GPR survey of new Big House and last year’s Green House Outfalls, along with a survey of buried Ultidor and/or other infrastructure as needed.

CPS will provide Air National Guard coordination for passengers/cargo/samples, Summit Station user days, KISS user days, access to infrastructure at Summit Station, truck rental/gate key arrangements, and facilitate biweekly phone calls between CPS and the SCO on Summit Station operations, science, and facility upgrade status. The PIs will arrange and pay for all other expenses through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 16 / 2017 08 / 28 / 20171
2017Greenland - Summit08 / 18 / 2017 08 / 26 / 20171
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 06 / 2018 08 / 12 / 20181
2018Greenland - Summit08 / 07 / 2018 08 / 11 / 20181
 


Project Title: Atmospheric Hydrocarbons at GEOSummit, Greenland, as Tracers for Climate Change, Air Pollution Transport, and Oxidation Chemistry in the Arctic (Award# 1108391)

PI: Helmig, Detlev (detlev.helmig@colorado.edu)
Phone: 0(303) 492.2509 
Institute/Department: U of Colorado, Boulder, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
The PI will collect four years of continuous measurements of atmospheric methane, and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC: ethane, ethyne, propane, iso-butane, n-butane, iso-pentane, n-pentane, benzene, toluene) at the Greenland Environmental Observatory at Summit (GEOSummit). The project utilizes an existing monitoring system that has previously been operated at Summit . This gas chromatography instrument is specifically tailored towards operation at this remote arctic site as it is fully automated and remotely controllable. A second analytical channel will be added to include monitoring of the important climate gas methane with the same instrument. This project will deliver four years of continuous atmospheric concentration data of methane, with approximately two-hour time resolution, and nine C2-C7 NMHC at low parts per trillion sensitivity at Summit. These data will expand upon the previous 2008-2010 NMHC measurements from Summit, and will provide an overall eight year record for these gases (with a two year gap). These measurements will complement the NMHC monitoring within the NOAA-INSTAAR global flask sampling program, which has provided bi-weekly NMHC data for five arctic sites for the past seven years. The much higher resolution in-situ data from this study will add value to the interpretation of the NMHC flask records. By applying chemical transport modeling, the in-situ data will allow researchers to decipher air pollution transport into the Arctic and contributions from different emission source region contributions at lower latitudes. The methane and NMHC monitoring will make a pivotal contribution to the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) program, as it will provide the only high time resolution in-situ NMHC site in the Arctic.

Logistics Summary:
This study contributes to the Arctic Observing Network (AON) and entails continuous monitoring of atmospheric methane and non-methane (C2-C7) hydrocarbons at Summit Station, Greenland. An existing monitoring system that was operated at Summit Station for two seasons from 2008 through 2010 and then moved to Toolik Field Station (both under NSF grant #0713943), returned to Greenland in the spring of 2012. The instrumentation operates year-round, with remote monitoring by the PI and in-situ attendance by CPS science technical staff. During 2012, a team of two researchers spent a week at the station in April to install the monitoring system, and one researcher returned to Summit for maintenance activities prior to station close-out in August 2012. Similarly, for the 2013 field season the research team made two trips to Summit Station, April and August During 2014, one researcher traveled to Summit Station in February with the CPS staff turnover crew to support critical instrument maintenance (routing commercially through Iceland and utilizing the already scheduled Twin Otter charter flights to / from Summit Station). During the main summer research season, participants from the research team will travel to Summit in mid-May, and again in mid-August, for additional instrument maintenance activities. Travel to / from Summit will be via the Air National Guard logistics chain through Scotia, NY, and Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. During 2015 and 2016, one researcher will again travel to Summit Station in April/May to perform instrument maintenance activities. A subsequent trip in August will accomplish the same purpose. The instrumentation will run continuously into 2017 (via an NSF no-cost extension, originally planned to be removed in August 2016). A trip is planned for April and August.

CPS will provide ANG support for passengers and cargo, compressed hydrogen and cylinder rental, user days at the KISS facility in Kangerlussuaq, user days and access to Summit Station infrastructure, rack space in TAWO, use of the existing TAWO tower, and science technical support. The PI will arrange and pay for all other costs through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 20 / 2012 08 / 22 / 20122
2012Greenland - Summit04 / 23 / 2012 08 / 20 / 20122
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 19 / 2013 08 / 21 / 20132
2013Greenland - Summit04 / 24 / 2013 08 / 18 / 20132
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 12 / 2014 08 / 22 / 20141
2014Greenland - Summit02 / 20 / 2014 08 / 21 / 20141
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 24 / 2015 08 / 22 / 20152
2015Greenland - Summit04 / 28 / 2015 08 / 20 / 20152
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 25 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20162
2016Greenland - Summit04 / 26 / 2016 08 / 17 / 20162
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 16 / 2017 08 / 28 / 20172
2017Greenland - Summit08 / 18 / 2017 08 / 26 / 20172
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Refreezing in the firn of the Greenland ice sheet: Spatiotemporal variability and implications for ice sheet mass balance (Award# 1603815)

PI: Hock, Regine M (rehock@alaska.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 474.7314 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Fairbanks, Department of Geology and Geophysics 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
A substantial fraction of meltwater of the Greenland ice sheet is retained in firn (liquid or refrozen) rather than running off into the ocean. Unusually thick, near-surface, ice lenses have recently been discovered in the firn and are thought to be the result of exceptionally large recent melt events. This suggests that the larger volumes of meltwater produced in recent years may have been prevented from percolating into deeper firn layers, as has typically been observed in the past, and have instead run off immediately. As a result, a qualitatively different and new ’state’ of the firn has to be taken into account when attempting to quantify the mass balance of the ice sheet, and estimates based on our current state of knowledge are probably subject to larger uncertainty than previously thought. Refreezing, as the mechanism which creates impenetrable ice lenses, emerges as a crucial process in the redistribution of surface runoff and therefore in the determination of surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet. To quantify this impact on the current and future SMB, this project will combine detailed field observations in the Kangerlussaq section of the Greenland ice sheet with numerical modeling of the relevant components of the climate system. Project goals are: 1) to investigate the changes and quantify the spatio-temporal variability of the firn by analyzing shallow firn cores and subsurface data at selected sites covering a wide range of elevations and climatic conditions, and compare these new observations to similar data from past decades and remotely sensed observations of firn structures; 2) to quantify the role of refreezing on the SMB with the help of a regional climate model and a high-resolution distributed energy balance model, both of which include a sub-surface snow/firn model; 3) to perform simulations of the spatio-temporal evolution of the SMB with an improved representation of refreezing process under different emission scenarios through the year 2100.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Rennermalm (1604058, Rutgers), Hock (1603815, UAF), and Tedesco (1603331, LDEO) will investigate an important part of Greenland’s cryo-hydrological system, namely the role of firn in producing, transmitting, and retaining meltwater. The project will combine detailed field observations of firn meltwater processes and a state-of-the art model to better constrain the role of firn meltwater in the Greenland ice sheet cryo-hydrologic systems. Logistic details under 1604058.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Greenland - DYE-20
2017Greenland - EKT0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Raven0
2017Greenland - Site J0
2018Greenland - DYE-20
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2018Greenland - KAN-U0
2018Greenland - Raven0
2019Greenland - DYE-20
2019Greenland - EKT0
2019Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2019Greenland - KAN-U0
2019Greenland - Raven0
2019Greenland - Site J0
 


Project Title: IRES: Research Training in Climate Change Microbiology in Greenland and Denmark (Award# 1460152)

PI: Holben, William E (bill.holben@mso.umt.edu)
Phone: 0(406) 243.6163 
Institute/Department: U of Montana, Division of Biological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\IRES
Program Manager: Dr. Mangala Sharma (msharma@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology\Microbial Ecology | Biology\Microbiology | Education and Outreach |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://hs.umt.edu/oreos/student-opportunities.php
NSF_Award_Info: https://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=1...

Science Summary:
Over a three-year period, this International Research Experience for Students (IRES) program will engage two U.S. undergraduate and two U.S. graduate students annually, for a total of twelve participants, at research sites in Greenland and Denmark to study Arctic microbiology and biogeochemistry under multiple climate change scenarios. Following required training and research preparation at the University of Montana, students travel to Copenhagen for orientation and introduction to international mentors before they depart for three weeks of field work in Greenland. Throughout, students are co-mentored by William Holben, the U.S. principal investigator (PI), and a team of experts associated with the Greenlandic Center for Permafrost Studies (CENPERM), a center that is administered by the University of Copenhagen and the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. Each student's research training will include experience with planning and implementing field strategies for permafrost, ice sheet, and hot spring and glacier sampling in a way that promotes student ownership of individual projects, while facilitating the integration of multiple data sets obtained throughout the duration of this IRES activity. Results are expected to contribute to what is known about thawing permafrost and accelerated microbial decomposition of large amounts of organic matter stored in Arctic ecosystems. Following each season of fieldwork and sample processing in Greenland, participants return to Copenhagen to prepare collected samples for metagenomic DNA and mRNA sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. These will be studied for patterns of microbial community change that reflect differing and changing environmental parameters. Upon returning to Montana students will continue the computational and bioinformatic aspects of their studies. Results should provide new insights into microbial community structure and activities on sheet ice and glaciers, as well as microbial biogeochemical cycling contributions to greenhouse gas emissions from permafrost soils. Over the course of this IRES program, the U.S. and CENPERM partners expect to deepen their collaboration through international teamwork, research training, and cultural interaction, as they mentor and engage a cadre of diverse students, including Native Americans, to become the next generation of climate change experts. For broader impact, all participating U.S. students will benefit from early career experience with the kind of long-term relationship, professional network and research collaboration that is increasingly necessary to address complex global ecological issues.

Logistics Summary:
This NSF funded International Research Experiences for Students (IRES) project seeks to create an IRES program to provide University of Montana undergraduate and graduate students with an international research and educational experience in the microbial ecology of climate change in an interdisciplinary research and learning environment in Greenland and Denmark. The PI is collaborating with the University of Aarhus, Roskilde Campus to mentor the students. In mid-July 2016, 2017 and 2018 a field team of four will deploy to Zackenberg Station, Greenland for approximately 2 weeks for sample collection in support of the research activities. Following sample collection in Greenland, the students will spend some time at Aarhus University further analyzing those samples with the tools of molecular microbial ecology with foreign mentors in the Department of Environmental Science.

In 2017 and 2018 CPS support is limited to the inclusion of their field team on the GoG SAR report only. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Zackenberg07 / 26 / 2016 08 / 10 / 20164
2017Greenland - Zackenberg07 / 18 / 2017 08 / 02 / 20174
2018Greenland - Zackenberg07 / 18 / 2018 08 / 02 / 20184
 


Project Title: Seal-Tag Hydrographic Observations in Ice-Ocean Fjords, Greenland (Award# 1304137)

PI: Holland, David M (dmh4@nyu.edu)
Phone: 0(212) 998.3245 
Institute/Department: New York University,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=13...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The overarching objective of this project is to implement cost-efficient, year-round, long-term subsurface oceanographic observations along the periphery of the Greenland Ice Sheet, as it is widely believed that the warming of such waters plays a critical role in the rapid retreat of outlet glaciers. Such oceanographic data, combined with appropriate glaciological observations, and assimilated into a fully coupled climate model ultimately offers a pathway to producing credible, robust projections of global sea-level change due to ice sheet mass loss at the periphery, arguably the most relevant location for future, major change. In this project, researchers will plan a marine-mammal sensor-tagging approach that will allow for such sustained observations. This grant is motivated by a successful pilot project involving ringed seals in two Greenland fjords this past summer. The pilot proved the viability of the technique, which makes use of ringed seals who spend the majority of their time in such fjords and who may be appropriately equipped with integrated, location-tracking, CTD, and satellite communication instrumentation. The observations begun in the pilot and which researchers seek to fully implement through this grant will be archived in national data bases, on the project's website, and made widely available to others in near real-time. This project will include observations of ocean temperatures and salinities along the periphery of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Researchers plan to use ringed seals as the primary data collector, a species which has been established to remain close to the fjord area, and that will provide a relatively coherent spatial and temporal view of our study areas, year round. The seals moult annually so the tags are to be renewed each year, thereby leading to sustained observations. This approach, and associated logistical operations, could eventually be expanded by others to all major outlet fjords in Greenland. For this project, the focus is only on the Ilulissat and Sermilik ice-ocean fjords because of both the rapid change they have experienced and the logistical advantage of having towns located nearby.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this five year project will conduct hydrographic research involving tagging seals with integrated, location-tracking, CTD, and satellite communication instrumentation in two locations in Greenland: the Jakobshavn and Sermilik Fjords. Work began in 2014. A field team of three to six will travel each summer from Ilulissat and Tasiilaq to the field locations via helicopter. Local Greenlandic hunters will undertake the actual capture and release of the seals, and will protect the well-being of the animals. In 2014, a team of three will fly commercially to Ilulissat in early June. Researchers will visit the main Jakobshavn seal colony, travelling there and back via helicopter. In addition to working with locals to capture, tag, and study the seals, the team will collect CTD measurements from a boat; they will compare the boat-supported data with that which they get from the instrumented seals. They will depart Greenland via commercial air. In August, the field team will return via commercial air and continue the work in Tasiilaq, tent camping for one week near the seals. Researchers will return to Ilulissat in late spring/early summer of each year to continue work at the Holland JAV site. At the end of July /August, the team will return and continue work based out of Tasiilaq at the Holland AGM site. In 2016, a team of seven will fly commercially from Iceland to Ilulissat in June and will visit the main Jakobshavn seal colony, travelling there and back via helicopter. In addition to working with locals to capture, tag, and study the seals, the team will collect CTD measurements from a boat; they will compare the boat-supported data with that which they get from the instrumented seals. They will also install radomes on a rock outcrop next to the glacier calving front in order to record glacier motion continuously. This data will be integrated with the ocean temperature data from the tagged seals to better explain how ocean temperatures affect glacier motion. The team will depart Greenland on 24 June via commercial air. In August, a field team of six will return via commercial air and continue the same work in Tasiilaq, positioning GPS on Helheim Glacier to measure glacier speed response to ocean temperature changes, as detected by the seals. In 2017 a team of six will fly commercially from Iceland to Tasiilaq on 29 July. Researchers will visit the main Helheim seal colony, traveling there and back via helicopter. In addition to working with locals to capture, tag, and study the seals, the team will collect CTD measurements from a boat; they will compare the boat-supported data with data from the instrumented seals. They will also install radomes on a rock outcrop next to the glacier calving front in order to record glacier motion continuously. This data will be integrated with the ocean temperature data from the seal tags to better explain how ocean temperatures affect glacier motion. The team will depart Tasiilaq on 15 August via commercial air. On 17 August, the field team of six will return via commercial air and continue the same work in Ilulissat, positioning GPS on Jakobshavn Glacier to measure glacier speed response to ocean temperature changes, as detected by the seals. In addition to the research team, four people working with NOVA PBS will travel to the glacier via helicopter (NYU supported).

CPS will provide ANG airlift for cargo, commercial freight and storage in Greenland, helicopter charters in both Ilulissat and Tasiilaq, Iridium devices for data transfer and field communications, camping equipment (including tents, sleeping bags for the NOVA team in 2017 only) and safety gear. In 2016, UNAVCO will provide two radomes for the Helheim Glacier study while PASSCAL will provide equipment for seismic studies at the Ilulissat and Tasiilaq sites. All other logistics, including travel for the NOVA team in 2017, will be arranged and paid for by the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - Holland AGM08 / 05 / 2014 08 / 05 / 20143
2014Greenland - Holland JAV06 / 09 / 2014 06 / 09 / 20143
2014Greenland - Ilulissat06 / 07 / 2014 06 / 27 / 20143
2014Greenland - Tasiilaq08 / 04 / 2014 08 / 25 / 20145
2015Greenland - Holland AGM07 / 30 / 2015 07 / 31 / 20152
2015Greenland - Holland JAV06 / 01 / 2015 06 / 03 / 20153
2015Greenland - Ilulissat05 / 29 / 2015 06 / 20 / 20155
2015Greenland - Tasiilaq07 / 29 / 2015 08 / 17 / 20155
2016Greenland - Holland AGM07 / 30 / 2016 07 / 30 / 20166
2016Greenland - Holland JAV06 / 04 / 2016 06 / 04 / 20167
2016Greenland - Ilulissat06 / 01 / 2016 06 / 24 / 20167
2016Greenland - Tasiilaq07 / 27 / 2016 08 / 24 / 20166
2017Greenland - Holland AGM07 / 31 / 2017 08 / 05 / 20175
2017Greenland - Holland JAV08 / 20 / 2017 08 / 24 / 20179
2017Greenland - Ilulissat08 / 17 / 2017 09 / 02 / 20179
2017Greenland - Tasiilaq07 / 29 / 2017 08 / 15 / 20175
2018Greenland - Holland AGM08 / 05 / 2018 08 / 05 / 20183
2018Greenland - Holland JAV06 / 09 / 2018 06 / 09 / 20183
2018Greenland - Ilulissat06 / 07 / 2018 06 / 27 / 20186
2018Greenland - Tasiilaq08 / 04 / 2018 08 / 25 / 20186
 


Project Title: Arctic Observing Networks: Collaborative Research: ITEX AON - understanding the relationships between vegetation change, plant phenology, and ecosystem function in a warming Arctic (Award# 1504224)

PI: Hollister, Robert D (hollistr@gvsu.edu)
Phone: 0(616) 331.8582 
Institute/Department: Grand Valley State University, Biology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Ecology |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://faculty.fiu.edu/~oberbaue/AON-ITEX.html
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The goal of this program is to document and understand arctic terrestrial change by maintaining and extracting value from the temporally-critical datasets of the International Tundra Experiment Arctic Observatory Network (ITEX-AON), which has been active in Alaska and Greenland since 2007. ITEX was chartered in 1990 to quantify the effects of inter-annual environmental variability and increased temperature on tundra plant phenology, growth, species composition and ecosystem function using sustained experimental techniques and background monitoring. The ITEX network has provided exceptional value by detecting changes in tundra plant and ecosystem responses to experimental warming and to background change across sites that span the major ecosystems of the Arctic. Unlike most monitoring programs that focus primarily on documenting change and rely on correlation to determine causal factors, ITEX can attribute cause for observed change because of the imbedded experimental approach, which is especially critical as the Arctic System is changing rapidly and in complex ways. This project will provide urgently needed data critical to understanding the impact of multi-scale vegetation change on ecosystem function, namely land-atmosphere carbon and water fluxes and energy balance. Observed changes in the Arctic over the past half century include substantial vegetation change and greening, permafrost warming, and surface hydrological change. Building on the US ITEX program started in 1994, the ITEX-AON (since 2007) has continued and expanded on a wide latitudinal transect consisting of five sites in Alaska and Greenland, collecting core ITEX data with methods designed to address specific needs outlined in the 2003 Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) Implementation Report. Core datasets include manual observations of phenology, vegetation structure and composition, and ecosystem function (carbon flux & nutrient cycling) on long-term ITEX control and experimental warming plots, repeat measurement of vegetation plots on the 1 km2 ARCSS grids, and a multifactor warming/moisture experiment in Greenland. In 2009, the ITEX-AON sampling scheme was expanded to include a larger spatial component to amplify the utility of the measurements collected. This included the addition of phenocams, automated mobile sensor platforms and medium-scale aerial imagery. The automated platforms measure a suite of vegetation surface properties with minimal effort across focal transects spanning strong moisture and microtopographic gradients at a near-daily frequency. These measurements capture the fine-scale changes in vegetation over the growing season that are missed by lower frequency manual measurements and provide a bridge between manual measurements and aerial imagery. Medium-scale aerial imagery, using Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), is acquired throughout the growing season for scaling of manual and automated measurements; satellite imagery is referenced to medium-scale aerial imagery to aid scaling of responses to the regional level. In this phase, collection of core data sets will continue with some streamlining to allow for collection of new data sets aimed at reinforcing the proven value of the program and its utility to adapt to and support future research needs.

Logistics Summary:
The goal of this collaboration between Oberbauer (1504381, FIU, LEAD), Hollister (1504224, GVSU), Welker (1504141, UAA) and Tweedie (1504345, UTEP) is to document and understand arctic terrestrial change by maintaining and extracting value from the temporally-critical data sets of the International Tundra eXperiment Arctic Observatory Network (ITEX-AON), which has been active in Alaska and Greenland since 2007. This project is a continuation of the expired Oberbauer 1432982 ITEX project, and with this new phase of the project collection of core dat sets will continue with some streamlining to allow for collection of new data sets aimed and reinforcing the proven value of the program and its utility to adapt to and support future research needs. Logistic details under 1504381.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Atqasuk0
2016Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2016Greenland - Thule0
2017Alaska - Atqasuk0
2017Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2017Greenland - Thule0
2018Alaska - Atqasuk0
2018Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2018Greenland - Thule0
 


Project Title: Towards an Operational System for Estimating Greenland Ice Sheet Thickness Change from Altimetry (Award# NNX14AH90G)

PI: Howat, Ian M (ihowat@gmail.com)
Phone: 0(614) 292.6641 
Institute/Department: Ohio State University, Byrd Polar Research Center 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Thomas Wagner (thomas.wagner@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):

Science Summary:
NASA and other agencies are invested in obtaining measurements of Greenland Ice Sheet surface elevation with the objective of constraining the ice sheet’s contribution to present and future sea level rise. Air and space-based altimetry provides the only direct means for observing changes in ice thickness at high spatial resolution. A major limitation of repeat altimetry measurements, however, is that variations in the density of surface accumulation and the firn layer must be constrained in order to extract ice thickness and mass change. As thinning initiated at the margin of the ice sheet propagates inland this limitation is becoming more problematic for two reasons: first, as thinning propagates and diffuses, the rate of thinning decreases relative to variations in accumulation and compaction, becoming more difficult to observe. Second, substantial thinning is now occurring in the wet snow and percolation zones of the ice sheet where variations in density are particularly unconstrained and models perform poorly. Additionally, recent warming and historically extreme melt events may be substantially changing the density of the firn, effecting altimeter measurements. Researchers on this project aim to develop and test deploy in situ sensor packages that will aid the deconvolution of surface change observations. Each sensor package will consist of a device for measuring deep-firn compaction, a snow pillow for measuring accumulation mass, and an echo sounder for measuring accumulation thickness. The sensors will broadcast their data daily via iridium uplink and will be designed to withstand at least 2 years of accumulation, depending on location, reducing the revisit time. The sensor data will be used to calibrate meteorological reanalysis model output that will drive a surface accumulation and firn compaction model. The goal of this project will be to provide a foundation for a more extensive operational system in concert with the launch of ICESat-2 planned for 2018.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers involved in this project will perform ice thickness studies in Greenland. They will develop and test deploy an instrument suite as in situ sensor packages that will aid the deconvolution of surface change observations. Each sensor package will consist of a device for measuring deep-firn compaction, a snow pillow for measuring accumulation mass, and an echo sounder for measuring accumulation thickness. The sensor data will be used to calibrate meteorological reanalysis model output that will drive a surface accumulation and firn compaction model. In 2015 and 2016, a field team of 4 will conduct a test phase, deploying three sensors above Jakobshavn Isbrae via Twin Otters based out of Ilulissat. In 2016, two researchers will travel from Ilulissat to Summit for a half day's work making measurements of snow/firn density and grain size utilizing a microwave radiometer. They will travel via Twin Otter and return to Ilulissat on the same day. Additionally, the project will ship a snow water equivalency (SWE) instrument to Summit to be installed by CPS technicians near the 50-meter tower to run for an initial one year test period. In 2017 one team member will travel to Greenland via the Air National Guard for one day of field work, basing out of Kangerlussuaq. The team member will visit three established sites (CRAGS lower, mid, upper) on the Jakobshavn Glacier. Snow-Water equivalent measurements will continue to be taken at Summit Station. Researchers may return in 2018, details are TBD.

Via an interagency funds transfer NASA>NSF, CPS will provide Air National Guard coordination for cargo, KISS user days in Kangerlussuaq, Twin Otter support, comms/safety gear, technician/CPS support for maintenance of the SWE instrument, and space and power for the data acquisition/transmission system in the Mobile Science Facility . All other logistics and support will be paid by the PI.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Greenland - CRAGS 1 Howat04 / 28 / 2015 04 / 28 / 20153
2015Greenland - Ilulissat04 / 25 / 2015 05 / 02 / 20153
2015Greenland - J1 Howat04 / 26 / 2015 04 / 26 / 20152
2015Greenland - J1S Howat04 / 27 / 2015 04 / 27 / 20153
2015Greenland - J3 Howat04 / 29 / 2015 04 / 29 / 20153
2015Greenland - J4 Howat04 / 30 / 2015 04 / 30 / 20153
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 24 / 2015 05 / 05 / 20153
2016Greenland - Ilulissat04 / 26 / 2016 05 / 03 / 20164
2016Greenland - J1 Howat04 / 27 / 2016 04 / 27 / 20164
2016Greenland - J1S Howat04 / 30 / 2016 04 / 30 / 20164
2016Greenland - J3 Howat04 / 28 / 2016 04 / 28 / 20164
2016Greenland - J4 Howat04 / 29 / 2016 04 / 29 / 20164
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 25 / 2016 05 / 05 / 20164
2016Greenland - Summit05 / 01 / 2015 05 / 01 / 20164
2017Greenland - CRAGSL05 / 02 / 2017 05 / 02 / 20171
2017Greenland - CRAGSM05 / 02 / 2017 05 / 02 / 20171
2017Greenland - CRAGSU05 / 02 / 2017 05 / 02 / 20171
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 01 / 2017 05 / 05 / 20171
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: In Situ Borehole Measurements To Partition The Velocity Of The Greenland Ice Sheet Into Ice Deformation And Basal Sliding Components (Award# 1203451)

PI: Humphrey, Neil F (neil@uwyo.edu)
Phone: 0(307) 766.2728 
Institute/Department: U of Wyoming, Department of Geology and Geophysics 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Sliding of an ice mass along its basal boundary is a fundamental component of motion where bed conditions are wet. Estimates of basal sliding generally result from an inverse analysis of observed surface motion using a model assuming Glen's generalized constitutive law for isotropic ice. Evidence suggests that this law does not adequately represent ice deformation, due to a variety of issues including ice thermal variations, preferred fabric, and chemical impurities in the ice. The PIs will use an innovative experimental design to improve our understanding of the ice deformation and sliding. A grid of 9 boreholes, each approximately 750 m in depth and extending to the bed, will be drilled through the Greenland Ice Sheet and instrumented with more than 675 sensors to observe ice temperature, ice deformation, and basal sliding. Analysis of the resulting data set will yield the full 3D velocity field and full stress and strain rate tensors for a 420x106 m3 block of ice. The results will be used to assess and improve the constitutive law and will provide a data set for testing inversion methodologies. The Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets contain enough water to cause massive inundation of heavily populated coastal regions and associated infrastructure, if they were to degrade significantly through melting or delivery of icebergs to the coastal ocean. Our ability to predict future sea level rise is hampered by an inability to accurately model glacier dynamics that connect these ice sheets to the ocean. This project will provide data sets and consequent insight into processes that will lead to improved models of glacier dynamics.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Harper (1203418, U of MT, Lead) and Humphrey (1203451, U of WY) is an continuation of work begun under NSF grant 0909495 and will conduct a detailed study of ice deformation in Western Greenland. Researchers will drill and instrument a grid of 9 boreholes, each ~750 m and extending to the bed. Sensors will be installed in the boreholes for measuring ice temperature and ice deformation and basal sliding, and will make other supporting measurements such as surface velocity and basal water pressure. See 1203418 for logistic details.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - GL-14-S10
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2014Greenland - Point 6600
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2015Greenland - Point 6600
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2016Greenland - Point 6600
2017Greenland - GL-14-S10
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Point 6600
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Ice sheet sensitivity in a changing Arctic system - using Geologic data and modeling to test the stable Greenland Ice Sheet hypothesis (Award# 1504457)

PI: Johnson, Jesse V (jesse.v.johnson@gmail.com)
Phone: 0(406) 243-2356 
Institute/Department: U of Montana, Department of Computer Science 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
There is enough water in the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) that, were it to melt, it would raise sea level in most coastal cities significantly with huge consequences for society. In the face of accelerated ice sheet contribution to sea level rise, it remains uncertain how the GrIS will adjust to a warming Arctic, declining sea ice and related changing precipitation patterns. This is a concern, given that future sea level rise is strongly dependent on the GrIS response to arctic change. The scientific community is currently undecided between a model of a dynamic GrIS that becomes greatly reduced during warm periods and a model where it is relatively stable, even through periods warmer than today. This proposal addresses the idea that increased arctic precipitation offsets GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperature. The researchers will test this by contributing significant new information on arctic system change and related GrIS dynamics during past and ongoing warm periods, and employing an ice sheet modeling effort synthesizing all new data aimed at both past and future GrIS simulations. The researchers explicitly combine multiple scientific disciplines to provide a better understanding of how key arctic system components such as precipitation, temperature, sea-ice cover and GrIS mass balance are interconnected. The results will be of fundamental relevance to the fates of the arctic system, the GrIS and global sea level rise. This project will train six graduate students and one post-doctoral researcher. The cross-cutting research program is paralleled by the scope of the outreach plan, to develop a variety of deliverables, including development of an iBook and public outreach events. In addition the team will participate in public outreach events in Buffalo and New York City, where the public and scientists interact in a casual setting. Finally, this work has synergies with ongoing missions at NASA and other programs within the NSF. Due to recent advances in numerical ice sheet models and new sub-ice topography of Greenland, combined with finely-tuned field approaches and geochronologic techniques, the time is ripe for a coordinated, cross-disciplinary effort focusing on cryosphere variability in a warming Arctic; the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and sea ice constitute the largest, and most critical components of the arctic cryosphere. The hypothesis that increased arctic precipitation can counterbalance GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperatures stems from recent findings suggesting that it may be more stable than expected during interglacials. The researchers will: generate new GrIS margin reconstructions during and since the mid-Holocene Thermal Maximum (9,000 to 5,000 years ago), with a powerful approach that combines lake sediment stratigraphy with new sub-ice topography and novel high-sensitivity cosmogenic isotope methods; develop new Holocene climate reconstructions of moisture, temperature and sea ice conditions from lake and ocean sediments and an advanced synthesis of existing arctic ice core and other paleoclimate data; and employ state-of-the-art numerical ice sheet modeling fueled by ice margin and climate reconstructions to test a range of climatic and dynamic controls on GrIS change. If the idea is supported, then it would suggest a relatively stable GrIS during warm periods. If, however, this project provides evidence that the GrIS retreated considerably during the warmer-than-present mid-Holocene and in turn, that the GrIS has reacted more sensitively to temperature than to precipitation change, the results would support a tightly coupled ice sheet size-temperature link and in turn, a much greater near-term GrIS contribution to sea level rise. Either result will be of fundamental relevance to the fates of the arctic system, the GrIS and global sea level rise.

Logistics Summary:
The large collaboration consisting of: Briner (1504267, U of Buffalo), Steig (1503281, UW), Morlighem (1504230, UCI), Young (1503959, LDEO), and Johnson (1504457, U of Montana) addresses the null hypothesis that increased Arctic precipitation offsets GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperature. Logistic details under 1504267.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Nuuk0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2018Greenland - Nuuk0
2018Greenland - Paamiut0
 


Project Title: The Sondrestrom Facility - Enabling Fundamental Research of the Coupled Atmosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere System (Award# 1445376)

PI: Kendall, Elizabeth Anna (elizabeth.kendall@sri.com)
Phone:  
Institute/Department: SRI International, Ionospheric and Space Physics Group 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\AGS
Program Manager: Mr. John Meriwether (jmeriwet@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach | Space Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://isr.sri.com/index.html
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
This award continues support for management, operations, and scientific activities at the Sondrestrom Geospace research facility located near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. The activities include technical support of the incoherent scatter radar (ISR), Rayleigh lidar system, and two all-sky imagers, as well as provide observational service and data to the national and international geospace science communities, including education and outreach efforts relevant to facility operations and science. Facility staff will advance instrumentation to promote scientific discovery, ensure data are of high research quality, and maintain expertise in the related sciences conducted at the facility to help foster new ideas in geospace research. Over the years, the number of complementary instruments at the site has risen dramatically and the capabilities of the radar itself have been considerably enhanced. As a result, the research supported by the facility has diversified and evolved to meet the changing needs of the community of scientific users. Non-geospace activities, such as solid earth research, stratospheric research, and environmental research are supported as part of broader community outreach. The IS radar will be operated for 1800 hours per year in response to the evolving needs of the research community, providing flexibility in radar operations to capture space weather events, and make data available for retrospective analysis. To take advantage of these extensive observations, facility staff will focus on collaborative studies with other existing and planned high-latitude radars. The facility's data handling and processing tools are readily available in a timely manner. The facility staff will also maintain relationships with the Greenland Home Rule Government and Danish Polar center to ensure effective management and operation of the Sondrestrom Geospace facility.

Logistics Summary:
This grant is a continuation of 0836152 (Stromme) for the operation of instruments and scientific studies at the Sondrestrom Radar Facility in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland with researcher visits on a yearly basis.

CPS support is limited to arranging personnel/cargo travel on board the Air National Guard. All other logistics are arranged by the investigators through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 27 / 2015 12 / 18 / 201512
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2016 12 / 31 / 20167
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq01 / 01 / 2017 12 / 31 / 20174
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
 


Project Title: Danish Automatic Weather Station (Award# DKAWS)

PI: Kern-Hansen, Claus (CKH@dmi.dk )
Phone: 45(391) 57580 
Institute/Department: Danish Meteorological Institute,  
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: DK\Federal\MT\DMI
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.dmi.dk/en/vejr/
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/

Science Summary:
The Danish Meteorological Institute operates an Autonomous Weather Station (AWS) at Summit. This AWS is part of a network that provides forecasting and warning services as well as continuous monitoring of weather, sea state, climate, and related environmental conditions in the atmosphere, over land and in the sea.

Logistics Summary:
When required for AWS maintenance, the principal investigator and sometimes another team member will spend two to three days annually tent-camping at Summit Station. At Summit Station, he/they will remove snow from around the AWS as well as inspect and provide maintenance to the station. In 2007, the team dug out and elevated the weather station by 1 meter.

CPS will provide ANG transport between Kangerlussuaq and Summit Station and Summit user days. The PI will arrange and pay for all other logistics, including KISS user days.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
1997Greenland - Summit1
1998Greenland - Summit1
1999Greenland - Summit1
2000Greenland - Summit07 / 17 / 2001 07 / 19 / 20011
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 08 / 2002 06 / 14 / 20022
2002Greenland - Summit06 / 10 / 2002 06 / 13 / 20022
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 28 / 2003 08 / 02 / 20033
2003Greenland - Summit07 / 29 / 2003 08 / 01 / 20032
2004Greenland - Summit0
2005Greenland - Summit1
2006Greenland - Summit08 / 20 / 2006 08 / 21 / 20062
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 19 / 2007 06 / 21 / 20072
2008Greenland - Summit0
2009Greenland - Summit0
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 23 / 2010 06 / 30 / 20102
2010Greenland - Summit06 / 25 / 2010 06 / 28 / 20102
2011Greenland - Summit0
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 05 / 2012 06 / 13 / 20122
2012Greenland - Summit06 / 06 / 2012 06 / 11 / 20122
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 30 / 2013 06 / 05 / 20132
2013Greenland - Summit05 / 31 / 2013 06 / 04 / 20132
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 10 / 2014 07 / 17 / 20142
2014Greenland - Summit07 / 11 / 2014 07 / 16 / 20142
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 30 / 2015 06 / 07 / 20152
2015Greenland - Summit06 / 03 / 2015 06 / 09 / 20152
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq2
2017Greenland - Summit2
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq2
2018Greenland - Summit2
 


Project Title: PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (Award# 1630463SK)

PI: Kirsche, Stephen Michael (Stephen.Kirsche@stjohns.k12.fl.us)
Phone:  
Institute/Department: Liberty Pines Academy,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARE\TREC
Program Manager: Ms. Elizabeth Rom (elrom@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach\Formal Science Education: K-12 |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.polartrec.com/

Science Summary:
The Artic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) will administer and implement, "Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (PolarTREC)", an international program that brings together U.S. teachers to participate in cutting-edge field research with polar scientists in various, and often remote, locations in the Arctic and Antarctica. Through hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctica, participating teachers (pre-service and in-service) will improve teaching strategies, develop resources for their careers, and change how they teach STEM in the classroom. The program goal is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing educators and polar researchers together in professional collaboration. By integrating research and education, PolarTREC will help sustain and grow the considerable scientific and public enthusiasm for polar research and education. ARCUS will support a total of twelve teachers for Arctic field seasons in 2017 and Antarctic field seasons in 2017/2018. ARCUS will recruit, select, and match teachers and researchers, maintain a website for dissemination of information about the expeditions, provide orientation training for the teachers that includes field safety and communication training, provide travel support for the teachers to meet with scientists prior to deployments and for them to join the scientific expeditions in the field, and evaluate results of the program. Dissemination efforts via the website and public presentations are expected to reach many additional teachers, students, scientists and the public.

Logistics Summary:
PolarTREC teacher, Steve Kirsche, will join Dr. Ian Baker's project (NSF grant 1603239) at Summit Station, Greenland to increase our understanding of firn and ice microstructure evolution in polar ice sheets. This will aid in understanding ice flow and interpreting paleoclimate reconstruction from ice cores. Steve will participate with the team drilling an 80-meter firn core at Summit, Greenland and transport it to Dartmouth University. After the field expedition, Steve will work with the team at the university, where researchers will perform experiments to observe changes based on temperature and stress (due to depth and load). In addition to observing the microstructure as a whole, researchers can follow the evolution of ice crystals to observe bond formation and bond-breaking under load in detail, as undertaken in some prior studies on snow. For more information refer to grant 1603239 in this database.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: NASA Operation IceBridge (OIB) (Award# NASAIceBridge)

PI: Kurtz, Nathan T (nathan.t.kurtz@nasa.gov)
Phone: 0(301) 614.5013 
Institute/Department: National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Thomas Wagner (thomas.wagner@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Earth Science | Geological Sciences\Glaciology | Meteorology and Climate | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/data/icebridge/campaign_data_summ...
Blog: http://polarfield.com/blog/operation-icebridge-bir...
Project: http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/icebridge/index....
Project: https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2016/operatio...

Science Summary:
Operation IceBridge (OIB), a NASA mission that began in 2009, is the largest airborne survey of Earth's polar ice ever flown. Using instruments to map Arctic and Antarctic areas once a year, it will yield an unprecedented three-dimensional view of Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets, ice shelves and sea ice, documenting the behavior of the rapidly changing features of Greenland's and Antarctica's ice. Objectives: 1) Make airborne laser altimetry measurements over the ice sheets and sea ice to fill in the data gap between the end of the lifetime of ICESat-1 in 2009 and the launch of ICESat-2 planned for 2018. 2) Link measurements made by ICESat, ICESat-2, and CryoSat-2 to allow their comparison and the production of a long-term, ice sheet altimetry record. 3) Use airborne altimetry and radar to monitor key, rapidly changing areas of ice, including sea ice, ice sheets and glaciers, in the Arctic and Antarctic to maintain a long term observation record, improve understanding of glacial dynamics, and augment predictive models of sea level rise and sea ice cover. 4) In conjunction with altimetry measurements, collect other remotely sensed data to improve predictive models of sea level rise and sea ice cover, especially the following: · Ice sheet and sea ice thickness, structure and extent; · Bed topography underlying land-based ice; · Bathymetry beneath floating ice shelves; · Snow accumulation and firn structure; and · Other geophysical constraints that will improve estimates of the geothermal and oceanic heat flux

Logistics Summary:
Researchers working on NASA's Operation IceBridge will employ specially instrumented aircraft to monitor the most sensitive and critical areas of sea ice, ice sheets and glaciers during the gap in satellite coverage caused by the failure of ICESat-1, in 2009, and the launch of ICESat-2, planned for late 2015. The first IceBridge flights were conducted in March/May 2009 over Greenland, and in October/November 2009 over Antarctica; they have continued yearly in the boreal spring (for the Arctic) and boreal fall (for Antarctica). In 2012, NASA will fly about 300 hours and more than 40 ICESat missions over and around Greenland in 2012. In 2012 PolarTREC teacher, Tim Spuck (0956825TS), will join the team. In 2013, PolarTREC teacher, Mark Buesing (0956825MMB) will join the team. And in 2014 PolarTREC teacher Russell Hood (1345146RH) will join. In 2016, IceBridge will conduct three campaigns to measure the impact of the melt season on Arctic sea and land ice. The first one will take place in Thule, Greenland for about a month mid April to mid May. The second one will take place in late July and will be based out of Barrow, Alaska, focusing on the sea ice cover in the Beaufort Sea. The third, planned for late August to early September, will be based in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland, and repeat land ice missions that IceBridge completed in May, to measure how fast ice thins during the upcoming melt season. The Barrow campaign will last about two weeks, while the Kangerlussuaq deployment will go on for three weeks. In 2017 this National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Office of Naval Research (ONR) -funded effort provides a research-based field course at Thule Air Base, Greenland during the week of 09 Mar – 17 Mar. Approximately 14 participants (2-4 faculty and 6-8 students) will travel to Thule, Greenland to conduct work on the measurements of snow depth and drift distribution and sea-ice features as part of the NASA funded Operation IceBridge project. Students will also deploy and test a new ice buoy designed in collaboration with ONR and PI Rigor’s Arctic Observing eXperiment (AOX) project. Researchers will then work out of Fairbanks in March for a week, Svalbard in April for a week, return to Thule in April, and then work out of Kangerlussuaq for approximately 3 weeks at the end of April to mid May. In 2017 PolarTREC teacher, Adeena Teres (1630463AT) will join the team.

In 2009-2013 CPS will provide Air National Guard cargo airlift between Kangerlussuaq and Thule in both directions. NSF recoups these costs via an interagency funds transfer. IceBridge self-supports all other aspects of their field campaigns in Greenland using their own aircraft (mostly the NASA P-3), including lodging/meals in both Kanger and Thule. All other logistics will be planned and paid for by the grant, including all logistics in 2014. In 2016, CPS will provide space for an emergency part requirement AEY>SFJ on an existing Twin Otter charter, transport of two drums of fuel on ANG flight from Kanger to Raven Camp, and a small amount of ground support in Kanger.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2009Greenland - Thule0
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2010Greenland - Thule0
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2011Greenland - Thule0
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 01 / 2012 04 / 30 / 20121
2012Greenland - Thule04 / 04 / 2012 04 / 30 / 20121
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 03 / 2013 04 / 18 / 20131
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 07 / 2014 04 / 24 / 20141
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)08 / 23 / 2016 09 / 14 / 20161
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 23 / 2016 09 / 14 / 20161
2016Greenland - Thule04 / 16 / 2016 05 / 13 / 20161
2017Alaska - Fairbanks03 / 08 / 2017 03 / 15 / 20171
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 10 / 2017 05 / 03 / 20171
2017Greenland - Thule03 / 06 / 2017 04 / 29 / 20173
2017Norway - Svalbard0
2018Greenland - Thule03 / 06 / 2018 04 / 20 / 20182
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Remote Sensing of Electron Density Using Auroral Radio Emissions (Award# 1147699)

PI: LaBelle, James W (jlabelle@einstein.dartmouth.edu)
Phone: 0(603) 646.2973 
Institute/Department: Dartmouth College, Department of Physics and Astronomy 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\AGS
Program Manager:  Michael Wiltberger (mwiltber@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Space Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.dartmouth.edu/~spacephy/labelle_group/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This grant will investigate the role of radio waves in the electromagnetic coupling of the magnetosphere to the ionosphere. In particular it will examine auroral hiss and medium frequency bursts (MFB), which appear in the auroral zones as a prompt response to the onset of a magnetic substorm. In addition to the association with substorm onset, auroral radio emissions are associated with a number of other auroral phenomena, such as poleward-moving arcs and increases in radio wave absorption. The project will use a combination of experimental measurement and theoretical and numerical analysis. An important part of the project will be the measurement of full waveforms and fine structure in MFB events. The waveform measurements will be performed at multiple sites and for multiple events. In some cases it will be possible to use incoherent scatter radar data to determine the plasma density structures within the ionosphere that affect the propagation and dispersion of the waves. Statistical analysis of MFB events, in conjunction with conjugate satellite measurements, will be used to determine the nature of electron precipitation associated with the events. The theoretical and numerical analyses will determine whether or not Langmuir and Z-mode waves can explain the mode conversion processes needed to explain the generation of medium frequency bursts. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and magnetic substorms have been identified as central problems to our understanding of near-earth space plasmas. This project will examine the role that auroral hiss and medium frequency wave bursts play in M-I coupling. Both graduate and undergraduate students will participate in this project in all aspects of the research, including the development of wave measurement instruments, the deployment of the instruments, the analysis of the data obtained from the instruments, and the related plasma theory. The majority of the research will take place at Dartmouth College and will offer opportunities for first and second year women researchers to participate through the Dartmouth Women-in-Science Program (WISP).

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between LaBelle (1147699, Dartmouth) and Yoon (1147759, U of MD) will test the generation mechanism of the auroral MFB emission, establish whether it can contribute to remote sensing of the upper boundary of the ionospheric Alfv´en resonator, and determine its connection to other events in the time history analysis of substorms as well as other auroral phenomena. Beginning in 2012 a field team of two will travel to Greenland to install at Sondrestrom a digital waveform receiver, similar to those at Toolik Lake, Alaska and Churchill, Canada. For the years 2013-2014, the field team will make one trip each summer to one or all of these locations; Toolik Lake, Churchill and Sondestrom, to maintain the radio interferometers. In 2015, researchers will travel to sites as needed for maintenance. In May, one researcher will travel to the Sondestrom site for approximately a week. One researcher will return in 2016 and 2017 and may again in 2018.

CPS will provide Air National Guard (ANG) coordination for passengers and freight between NY and Kangerlussuaq. All other support will be paid by the PI from the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2012Alaska - Toolik08 / 09 / 2012 08 / 15 / 20122
2012Canada - Churchill0
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 18 / 2012 07 / 25 / 20122
2013Alaska - Toolik08 / 22 / 2013 08 / 26 / 20132
2013Canada - Churchill0
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 14 / 2013 08 / 21 / 20132
2014Canada - Churchill0
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 13 / 2014 08 / 22 / 20141
2015Alaska - Toolik0
2015Canada - Churchill0
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 15 / 2015 05 / 21 / 20151
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 11 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20161
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 18 / 2017 05 / 25 / 20171
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
 


Project Title: The Greenland GPS Network (GNET): Geodetic characterization of water vapor, climate cycles, climate change and ice mass balance (Award# GNET)

PI: Madsen, Finn Bo (bm@space.dtu.dk )
Phone: 45(45) 25 -9784 
Institute/Department: DTU Space, Technical University of Denmark,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\RSL
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Geological Sciences | Space Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: ftp://ftp.spacecenter.dk/pub/abbas/GNET/v1/
Data: http://facility.unavco.org/data/data.html
Project: http://polenet.org/

Science Summary:
This project will continue operation of the Greenland GPS Network (GNET). GNET has proven highly successful in "weighing" the Greenland ice sheet by tracking the earth's elastic response to changing surface loads. The PIs will extend the life of GNET so that it can continue to sense space-time changes in ice mass, including spatial shifts in the position of the centers of ice loss, and accelerations in mass change rates. GNET is now resolving seasonal oscillations in the vertical and horizontal position of the earth's crust as well as longer-term trends. These oscillations reflect seasonal changes in the loads placed on the solid earth by both the atmosphere and the ice sheet. The atmospheric pressure signal can be removed, using state-of-the-art weather models, in order to isolate the signal due to changes in the ice sheet. As part of the pressure analysis, they will also produce a time series of integrated water vapor for each station in GNET, with benefits for weather and climate predictions. Scientifically, GNET is addressing a problem of great interest and also considerable societal importance: the trajectory and magnitude of Greenland mass balance. With current and potential additional gaps in satellite geodesy coverage of Greenland, GNET is a cornerstone of our observations of the cryosphere. The data are openly accessible and are available in near real-time through UNAVCO. Level 2 data - 3D time series of solid earth deformation for the cryosphere community is available from DTU Space: ftp://ftp.spacecenter.dk/pub/abbas/GNET/v1/).

Logistics Summary:
This effort is a continuation of previous NSF awards: 0632320, 1023566, 1111882. During the summer of 2017 a team of two will install a 'test station' in Thule to assess a new geodetic receiver, and will also visit two existing sites (MARG, DKSG) near Thule that are in need of maintenance. In southeast Greenland researchers will perform maintenance on the sites as far north at Sodalen. The team will travel via helicopter. A total of 15 southeast sites (SENU, NNVN, UTMG, TIMM, HJOR, TREO, LYNS, KULU, KBUG, ISOR, HEL2, KSNB, PLPK, KUAQ, MIK2) will be visited, maintained, and assessed for potential future updates or maintenance. Further a new DTU site in Paamiut will be finished during the field work. Installation will begin immediately before the field campaign and the monument will be installed when the helicopter passes through Paamiut for refuel. The main tasks for 2017 are to replace electronic boards/receivers at eight of the stations, as well as exchange batteries, plug antenna drainage holes, and change battery jumper cables at some of the other stations. DTU, in a separate effort, will attend to six GNET sites north of Sodalen up to Daneborg (VFDG, DGJG, MSVG, HMBG, WTHG, DANE). Researchers may return in 2018, details are TBD.

CPS will provide Air National Guard coordination, Air Mobility Command ticketing, helicopter charters, Air Greenland commercial ticketing and freight, lodging in Greenland, clearances and support in Thule, and procurement of fuel drums. UNAVCO will provide GPS equipment, batteries, and technical support. DTU will provide logistics expertise and technical support for helicopter operations, as well as arrange and pay for all permitting requirements. DTU will also coordinate maintenance visits to 6 additional GNET sites on the East coast while they are attending to other DTU science requirements. All other logistics will be paid by the researchers from the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Greenland - Daneborg07 / 31 / 2017 08 / 01 / 20172
2017Greenland - Daugaard-Jensens Glacier07 / 28 / 2017 07 / 28 / 20172
2017Greenland - Docker Smith Glacier06 / 08 / 2017 06 / 08 / 20172
2017Greenland - Hamberg Gletscher08 / 03 / 2017 08 / 03 / 20172
2017Greenland - Helheim Glacier08 / 19 / 2017 08 / 19 / 20172
2017Greenland - Hjornefjeldet08 / 18 / 2017 08 / 18 / 20172
2017Greenland - Isortoq08 / 19 / 2017 08 / 19 / 20172
2017Greenland - Kangerdlugssuaq Glacier08 / 21 / 2017 08 / 22 / 20172
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 03 / 2017 08 / 28 / 20172
2017Greenland - Koge Bugt08 / 19 / 2017 08 / 19 / 20172
2017Greenland - Lynaes Peninsula08 / 18 / 2017 08 / 18 / 20172
2017Greenland - Marie Glacier06 / 10 / 2017 06 / 10 / 20172
2017Greenland - Mestersvig07 / 31 / 2017 08 / 01 / 20172
2017Greenland - Mikis Fjord08 / 22 / 2017 08 / 22 / 20172
2017Greenland - Narsarsuaq08 / 16 / 2017 08 / 25 / 20172
2017Greenland - Niviarsiat Nunatak North (NNVN)08 / 16 / 2017 08 / 16 / 20172
2017Greenland - Nuuk08 / 14 / 2017 08 / 28 / 20172
2017Greenland - Paamiut08 / 16 / 2017 08 / 16 / 20172
2017Greenland - Pilagpik08 / 21 / 2017 08 / 21 / 20172
2017Greenland - Sermip Nunatak08 / 16 / 2017 08 / 16 / 20172
2017Greenland - Sodalen08 / 21 / 2017 08 / 22 / 20172
2017Greenland - Steenstrup Nordre Brae08 / 21 / 2017 08 / 21 / 20172
2017Greenland - Tasiilaq08 / 19 / 2017 08 / 24 / 20172
2017Greenland - Thule06 / 06 / 2017 06 / 16 / 20172
2017Greenland - Timmiarmiut08 / 17 / 2017 08 / 17 / 20172
2017Greenland - Trefoldigheden Oer08 / 18 / 2017 08 / 18 / 20172
2017Greenland - Upper Timmiarmiut Glacier2
2017Greenland - Vestfjord Gletscher07 / 31 / 2017 08 / 01 / 20172
2017Greenland - Walterhausen Glacier07 / 31 / 2017 08 / 01 / 20172
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq2
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: GreenTrACS: a Greenland Traverse for Accumulation and Climate Studies (Award# 1417921)

PI: Marshall, Hans-Peter ( hpmarshall@boisestate.edu)
Phone: 0(208) 426.1416 
Institute/Department: Boise State University, Geosciences Department 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Glaciology | Cryosphere\Ice Geochemistry | Cryosphere\Ice Penetrating Radar | Cryosphere\Ice Sheet Mass Balance |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://cgiss.boisestate.edu/data_downloads.php
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
The investigators plan a traverse in the Western Greenland percolation zone over two field seasons to develop continuous in-situ snow accumulation and firn density records using ground-based radar and shallow firn cores. The research objectives include: (1) determining the patterns, in time and space, of snow accumulation in Western Greenland over the past 20-40 years; (2) evaluating surface melt refreeze and englacial meltwater storage in the Western Greenland percolation zone over the past 20-40 years; and (3) quantifying the accumulation and surface melt biases of the most recent climate reanalysis models and their regional climate model counterparts. This project intends to advance knowledge and understanding by providing in-situ validation observations for both the mass gain (snow accumulation) and mass loss (surface melt) components of Western Greenland surface mass balance. Previous studies have shown that the western edge of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been losing mass at an accelerating rate since 2005, due mostly to decreasing surface mass balance. However, surface mass balance trends derived from regional climate models differ by a factor of ~2.5 in this region. Western Greenland firn core accumulation records, required for model validation, generally end in 1996-1998, before the most recent period of accelerated mass loss. The investigators will develop continuous records of Western Greenland snow accumulation over the last 20-40 years using ground-penetrating radar validated by frequent snow pits and firn cores (25-30 m) analyzed for chemistry. They will also use a multi-offset radar method to calculate firn density continuously along the traverse, providing a means to assess past surface melt, refreeze and current meltwater storage in glacier aquifers, as well as critical density-profile data for air- and spaceborne remote sensing work. Meltwater refreeze shows the largest variability in regional climate models among surface mass balance components, and thus validation observations are critically needed. The traverse route will crisscross the percolation zone, near-parallel to the steepest accumulation and surface melt gradients, which will increase the value of the dataset for model validation. The traverse will overlap previous traverse routes, IceBridge airborne radar flight paths, and reoccupy previously sampled sites to update firn core accumulation records by 18-20 years. In addition, the project will collect cores from new sites in data-poor regions at lower elevations, where both accumulation and surface melt increase and regional climate model validation is most needed. Surface mass balance validation of several climate reanalysis models will lead to more accurate assessments of current and future Greenland Ice Sheet mass balance trends, which is critical for accurately predicting future sea-level rise.

Logistics Summary:
This project, Greenland Traverse for Accumulation and Climate Studies (GreenTrACS), is a collaboration between Osterberg and Hawley (1417678, Dartmouth, LEAD), Birkel (1417640, U of Maine), and Marshall (1417921, Boise State). See 1417678 for logistic details.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2016Greenland - Raven0
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Neglected fluxes: Understanding the evolution of weathering as continental ice sheets retreat (Award# 1603452)

PI: Martin, Ellen Eckels (eemartin@ufl.edu)
Phone: 0(352) 392.2141 
Institute/Department: U of Florida, Department of Geological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences\Hydrogeochemistry | Geological Sciences\Weathering |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...

Science Summary:
The Greenland Ice Sheet is the largest remaining continental ice sheet in the northern hemisphere. Past and future arctic warming leads to ice sheet retreat and alters the fundamental nature of weathering and the delivery of nutrients and elements to the ocean. The proposed work is focused on the hydrological, biological, biogeochemical, and isotopic signatures of proglacial watersheds, which are watershed that convey dilute but high volume glacial meltwater from the top and underneath the ice sheet to the ocean, and deglaciated watersheds, which are watersheds that are no longer physically connected to the ice sheet and sourced only by annual precipitation and permafrost melt. Although deglaciated watersheds have received less attention, preliminary work suggests they may be equally or more important than proglacial watersheds for oceanic and atmospheric fluxes. Moreover, as ice sheets melt, the area contributing to meltwater and constituent fluxes will increasingly be from deglaciated watersheds. The understanding gained from this work will provide a context for the prediction of future land-ocean and land-atmosphere fluxes in response to continued ice sheet retreat. This project therefore addresses the question of how mineral weathering reactions impact atmospheric CO2 and oceanic nutrient and isotope delivery across proglacial and deglacial watersheds in three environmentally distinct regions of Greenland. Results of the project have the potential to change our understanding of global CO2, nutrient, and isotope cycling in response to ice sheet collapse and permit predictions of future responses to global warming and ice sheet retreat. Results will also provide a context to interpret past high latitude ice sheet retreat and climate change based on marine isotope records. The project includes training for undergraduate, graduate, and postdoctoral researchers, as well as a collaboration with students and faculty at a Greenlandic academic institution. This study will test the hypotheses that (1) deglacial and proglacial watersheds contribute distinct elemental, isotopic, and nutrient fluxes to the ocean and atmosphere as a result of evolving weathering patterns, and (2) these reactions and associated fluxes will change within and between watersheds as the Greenland Ice Sheet retreats. The project focuses on three field areas: deglacial and proglacial watersheds near Kangerlussuaq and Narsasuaq and a deglacial watershed near Sisimiut. Each area has a distinct water balance, exposure age, and weathering characteristics, and will be sampled three times over two melt seasons to evaluate intra-seasonal and inter-annual variations. Mass balance models and PHREEQc modeling of solute data will be used to identify and assess extents of weathering reactions. Weathering extents will also be estimated based on trends in proportional contributions of minerals and offsets between dissolved and bedload strontium and lead isotope ratios, and will be linked to phosphorous fluxes and organic carbon lability and degradation. This holistic approach will provide a broad view of the relative elemental, nutrient and isotopic fluxes in proglacial and deglacial environments. These results will provide magnitudes, time scales, and drivers of weathering reactions, with a goal of linking fluxes to past records and future predictions of global climate change associated with continental ice sheet collapse.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this project will study two proglacial watersheds (the Watson River near Kangerlussuaq and the system draining Kiagtût Sermiat Narsarsuaq) and four deglaciated watershed (Lake Helen near Kangerlussuaq, Qôrnup Qua and a small unnamed watershed designated “1kywatershed” near Narsarsuaq, and a watershed outside of Sisimiut). They will set up discharge gauging stations on all four deglaciated watersheds as well as the proglacial system in Narsarsuaq, and collect and analyze water, sediment and bedrock samples from all six watersheds. They will also meet with and establish a scientific exchange with researchers at ARTEK in Sisimiut. Fieldwork consists of two, 5-person deployments in 2017, and one final 5-person deployment in 2018. The group will spend approximately ten days at each of the three field sites per deployment. Samples will be analyzed both in the field and returned to the researchers’ home institution for further analysis.

CPS will provide Air National Guard coordination for passengers/freight, KISS user days, rental truck in Kangerlussuaq and Sisimiut, intra-Greenland commercial ticketing/freight, lodging in Nuuk for travel days, helicopter charters out of Narsarsuaq, lodging in Sisimiut & Narsarsuaq, and camp/safety equipment from CPS inventory. All other support will be paid for by the PI from the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 15 / 2017 09 / 19 / 20177
2017Greenland - Narsarsuaq06 / 10 / 2017 09 / 12 / 20177
2017Greenland - Qôrnup Qua 06 / 12 / 2017 09 / 09 / 20177
2017Greenland - Sisimiut05 / 29 / 2017 08 / 29 / 20177
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 01 / 2018 07 / 11 / 20185
2018Greenland - Narsarsuaq07 / 19 / 2018 07 / 28 / 20185
2018Greenland - Qôrnup Qua 07 / 01 / 2018 07 / 11 / 20185
2018Greenland - Sisimiut07 / 11 / 2018 07 / 19 / 20185
 


Project Title: 2013-2018 UNAVCO Community Proposal Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope: The GAGE Facility (Award# 1261833)

PI: Miller, Meghan (Meghan@unavco.org)
Phone: 0(303) 381.7514 
Institute/Department: UNAVCO,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\EAR
Program Manager: Dr. Russell Kelz (rkelz@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://www.unavco.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=12...

Science Summary:
The GAGE Facility: Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope Cooperative Agreement (CA) supports advancement of cutting-edge community geodetic research around the world. Over the last two decades, space-based geodetic observations have enabled measurement of the motions of the Earth's surface and crust at many different scales, with unprecedented spatial and temporal detail and increased precision, leading to fundamental discoveries in continental deformation, plate boundary processes, the earthquake cycle, the geometry and dynamics of magmatic systems, continental groundwater storage and hydrologic loading. Space geodesy furthers research on earthquake and tsunami hazards, volcanic eruptions, coastal subsidence, wetlands health, soil moisture and groundwater distribution. Of particular importance are contributions to understanding of processes related to climate dynamics, including hurricane tracking and intensity, sea level rise, and changes in mountain glaciers and large polar ice sheets. As global population disproportionately increases in hazards-prone coastal and tectonically active regions of the US and across the globe, the societal relevance of quantifying, understanding, and potentially mitigating natural hazards grows. Geoscientists using global geodetic infrastructure coupled with leading edge techniques are well poised to advance basic research that is in the U.S. and global public interest as the challenges of living on a dynamic planet escalate. NSF-funded geodesy investigators are active on every continent, across a broad spectrum of the geosciences, and facilitated by data and engineering services that are now merged under the GAGE Facility. GAGE continues operations of: 1) the EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), an integrated set of geodetic networks that includes 1100 continuous GPS sites (with ~350 high-rate, low-latency data streams and ~125 surface meteorological sensors), 78 borehole strainmeters and seismometers, and 6 long-baseline laser strainmeters, and tiltmeters on several volcanoes; 2) global engineering and data services primarily to NSF-funded investigators who use terrestrial and satellite geodetic technologies in their research and provision of network operations support to community GPS networks and NASA's Global GNSS Network (GGN); and 3) Education and community outreach activities. NSF's Division of Polar Programs (PLR) contributes to the GAGE Facility support of PI research and GPS networks in Greenland and Antarctica. NASA contributes to the GAGE Facility to support the GGN and the activities of the IGS Central Bureau, which underlie the internationally coordinated reference frame products that make high-precision geodesy possible.

Logistics Summary:
This grant continues a Cooperative Agreement under grant 0735156. For the years 2013 – 2018, NSF has guided UNAVCO to integrate all of these activities into a single GAGE Facility: Geodesy Advancing Geosciences and EarthScope. A single Cooperative Agreement will create efficiencies in facility operation, reporting, and sponsor oversight, allowing UNAVCO to meet the needs of a vigorously growing and rapidly diversifying science community despite expected resource constraints. A total of approximately 50 additional telemetered GPS stations with ongoing UNAVCO O&M support are planned under GAGE, GNET and GLISN. UNAVCO also maintains several community dGPS stations at: Summit Station, Utqiagvik (Barrow) Station, Atqasuk field station, Toolik Lake field station in the Arctic and Palmer Station, McMurdo Station, and South Pole Station in the Antarctic. These sites will continue to be maintained under GAGE. For each year of the grant one to two UNAVCO staff members may make a site visit (4-6 days) to Utqiagvik (Barrow), Alaska to calibrate and maintain the installations and to train on-site staff and researchers as necessary. Staff members may also visit Atqasuk to perform maintenance on the dGPS base station. Staff members may also visit Toolik Field Station if the base station requires technical intervention/maintenance. In 2017 one UNAVCO staff member will visit Utqiagvik (Barrow), and Toolik Field Station, Alaska to calibrate and maintain the installations and to train on-site staff and researchers as necessary. Staff members may also visit Atqasuk to perform maintenance on the dGPS base station. One staff member will travel to Summit Station, Greenland via Kangerlussuaq flying on the Air National Guard to install a second GNSS base station at the TAWO facility and met tower to overlap with the GPS station on the Green House which is to be decommissioned in 2018.

In Greenland, CPS will provide ANG passenger and cargo coordination support, accommodation (KISS) and meals (meal tickets) in Kangerlussuaq, safety equipment, and Summit Station user days. CPS will provide lodging, truck and UIC permits in Utqiagvik (Barrow). UIC Science will maintain the dGPS base station radio and dGPS rover equipment in Barrow. All equipment scheduling will be done by a local UIC Science staff member or CPS staff member, if on site. UNAVCO will cover the cost of training UICS or CPS staff under this grant. The PI will arrange and pay for all other logistics through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)04 / 16 / 2014 04 / 19 / 20141
2015Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)06 / 01 / 2015 06 / 06 / 20152
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)05 / 29 / 2016 06 / 05 / 20161
2017Alaska - Toolik05 / 04 / 2017 05 / 11 / 20171
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)05 / 11 / 2017 05 / 14 / 20171
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq08 / 16 / 2017 08 / 28 / 20171
2017Greenland - Summit08 / 18 / 2017 08 / 26 / 20171
2018Alaska - Atqasuk1
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)1
2018Greenland - Summit1
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Ice sheet sensitivity in a changing Arctic system - using Geologic data and modeling to test the stable Greenland Ice Sheet hypothesis (Award# 1504230)

PI: Morlighem, Mathieu (mathieu.morlighem@uci.edu)
Phone: 0(949) 824.1353 
Institute/Department: U of California, Irvine, Earth System Science 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
There is enough water in the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) that, were it to melt, it would raise sea level in most coastal cities significantly with huge consequences for society. In the face of accelerated ice sheet contribution to sea level rise, it remains uncertain how the GrIS will adjust to a warming Arctic, declining sea ice and related changing precipitation patterns. This is a concern, given that future sea level rise is strongly dependent on the GrIS response to arctic change. The scientific community is currently undecided between a model of a dynamic GrIS that becomes greatly reduced during warm periods and a model where it is relatively stable, even through periods warmer than today. This proposal addresses the idea that increased arctic precipitation offsets GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperature. The researchers will test this by contributing significant new information on arctic system change and related GrIS dynamics during past and ongoing warm periods, and employing an ice sheet modeling effort synthesizing all new data aimed at both past and future GrIS simulations. The researchers explicitly combine multiple scientific disciplines to provide a better understanding of how key arctic system components such as precipitation, temperature, sea-ice cover and GrIS mass balance are interconnected. The results will be of fundamental relevance to the fates of the arctic system, the GrIS and global sea level rise. This project will train six graduate students and one post-doctoral researcher. The cross-cutting research program is paralleled by the scope of the outreach plan, to develop a variety of deliverables, including development of an iBook and public outreach events. In addition the team will participate in public outreach events in Buffalo and New York City, where the public and scientists interact in a casual setting. Finally, this work has synergies with ongoing missions at NASA and other programs within the NSF. Due to recent advances in numerical ice sheet models and new sub-ice topography of Greenland, combined with finely-tuned field approaches and geochronologic techniques, the time is ripe for a coordinated, cross-disciplinary effort focusing on cryosphere variability in a warming Arctic; the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and sea ice constitute the largest, and most critical components of the arctic cryosphere. The hypothesis that increased arctic precipitation can counterbalance GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperatures stems from recent findings suggesting that it may be more stable than expected during interglacials. The researchers will: generate new GrIS margin reconstructions during and since the mid-Holocene Thermal Maximum (9,000 to 5,000 years ago), with a powerful approach that combines lake sediment stratigraphy with new sub-ice topography and novel high-sensitivity cosmogenic isotope methods; develop new Holocene climate reconstructions of moisture, temperature and sea ice conditions from lake and ocean sediments and an advanced synthesis of existing arctic ice core and other paleoclimate data; and employ state-of-the-art numerical ice sheet modeling fueled by ice margin and climate reconstructions to test a range of climatic and dynamic controls on GrIS change. If the idea is supported, then it would suggest a relatively stable GrIS during warm periods. If, however, this project provides evidence that the GrIS retreated considerably during the warmer-than-present mid-Holocene and in turn, that the GrIS has reacted more sensitively to temperature than to precipitation change, the results would support a tightly coupled ice sheet size-temperature link and in turn, a much greater near-term GrIS contribution to sea level rise. Either result will be of fundamental relevance to the fates of the arctic system, the GrIS and global sea level rise.

Logistics Summary:
The collaboration of Briner (1504267, U of Buffalo), Steig (1503281, UW), Morlighem (1504230, UCI), Young (1503959, LDEO), and Johnson (1504457, U of Montana) will address the null hypothesis that increased Arctic precipitation offsets GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperature. Logistic details under 1504267.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Nuuk0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2018Greenland - Nuuk0
2018Greenland - Paamiut0
 


Project Title: INSPIRE Track 1: Acoustic Sensor Networks for Ice-Covered Seas (Award# 1344264)

PI: Muenchow, Andreas (muenchow@udel.edu)
Phone: 0(302) 831.0742 
Institute/Department: U of Delaware, College of Marine and Earth Studies 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Cynthia Suchman ()
Discipline(s): | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=13...

Science Summary:
This project aims to accomplish three objectives: 1) collect acoustic measurements for scattering and propagation studies, 2) test physical-layer receiver performance (data rates, biterror- rate, ranges), and 3) demonstrate the feasibility of the sensor network in the Arctic Ocean over a multi-month period (March to August, 2016). The researchers will design and develop an integrated underwater acoustic sensor network for ice-covered seas. They will expand the limits and capabilities of underwater communication networks in the transition zone where sea ice changes from 1) smooth land-fast ice to 2) ridged mobile ice to 3) open water. This transition zone evolves in both time and space within the 30-50 km foot-print of the planned networked sensor and communication network array. This goal requires integration of both existing knowledge from a set of diverse disciplines and intellectual innovations within each discipline. It will modify underwater communication network theory, coastal acoustic propagation and scattering, and experimental design of oceanography. Providing long-term, long-range acoustic connectivity, the research team will address three major new research challenges: 1) Mid-frequency (1-5 kHz), mid-range (10 km) acoustic wave propagation in the transition zone; 2) Data telemetry in the new communication environment; and 3) Resilient sensor networks that cope with and harness complex dynamics of the transition zone. The multi-disciplinary team would implement reliable modem hardware, integrate it with resilient network protocol, and optimize the system design for Arctic deployment to support an ocean experiment off Thule, Greenland. The sensor and communication network will support 1) long-term, intelligent distributed Arctic observing systems, 2) assimilation of remote-sensing and in-situ under-ice measurements, and 3) regional and global climate modeling with real-time measurements. Such a network holds the promise to revolutionize under-ice ocean sampling in polar regions. Data would be broadly disseminated via the web and archived for public access. Planned outreach includes participation in the field program of Greenlandic residents from the Inupiat village of Qaanaaq and meaningful classroom involvement from the elementary to community college levels. The researchers are also committed to outreach through their global print, radio, TV, and electronic media contacts.

Logistics Summary:
This INSPIRE award is partially funded by the Arctic Natural Sciences Program. The PIs will design and develop an integrated underwater acoustic sensor network for ice-covered seas. During the one year of field work in 2017, researchers will deploy and monitor their underwater communications network system in Thule, Greenland. Starting in March, the PI will travel to Thule and spend about a week traveling on the sea ice via snow machine conducting ice/ocean profiling and the Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) placement. He will then travel on to Qaanaaq for another week for outreach and data analyses. During the next month, until approximately the third week in April 1-5 team members will travel to Thule and then on to the sea ice via snow machine for ocean profiling, modem siting and modem testing. All travel to Thule will be via the Air Mobility Command (AMC). The DGPS will then be recovered ending this part of the campaign. Pending success of early season work, researchers will return for a summer deployment in July/Aug for a mooring deployment of a fully deployed acoustic underwater system to include attachment of a cable from the water to the pier.

CPS will provide Thule clearances, lodging at Bldg 353, generator, truck and snow machine use, miscellaneous camping gear, communications gear, and daily check-in support while in the field. The investigators will arrange and pay for all other logistics, including a bear guard and cargo coordination, from the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Greenland - Qaanaaq03 / 17 / 2017 03 / 18 / 20171
2017Greenland - Thule03 / 10 / 2017 04 / 20 / 20175
 


Project Title: Millimeter-wave spectrometer at Thule (Award# GBMS)

PI: Muscari, Giovanni (muscari@ingv.it)
Phone: 39(065) 186.0724 
Institute/Department: Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia,  
IPY Project? YES
Funding Agency: IT\Research/Higher Ed\U. Rome
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Legacy Projects | Meteorology and Climate\Atmospheric and Remote Sensing |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.ndsc.ncep.noaa.gov/

Science Summary:
The State University of New York at Stony Brook (SUNY) and the University of Rome “La Sapienza” (URome) have been collaborating for the past 7 years, operating a millimeter-wave spectrometer (GBMS) from Thule (winter campaigns 2001-2002 and 2002-2003) and from the Alpine site of Testa Grigia (11,500 feet above sea level, Italy, from 2003 onwards). Support for this research work, aimed also at contributing to the NASA EOS Aura satellite validation, was provided by NASA (under Grant NAG513029) and by the Italian Polar Program (PNRA). Personnel from URome have also been operating a LiDAR system from Thule Air Base at various times since 1990, and concurrently to the GBMS activity during winters 2001-2002 and 2002-2003. Both the GBMS and the LiDAR in Thule are among the ground-based instruments enrolled in the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, formerly known as Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change), also widely involved in the EOS Aura satellite validation plan. Data obtained with these two instruments are made available to the scientific community belonging to the NDACC international network. As part of an International Polar Year (IPY) research activity, ORACLE-O3 (Activity ID# 99), involving more than 15 different countries and even more research institutes (including the US Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Naval Research Laboratory), both the GBMS and the LiDAR will be operated from Thule AB during IPY winter 2008-2009. Operations will be run by personnel of URome and of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica and Vulcanologia (INGV).

Logistics Summary:
In contribution to the IPY ORACLE-03 program and the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDAAC), collaborators from URome and INGV will operate the GBMS and a LiDAR at Thule Air Base during the IPY winter of 2008/2009. Two scientists will travel to Thule in winter 2006-2007 to run maintenance on the LiDAR and prepare it for the following winter, when the first IPY field campaign is scheduled. (There was no travel to Thule in 2007/2008). Early the second week of January 2009, the PI and a colleague will travel to Thule Air Base and establish a presence (the PI will remain at Thule for the duration of the field season while other personnel rotate through). After initial set up is complete several days later, the first of two shipments of liquid nitrogen will arrive (to be used to maintain data quality). About January 22, two additional personnel will arrive at Thule to assist with the experiment; a week later, one from the initial team will depart Thule. In early February, a second shipment of LN2 will resupply the experiment stocks, and a field team member will depart the station several days later. The PI will remain on station with one colleague to complete the experiment, and both will depart about 6 March. When possible, the PI will combine logistics for this project with that of the DeZafra grant (0936365). Late in 2009, field work includes the installation of a liquid Nitrogen generator at Thule funded by the DeZafra grant. Then, two of the Muscari field team members will be supported with DeZafra logistics funds, spending a week or so installing/troubleshooting the new generator. In 2011, the PI and two team members will travel to Thule under DeZafra logistics funds. The visit will take place from late January to mid March. See DeZafra (0936365) for more information. This work is on a continuing basis with instruments running and may include periodic participant travel to Thule.

Prior to 2016, CPS will arrange for Thule clearances, cargo on Airbus and AMC, shipment of LN2, and provide reimbursable AMC tickets. From 2016 onward, CPS will provide ANG Clearances only. The investigators will arrange for and pay all other logistics expenses from their grant(s).
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2006Greenland - Thule12 / 07 / 2006 12 / 31 / 20062
2007Greenland - Thule01 / 01 / 2007 02 / 20 / 20072
2009Greenland - Thule01 / 08 / 2009 03 / 06 / 20094
2010Greenland - Thule0
2011Greenland - Thule0
2013Greenland - Thule01 / 23 / 2013 04 / 04 / 20135
2014Greenland - Thule01 / 29 / 2014 03 / 14 / 20143
2015Greenland - Thule0
2016Greenland - Thule02 / 24 / 2016 11 / 30 / 20165
2017Greenland - Thule02 / 16 / 2017 11 / 10 / 20173
2018Greenland - Thule1
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Direction and Mechanisms of Seasonal Change in Arctic Microbial Communities (Award# 1203831)

PI: Nelson, Karen E (kenelson@jcvi.org)
Phone: 0(301) 795.7565 
Institute/Department: J. Craig Venter Institute, Department of Microbial Genomics 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Biology\Microbial Ecology | Biology\Microbiology |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://jcvi.org/metarep/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This project focuses on the characteristics and mechanisms of microbial succession in the high Arctic. Empirical observations suggest that seasonal change could be viewed as consisting of two phases, with simpler communities gradually replaced by more complex assemblages. The researchers hypothesize that life histories of the early colonizers include metabolic versatility and ability to expand quickly, which leads to communities characterized more by interspecies chemical warfare than intricate species integration. They also hypothesize that at later stages, species develop multiple synergies, their communities become more complex, and integrated by a signaling and regulatory network. A corollary of these traits is that the first phase is populated with species that are relatively easy to cultivate in pure culture, whereas species dominating at later stages may appear "uncultivable" in pure culture due to their dependencies on other species. Researchers will test these hypotheses in a study of a microbial community in the Thule Area in Northern Greenland. This environment offers a range of communities from simple to more complex with tractable (short) seasonal succession and constitutes a pristine and endangered community. Intellectual merit of this study is two-fold. The first is about bringing together in one study culture- dependent and culture-independent approaches, enabling us to relate microbial diversity and function in the most general sense. The enabling technology is important for general microbial ecology because it identifies functions expressed by the community with specific microbial players, and deciphers the roles of individual species, spatially and temporally. It has the potential to transform the study of arctic and other environmental microorganisms by informing us what key species are present, what functions they perform, and how the structure-function relationship changes over time. Second is the application of this platform to the ecology of arctic microorganisms, whereby they will test specific hypotheses related to the direction and aspects of microbial seasonal succession, aiming at their mechanistic explanation. Regardless of whether the hypotheses stand, they will assess the importance of community-level microbial interactions that are based on production of bioactive compounds, how these interactions change over the course of seasonal succession, and whether trajectory of the microbial seasonal succession can be manipulated in a predictable fashion. This approach may become useful in human and animal microbiome research helping establish roles of species implicated in a range of diseases; in bioremediation efforts by explaining roles of individual species in biotransformation of pollutants; and drug discovery since bioactive compounds are often produced in a community setting but not in isolation. These cultivation approaches are already used in biotechnology efforts, and are licensed to a biotech startup company. The project will provide opportunities for undergraduate and graduate training in a multidisciplinary setting.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Epstein (1203857, Northeastern, lead) and Nelson (1203831, J. Craig Venter) focuses on the characteristics and mechanisms of microbial growth succession in the High Arctic. See 1203857 for logistic details.

See 1203857 for support details.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2013Greenland - Ilulissat0
2013Greenland - Thule0
2014Greenland - Thule0
2016Greenland - Thule0
2017Greenland - Thule0
 


Project Title: Continued Core Atmospheric and Snow Measurements at the Summit, Greenland Environmental Observatory (Award# ICESat)

PI: Neumann, Thomas A (thomas.neumann@nasa.gov)
Phone: 0(301) 614.5923 
Institute/Department: National Aeronautical and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Thomas Wagner (thomas.wagner@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):

Science Summary:
This NASA award supports the continuation and expansion of long-term measurements of the Arctic atmosphere, snow, and other Earth system components at the Summit, Greenland, Environmental Observatory (GEOSummit). The original measurement program began in 2003. Year-round measurements with at least 10 years in duration are required to observe and quantify the roles of large-scale, multiyear oscillations in oceanic and atmospheric circulation (e.g., Arctic Oscillation), snow accumulation, firn densification, and ice flow effects. The "Broader Impacts" of these observations are numerous and include the potential to transform understanding of the role of natural and anthropogenic aerosols in climate forcing, to improve climate models and the prediction of future Arctic environmental change, provide ground calibration for satellite measurements of ice sheet elevation, and to enhance the interpretation of ice core records of paleo-environmental variability.

Logistics Summary:
The researchers will study snow accumulation measured year-round at the Greenland Environmental Observatory at Summit Station (GEO Summit), an effort that continues measurement programs previously supported under PI McConnell (NSF grant 0856845). The project involves two staked arrays: the 121-stake (11 x 11) ‘bamboo forest’ near the station, commencing about 700 meters east of the Big House facility, which is measured weekly; and the 121-stake linear array for NASA’s Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and ICESat-2 validation, commencing about 3,300 meters west of the Big House facility, which is measured monthly. The ICESat validation snow machine transect was started in 2006 along the satellite track of the laser altimeter and has been continued during the interim period between the end of the mission of the original ICESat in 2009 and the planned 2018 launch of ICESat-2. Results improve understanding of ice sheet elevation change and snow-water equivalencies. Beginning in 2016, Summit Station science technicians will collect snow accumulation values for comparison to measurements of ground and remote sensing instrumentation. In 2017, Co-PI Kelly Brunt will visit Summit in June to assess the existing ICESat survey line and procedures carried out by the science technicians. Snow machine training and use will be provided on-site to support her planned activities. Science technicians will coordinate with her and the GreenTracs traverse team to conduct the required surveys. Researchers may return in 2018, details are TBD.

CPS will provide science technician support including project task specific materials, communications equipment, snow machines, poly pod and shared use of UNAVCO GPS instrumentation. CPS will also provide KISS and Summit user days, and transportation via the Air National Guard logistics chain. NSF will recoup costs of this support via an interagency funds transfer NASA>NSF. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the research group from the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 21 / 2017 06 / 29 / 20171
2017Greenland - Summit06 / 23 / 2017 06 / 27 / 20171
2018Greenland - Summit1
 


Project Title: Greenland Telescope (Award# SAOTelescope)

PI: Norton, Timothy John (tnorton@cfa.harvard.edu)
Phone: 0(617) 495.7188 
Institute/Department: Harvard-Smithsonian Center For Astrophysics ,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\SAO
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Space Physics\Astrophysics |

Project Web Site(s):

Science Summary:
The project plans to deploy a 12 m radio antenna to Thule Air Base (TAB) for VLBI operation at 230 GHz prior to installing the telescope at Summit Station for higher frequency Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and submillimeter operation. Deployment at TAB will enable the team to test functionality, measure characteristics, make critical adjustments and observe astronomical sources. This is a crucial first step towards Summit deployment where a key objective is to provide direct confirmation of a Super Massive Black Hole (SMBH) by observing its shadow image in the active galaxy M87. Radiometer: The science objectives are to survey TAB's atmospheric opacity at 225 GHz, utilizing the data in Greenland Telescope sensitivity prediction models. The Radiometer is a passive narrow-band receiver monitoring the sky at a frequency of 225 GHz. It is an automated tipper that repeatedly scans the atmosphere from zenith toward the horizon in a chosen direction.

Logistics Summary:
The project concerns a 12 m radio antenna deployed to Thule Air Base (TAB) for VLBI operation at 230 GHz prior to installing the telescope at Summit Station for higher frequency Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) and submillimeter operation. Deployment at TAB will enable the team to test functionality, measure characteristics, make critical adjustments and observe astronomical sources. This is a crucial first step towards Summit deployment, where a key objective is to provide direct confirmation of a Super Massive Black Hole (SMBH) by observing its shadow image in the active galaxy M87. In March of 2016 two researchers will deploy a radiometer to TAB. Their work at TAB will focus on the following science objective: to survey TAB's atmospheric opacity at 225 GHz, utilizing the data in Greenland Telescope sensitivity prediction models. The Radiometer is a passive narrow-band receiver monitoring the sky at a frequency of 225 GHz. It is an automated tipper that repeatedly scans the atmosphere from zenith toward the horizon in a chosen direction. The radiometer is the same instrument that had previously been installed at Summit under the Chen/ASIAA NSF-billed project. The research team will return to Thule in early July and maintain a presence of 2-6 personnel through September. The team will receive the telescope arriving on the Pacer Goose and work with Greenland Contractors on pad and workspace preparations in anticipation of a winter build. Researchers will return in 2018, details are TBD.

CPS will provide Air National Guard airlift to Thule for freight, CPS labor for planning and project management, use of heated staging space at TAB, and assistance with Air Mobility Command cargo shipments. NSF will recoup costs associated with this support directly from SAO and/or ASIAA. CPS will assist in arrangements for base clearances, AMC ticketing, GC contracting, North Star Inn lodging and GC rental trucks; however, all services will be paid for directly by the research team.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Thule03 / 10 / 2016 09 / 21 / 201615
2017Greenland - Thule01 / 26 / 2017 09 / 08 / 201723
2018Greenland - Thule1
 


Project Title: Arctic Observing Networks: Collaborative Research: ITEX AON - understanding the relationships between vegetation change, plant phenology, and ecosystem function in a warming Arctic (Award# 1504381)

PI: Oberbauer, Steven F (oberbaue@fiu.edu)
Phone: 0(305) 348.2580 
Institute/Department: Florida International University, Department of Biological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Ecology |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://faculty.fiu.edu/~oberbaue/AON-ITEX.html
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The goal of this program is to document and understand arctic terrestrial change by maintaining and extracting value from the temporally-critical datasets of the International Tundra Experiment Arctic Observatory Network (ITEX-AON), which has been active in Alaska and Greenland since 2007. ITEX was chartered in 1990 to quantify the effects of inter-annual environmental variability and increased temperature on tundra plant phenology, growth, species composition and ecosystem function using sustained experimental techniques and background monitoring. The ITEX network has provided exceptional value by detecting changes in tundra plant and ecosystem responses to experimental warming and to background change across sites that span the major ecosystems of the Arctic. Unlike most monitoring programs that focus primarily on documenting change and rely on correlation to determine causal factors, ITEX can attribute cause for observed change because of the imbedded experimental approach, which is especially critical as the Arctic System is changing rapidly and in complex ways. This project will provide urgently needed data critical to understanding the impact of multi-scale vegetation change on ecosystem function, namely land-atmosphere carbon and water fluxes and energy balance. Observed changes in the Arctic over the past half century include substantial vegetation change and greening, permafrost warming, and surface hydrological change. Building on the US ITEX program started in 1994, the ITEX-AON (since 2007) has continued and expanded on a wide latitudinal transect consisting of five sites in Alaska and Greenland, collecting core ITEX data with methods designed to address specific needs outlined in the 2003 Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) Implementation Report. Core datasets include manual observations of phenology, vegetation structure and composition, and ecosystem function (carbon flux & nutrient cycling) on long-term ITEX control and experimental warming plots, repeat measurement of vegetation plots on the 1 km2 ARCSS grids, and a multifactor warming/moisture experiment in Greenland. In 2009, the ITEX-AON sampling scheme was expanded to include a larger spatial component to amplify the utility of the measurements collected. This included the addition of phenocams, automated mobile sensor platforms and medium-scale aerial imagery. The automated platforms measure a suite of vegetation surface properties with minimal effort across focal transects spanning strong moisture and microtopographic gradients at a near-daily frequency. These measurements capture the fine-scale changes in vegetation over the growing season that are missed by lower frequency manual measurements and provide a bridge between manual measurements and aerial imagery. Medium-scale aerial imagery, using Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), is acquired throughout the growing season for scaling of manual and automated measurements; satellite imagery is referenced to medium-scale aerial imagery to aid scaling of responses to the regional level. In this phase, collection of core data sets will continue with some streamlining to allow for collection of new data sets aimed at reinforcing the proven value of the program and its utility to adapt to and support future research needs.

Logistics Summary:
This grant continues activities supported by NSF award 1432982 related to the International Tundra eXperiment (ITEX), which has been active in Alaska and Greenland since 2007. The goal of researchers contributing to this collaboration between Oberbauer (1504381, FIU, LEAD), Hollister (1504224, GVSU), Welker (1504141, UAA) and Tweedie (1504345, UTEP) is to document and better understand Arctic terrestrial change by maintaining and extracting value from continuous data sets produced by the ITEX Arctic Observatory Network ( ITEX-AON). During this phase of the project, scientists will streamline collection of core data sets to accommodate new data sets aimed at reinforcing the proven value of the program and its capacity to adapt to and support future research needs. During the summers of 2016 through 2018, ITEX-AON researchers will continue to collect core data at Alaska field sites in Utqiagvik (Barrow), Atqasuk, Toolik Field Station, and Imnavait Creek; and at Thule Air Base, Greenland. In 2016, 3 people will travel to Thule Air Base, Greenland, in late May. They will reestablish ITEX plots, and continue manipulation experiments and sampling activities until early August. Personnel will depart on a staggered schedule.The last of the original field team will depart in early August, just after a fourth researcher arrives to complete field activities and close out the experiment for the season in mid-August. Also in 2016, 2 researchers will visit Utqiagvik (Barrow) and Atqasuk in April to change two batteries in the redundant power system at each site. In late-May, researchers will begin visits to Toolik Field Station for sampling at the station and Imnavait Creek. They will maintain a presence through August with a number of personnel change-outs. Trips to Utqiagvik (Barrow) and Atqasuk commence in early June, and continue through August as well. In 2017, 2 people will return to Thule Air Base, Greenland in early June. They will reestablish ITEX plots, and continue manipulation experiments and sampling activities until early August. Three additional personnel will arrive in mid-July for two weeks of field activities. In Alaska, researchers will begin arriving at Toolik Field Station in late May and will maintain a presence in the area through early September sampling phenology and vegetation properties of established transects. Utqiagvik (Barrow)/Atqasuk work will commence in early June with research teams traveling periodically to Atqasuk throughout the summer to conduct similar work.

In Utqiagvik (Barrow) and Atqasuk, CPS will provide lodging, bear guards, truck rentals, communications equipment, medical kits, ATV rentals, ATV trailer rentals, tents for field sites, radios, BARC laboratory space, storage space and assistance with UIC and NSB permits. UNAVCO will provide dGPS equipment that is based in Utqiagvik (Barrow). At Toolik Field Station and Imnavait Creek, CPS will provide Toolik user days, maintenance of remote power systems and boardwalks, and truck rentals from Fairbanks and Prudhoe Bay. IAB will provide access to infrastructure and services at Toolik. In Thule in 2017, CPS will provide berthing/lab/office space in Bldg 353, use of the Thule lab in Hangar 4, use of an NSF-owned truck, access to Bldg. 1971 to access instrumentation, access to Bldg. 628 for science staging/storage, communication gear, base contractor support for instrument maintenance, power to North Mountain, ANG freight, AMC freight and AMC travel tickets. All other logistics, including land use permits in Toolik, will be arranged and paid for by the PIs from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Atqasuk06 / 06 / 2016 08 / 20 / 20161
2016Alaska - Imnavait Creek05 / 26 / 2016 08 / 18 / 20161
2016Alaska - Toolik05 / 27 / 2016 09 / 05 / 20167
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)04 / 01 / 2016 08 / 31 / 20169
2016Greenland - Thule05 / 31 / 2016 10 / 21 / 20164
2017Alaska - Atqasuk1
2017Alaska - Imnavait Creek1
2017Alaska - Toolik1
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)1
2017Greenland - Thule06 / 08 / 2017 08 / 11 / 20176
2018Alaska - Atqasuk1
2018Alaska - Imnavait Creek1
2018Alaska - Toolik1
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)1
2018Greenland - Thule1
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: GreenTrACS: a Greenland Traverse for Accumulation and Climate Studies (Award# 1417678)

PI: Osterberg, Erich Christian (erich.c.osterberg@dartmouth.edu)
Phone: 0(603) 646.1096 
Institute/Department: Dartmouth College, Department of Earth Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Glaciology | Cryosphere\Ice Geochemistry | Cryosphere\Ice Penetrating Radar | Cryosphere\Ice Sheet Mass Balance |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://cgiss.boisestate.edu/data_downloads.php
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
The investigators plan a traverse in the Western Greenland percolation zone over two field seasons to develop continuous in-situ snow accumulation and firn density records using ground-based radar and shallow firn cores. The research objectives include: (1) determining the patterns, in time and space, of snow accumulation in Western Greenland over the past 20-40 years; (2) evaluating surface melt refreeze and englacial meltwater storage in the Western Greenland percolation zone over the past 20-40 years; and (3) quantifying the accumulation and surface melt biases of the most recent climate reanalysis models and their regional climate model counterparts. This project intends to advance knowledge and understanding by providing in-situ validation observations for both the mass gain (snow accumulation) and mass loss (surface melt) components of Western Greenland surface mass balance. Previous studies have shown that the western edge of the Greenland Ice Sheet has been losing mass at an accelerating rate since 2005, due mostly to decreasing surface mass balance. However, surface mass balance trends derived from regional climate models differ by a factor of ~2.5 in this region. Western Greenland firn core accumulation records, required for model validation, generally end in 1996-1998, before the most recent period of accelerated mass loss. The investigators will develop continuous records of Western Greenland snow accumulation over the last 20-40 years using ground-penetrating radar validated by frequent snow pits and firn cores (25-30 m) analyzed for chemistry. They will also use a multi-offset radar method to calculate firn density continuously along the traverse, providing a means to assess past surface melt, refreeze and current meltwater storage in glacier aquifers, as well as critical density-profile data for air- and spaceborne remote sensing work. Meltwater refreeze shows the largest variability in regional climate models among surface mass balance components, and thus validation observations are critically needed. The traverse route will crisscross the percolation zone, near-parallel to the steepest accumulation and surface melt gradients, which will increase the value of the dataset for model validation. The traverse will overlap previous traverse routes, IceBridge airborne radar flight paths, and reoccupy previously sampled sites to update firn core accumulation records by 18-20 years. In addition, the project will collect cores from new sites in data-poor regions at lower elevations, where both accumulation and surface melt increase and regional climate model validation is most needed. Surface mass balance validation of several climate reanalysis models will lead to more accurate assessments of current and future Greenland Ice Sheet mass balance trends, which is critical for accurately predicting future sea-level rise.

Logistics Summary:
This project, Greenland Traverse for Accumulation and Climate Studies (GreenTrACS), is a collaboration between Osterberg and Hawley (1417678, Dartmouth, LEAD), Birkel (1417640, U of Maine), and Marshall (1417921, Boise State). In 2016 a team of five will conduct a sampling traverse in Greenland during spring/early summer, April to mid-June. They will fly to Kangerlussuaq via the Air National Guard (ANG) logistics chain and spend several days preparing before flying on to Raven Camp, the traverse starting point, via the ANG. After departing several days later, the team will spend about a month on a snowmachine-based traverse of about 1700 km. They will tent camp for the duration, collecting ice cores (which they will cache along the traverse in several locations) and performing ground-based radar measurements en route. After reaching the traverse end point, Summit Station, the group will fly back to Kangerlussuaq via the ANG, pack up, and then depart Greenland via the ANG. The cached ice cores will be retrieved by Twin Otter immediately following the expedition, and kept in frozen storage until they can be transported to the U.S. on a “cold-deck” ANG flight. CPS staff will unload the cores in New York and a freezer truck from Dartmouth will meet the aircraft to deliver them to the home institution. In 2017, a team of five will travel to Kangerlussuaq via the Air National Guard and then on to Summit Station. The researchers will base out of Summit, traversing via snow machine, conducting similar field work to 2016 for a duration of just under two months. After returning to Summit, they will fly the ANG back to Kangerlussuaq and the US. There will be a crew swap mid-May with one person leaving and the co-PI joining the team in the field.

CPS will provide ANG coordination for passengers and cargo, frozen core sample transport to Kangerlussuaq, sample transport to NY via ANG annual ‘cold deck’, freezer space in Kangerlussuaq between flights, KISS and Summit user days, fixed wing charters, ice core boxes, equipment fuel, sleds, generators, camping equipment, safety gear, med kit/ service and communications equipment. All other support will be arranged and paid for by the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 25 / 2016 06 / 11 / 20165
2016Greenland - Raven04 / 30 / 2016 05 / 02 / 20165
2016Greenland - Summit06 / 06 / 2016 06 / 09 / 20165
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 18 / 2017 06 / 29 / 20176
2017Greenland - Summit05 / 01 / 2017 06 / 25 / 20176
 


Project Title: Arctic Plant Phenology - Learning through Engaged Science (APPLES) (Award# 1525636)

PI: Post, Eric (post@ucdavis.edu)
Phone:  
Institute/Department: U of California, Davis, Wildlife, Fish and Conservation Biology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\PSI
Program Manager: Ms. Elizabeth Rom (elrom@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Climate Change |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The PI will develop and pilot a scalable strategy for involving educators in polar research and making data from polar research programs accessible to students. Plans include engaging grades 6-12 and undergraduate science educators in a long-term, ongoing research project in Greenland that examines changes in the phenology (e.g. seasonal life cycle events - in this case, the onset of springtime plant growth) of arctic plants and how this relates to climate. Educators and students will conduct similar observations and experiments in their local environment and will contribute their data to the ongoing research efforts. Participants will consist of approximately 24 middle school, high school, and undergraduate educators from schools across a range of geographical locations and school districts serving underrepresented and underserved students. The PI will conduct a workshop each year with the educators and develop online resources for the educators. Educators will be engaged in an ongoing study of plant phenology at a field site near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland and they will learn observational and experimental methods of studying plant phenology that they can use with their students in their local environment. Educators from Fort Lewis College, Colorado, Blue Hill Consolidated School, Maine; and St. Paul Island, Alaska, will participate in this project. Additionally, the development of online resources will provide access to data from long-term research on arctic plant phenology, related lesson plans, and media representations of research activities in Greenland to an expanded network of educators. These on-line resources will serve educational needs beyond the duration of this project. The proposed activities present outstanding opportunities for the involvement of student groups, including Native American and Alaskan Aleut students, in research through hands-on training and inquiry-based educational experiences.

Logistics Summary:
Participants on this project will develop and pilot a scalable strategy for engaging middle school, high school, and undergraduate educators in polar research that will also prepare them to engage their students in similar research in the classroom. Plans include engaging K-12 and undergraduate science educators in a long-term and ongoing research project in Greenland, examining changes in the phenology of arctic plants and how this relates to climate change. Participants will consist of middle school, high school, and undergraduate educators from schools across a range of geographical locations and school districts serving underrepresented and underserved students. In 2016 and 2017, the grantees will send two people to Greenland in early spring to prepare experiments and five to seven people to Greenland for the duration of a flight period each season. Note: The PI has changed institutions from Penn State to UC Davis. The grant itself however remains under Penn State University.

CPS will provide ANG coordination for the participants and cargo, a rental truck, and select camp/safety equipment. All other logistics will be organized by the researcher and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 25 / 2016 07 / 19 / 20167
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 08 / 2017 07 / 29 / 20179
 


Project Title: Responsive Autonomous Rovers to Enable Polar Science (Award# NNX15AM80A)

PI: Ray, Laura R (laura.ray@dartmouth.EDU)
Phone: 0(603) 646.1243 
Institute/Department: Dartmouth College, Thayer School of Engineering 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Thomas Wagner (thomas.wagner@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Instrument Development\Glaciology |

Project Web Site(s):

Science Summary:
In order to determine the mass balance, and thus contribution to sea level, of the Earth’s ice sheets, researchers must understand the spatiotemporal variations in snow accumulation and firn compaction rates. The amount of snow that falls and accumulates from year-to-year across the ice sheets acts as a hydrological sink, lowering sea level, whereas ablation or melt that runs off acts to increase sea level. The total ice-sheet surface mass balance is primarily composed of the total mass of snow that accumulatedminus the mass of runoff from ice melt Subtracting the total ice mass lost through discharge at glacier calving fronts, known as the input-output method provides the ice-sheet mass balance. This project focuses on the positive component of mass balance: snow accumulation. The ice-sheet mass balance can also be measured by monitoring changes in surface elevation from satellite borne altimeters (e.g., NASA’s ICESat and upcoming ICESat-2, ESA’s CryoSat-2). The measured elevation change is used to determine the volumetric change, which must be converted to mass through knowledge of the density of the material gained or lost. Along the periphery of Greenland in the ablation zone, the change is easily attributed to solid ice, but in the interior, the conversion from volume to mass is less straightforward. The presence of a firn layer in the accumulation zone complicates conversion to mass for a few reasons. Firstly, firn is less dense than ice. The observed elevation change is the summation of change to the firn thickness and to the underlying ice column, which must be properly partitioned to adequately assign a density to the observed change. Secondly, variations in the firn compaction rate result in surface elevation fluctuations that are not the result of a mass change. Therefore, determining the ice-sheet mass balance requires a precise understanding of the spatiotemporal variations in snow accumulation and firn compaction rates, both of which are challenging to measure frequently and at large spatial scales. Snow accumulation varies substantially in time and space. While records of accumulation exist from ice cores and stake lines, their spatial coverage is sparse suggesting that they are inadequate for mass balance studies when used alone. Instead the core records have been used to calibrate climate model output, providing an important spatially and temporally complete accumulation history. Additionally, regional climate model surface mass balance products have been used in ice sheet-wide mass balance studies due to their complete spatiotemporal coverage. While these models are extremely useful for current and future mass balance assessment, field observations of snow accumulation are required to evaluate model ability over the ice sheets. While spatiotemporal measurements of snow accumulation are difficult and few, measurements of firn compaction are even rarer. For example, Arthern et al. (2010) measured vertical strain in the firn at hourly intervals over several years at three sites in Antarctica to investigate the controls on compaction rates as well as to evaluate different firn densification models. In Greenland, tracking the displacements of features observed using borehole optical stratigraphy over a single year at Summit provided measurements of the vertical compaction profile of the firn. Finally, repeat measurements of the firn density profile, derived using a neutron scattering technique, along a ~500 km traverse allowed Morris and Wingham (2011; 2014) to measure strain rates as a function of depth and develop a new densification equation based on their findings. The models developed by the aforementioned studies are tuned by data ranging from a few data points to a few 10s of sites, which limits their use outside of the surveyed areas. Thus, some ground-truthing of the temporal and spatial variability of compaction rates derived from firn densification models exists, but their evaluation would benefit from a method that can easily measure compaction rates over large areas. This project aims to expand our understanding of the spatiotemporal variations in snow accumulation and firn compaction rates by using GPR towed by an autonomous rover.

Logistics Summary:
This project focuses on the positive component of mass balance: snow accumulation. Goals are to support efforts to build and validate existing models through targeted, spatiotemporal ground-based measurements using autonomous robots; to develop infrastructure enabling New Hampshire scientists and engineers to build collaborations by providing such measurements efficiently and reliably in polar regions; and to train the next generation of scientists and engineers through student research in robotics and polar science. In 2017 researchers will conduct a pilot deployment to Summit in advance of a larger effort in 2018. The Summit campaign will deploy two people and a robot to Summit for ~3 weeks to initiate planned experiments: 1) repeated measurement of firn layering using robot-towed GPR in regions of undisturbed snow within the 7 km camp radius (if possible), 2) autonomous mapping of snow specific surface area, and 3) development of robotic-towed albedo measurement instrumentation. The two personnel will also be part of the Dartmouth JSEP team (NSF grant # 1506155). In 2017 the project will deploy two field team members (also JSEP fellows) to conduct some initial field tests with the rover and to make some associated measurements. They will require some initial heated assembly space for 1-2 days to assemble the rover and have also requested access to a snow machine in the event that the robot needs to be recovered away from Summit. The team will coordinate with on-site technicians and the project manager to ensure their rover does not operate in a scientifically sensitive area. They have also requested to accompany the technicians during an ICESat traverse to tow a GPR and SSA measuring instrument and to make measurements with a penetrometer. That activity will be coordinated with the technicians and the NASA ICESat field team if schedule allows. The team will operate at Summit for approximately 3.5 weeks and then transfer to assist with the JSEP grant (Virginia, NSF grant 1506155) from July 21- 25. They will then head south via ANG with the rest of the group.

In 2017 CPS will provide Air National Guard (ANG) coordination for passengers and cargo, user days and access to Summit infrastructure including assembly and storage space, provision of one snow machine and fuel in the event of a robot failure that requires retrieval, and communication and safety equipment if leaving the Summit area. Via interagency transfer NASA will provide funds for shipment of the robot via ANG NY><Summit and Summit user days for the two JSEP fellows. All other logistics, including lodging in Kanger, will either be paid for by the NASA award or the Virginia JSEP grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 21 / 2017 06 / 23 / 20172
2017Greenland - Summit06 / 23 / 2017 07 / 21 / 20172
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 20 / 2018 07 / 28 / 20182
2018Greenland - Summit06 / 23 / 2018 07 / 26 / 20182
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Refreezing in the firn of the Greenland ice sheet: Spatiotemporal variability and implications for ice sheet mass balance (Award# 1604058)

PI: Rennermalm, Asa K (asa.rennermalm@rutgers.edu)
Phone: 0(732 ) 445.4731 
Institute/Department: Rutgers University, Department of Geography 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Firn Studies | Cryosphere\Greenland Ice Sheet | Cryosphere\Hydrology | Cryosphere\Meltwater |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
A substantial fraction of meltwater of the Greenland ice sheet is retained in firn (liquid or refrozen) rather than running off into the ocean. Unusually thick, near-surface, ice lenses have recently been discovered in the firn and are thought to be the result of exceptionally large recent melt events. This suggests that the larger volumes of meltwater produced in recent years may have been prevented from percolating into deeper firn layers, as has typically been observed in the past, and have instead run off immediately. As a result, a qualitatively different and new ’state’ of the firn has to be taken into account when attempting to quantify the mass balance of the ice sheet, and estimates based on our current state of knowledge are probably subject to larger uncertainty than previously thought. Refreezing, as the mechanism which creates impenetrable ice lenses, emerges as a crucial process in the redistribution of surface runoff and therefore in the determination of surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet. To quantify this impact on the current and future SMB, this project will combine detailed field observations in the Kangerlussaq section of the Greenland ice sheet with numerical modeling of the relevant components of the climate system. Project goals are: 1) to investigate the changes and quantify the spatio-temporal variability of the firn by analyzing shallow firn cores and subsurface data at selected sites covering a wide range of elevations and climatic conditions, and compare these new observations to similar data from past decades and remotely sensed observations of firn structures; 2) to quantify the role of refreezing on the SMB with the help of a regional climate model and a high-resolution distributed energy balance model, both of which include a sub-surface snow/firn model; 3) to perform simulations of the spatio-temporal evolution of the SMB with an improved representation of refreezing process under different emission scenarios through the year 2100.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Rennermalm (1604058, Rutgers), Hock (1603815, UAF), and Tedesco (1603331, LDEO) will investigate an important part of Greenland’s cryo-hydrological system, namely the role of firn in producing, transmitting, and retaining meltwater. The project will combine detailed field observations of firn meltwater processes and a state-of-the art model to better constrain the role of firn meltwater in the Greenland ice sheet cryo-hydrologic systems. This will be performed over three years (2017, 2018, and 2019); each year includes field research on the ice sheet near Kangerlussuaq, Greenland: In year 2017 and 2018, the fieldwork will take place in spring before the melt season. In 2019, the fieldwork will take place at the end of the melting season to retrieve sensors and remove installations. The total deployment time is 3-4 weeks each year. In each year of field work, one week will be at spent at Kangerlussuaq and 2-4 weeks working on the ice sheet. The annual deployment will be via LC-130 flights to Camp Raven. From there a field team of 4-8 (six people in 2017, eight in 2018 and four in 2019) will travel via snow machines to four field sites. One field site will be established at DYE-2 near Camp Raven, the three other sites are within 100 km from Raven (Site J, KAN U and EKT). At each field site, a camp will be established and various instruments will be installed and measurements will be made. At the end of the final field season in 2019, researchers will retrograde all field instrumentation to the greatest extent practicable or as required by the government of Greenland.

CPS will provide Air National Guard coordination for pax/cargo between NY and Kangerlussuaq, dedicated LC-130 missions to Camp Raven, KISS user days, rental truck in Kangerlussuaq, and snowmachines/fuel/generator/camp & safety equipment from CPS inventory. IDDO will provide a hand auger and Sidewinder power drive for the 2017 and 2018 seasons. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PIs.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Greenland - DYE-204 / 24 / 2017 05 / 21 / 20176
2017Greenland - EKT04 / 24 / 2017 05 / 21 / 20176
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 18 / 2017 06 / 11 / 20177
2017Greenland - Raven04 / 24 / 2017 05 / 21 / 20176
2017Greenland - Site J04 / 24 / 2017 05 / 21 / 20176
2018Greenland - DYE-26
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq6
2018Greenland - KAN-U6
2018Greenland - Raven6
2019Greenland - DYE-24
2019Greenland - EKT4
2019Greenland - Kangerlussuaq4
2019Greenland - KAN-U4
2019Greenland - Raven4
2019Greenland - Site J4
 


Project Title: Coordination, Data Management and Enhancement of the International Arctic Buoy Programme (Award# 1503672)

PI: Rigor, Ignatius G (ignatius@uw.edu)
Phone: 0(206) 685.2571 
Institute/Department: U of Washington, Applied Physics Laboratory 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://iabp.apl.washington.edu/data.html
Data: http://iabp.apl.washington.edu/maps_daily_table.ht...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
Dramatic changes in Arctic climate have occurred during the past two decades. Many of these changes were first observed and studied using data from the International Arctic Buoy Program (IABP), which maintains at least 100 buoys in the Arctic Ocean that collect data on surface water temperature, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and ice motion. These data are analyzed and made available to the research community by the United States IABP. IABP data were fundamental in demonstrating that atmospheric pressure has decreased, air temperature has increased, and the clockwise circulation of current and ice in the Arctic Ocean has weakened in recent decades. The integrated effect of all these changes contributed to the precipitous decrease in the average age (thickness) of sea ice observed during this period. The data help us understand the recent record low summer sea ice extents. The project will continue the United States interagency Arctic buoy program which began collecting data in 1979 and provide critical atmospheric, ice, and surface ocean measurements that cannot be obtained by other means. The project also has a multifaceted outreach program to share science with the public that includes the principal investigator participating in programs such as the Polar Science Weekend, public presentations, K-12 school visits, and public communication through interactions with journalists. The observations from the IABP have been essential for: 1) monitoring Arctic and global climate change, 2) forecasting weather and sea ice conditions, 3) forcing, assimilation, and validation of global weather and climate models and, 4) validation of satellite derived estimates of sea ice motion, surface temperature, sea ice thickness, etc. Our ability to predict weather and sea ice conditions requires in situ observations of surface meteorology and ice motion. These observations are assimilated into Numerical Weather Prediction models that are used to forecast weather on synoptic time scales, e.g. by the National Weather Service; and into the many long-term atmospheric re-analyses (e.g. National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research re-analysis) that are used for innumerable climate studies. Based on a recommendation by the National Academy of Sciences in 1974, the Arctic Ocean Buoy Program was established by the Pacific Science Center/Applied Physics laboratory, University of Washington, in 1978 to support the Global Weather Experiment. The program continued through 1990 under funding from various agencies. In 1991, the IABP succeeded the Arctic Ocean Buoy Program, but the basic objective remains unchanged: maintaining a network of drifting buoys on the Arctic Ocean to provide meteorological and oceanographic data for real-time operational requirements and research purposes including support to the World Climate Research Program, the World Weather Watch Program, and the Arctic Observing Network. The project will collect data from all Arctic buoys, analyze, disseminate, and archive all IABP data, and maintain historical data bases.

Logistics Summary:
The objectives of this research are the coordination, data management, and deployment of buoys by the U.S. International Arctic Buoy Program (USIABP). This work will provide fundamental meteorological buoys for other AON projects, and fill gaps in the AON such as in the Bering Sea and Eurasian Arctic. During the spring, summer, and fall in 2016 – 2017, researchers for this project will make multiple trips to Utqiagvik (Barrow) to deploy buoys and conduct routine buoy maintenance. In 2017, researchers will also travel to Thule, Greenland to deploy buoys using a Danish C-130 aircraft.

In Utqiagvik (Barrow), CPS will provide lodging, NARL storage/warehouse space, truck rental, snowmachine rental, bear guards, radios, and assistance with UIC and NSB permits. For the work in Thule, CPS will provide cargo support from IAB to Thule. All other logistics will be arranged and paid for by the PI from the research grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)03 / 18 / 2016 11 / 10 / 20166
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)01 / 09 / 2017 10 / 10 / 20173
2017Greenland - Thule08 / 31 / 2017 09 / 07 / 20173
 


Project Title: IGERT: Adaptation to Abrupt Climate Change (A2C2) (Award# 1144423)

PI: Saros, Jasmine (Jasmine.saros@maine.edu)
Phone: 0(207) 581.2112 
Institute/Department: U of Maine, Climate Change Institute 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\EHR\DGE\IGERT
Program Manager: Dr. Laura Regassa (lregassa@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://a2c2igert.umaine.edu/
Data: http://climatechange.umaine.edu/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=11...

Science Summary:
This Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT) award facilitates the interdisciplinary training of Ph.D. natural and social scientists in adaptation to abrupt climate change, one of the greatest challenges to the sustainability of human society and ecosystem services in the 21st century. This program meets the challenge of abrupt climate change by training students to conduct collaborative, interdisciplinary research across the natural and social sciences, and to develop innovative policy and management solutions from their research that fosters resilience and adaptation in response to abrupt climate change. Research themes focus on three major challenges that society faces with abrupt climate change: threats to global security, reductions in ecosystem services, and adaptation in social systems. Novel training elements of this program include a collaborative interdisciplinary research project, and a policy and management internship with organizations that span international, federal and state agencies, as well as the private sector. The risks of abrupt climate change are globally pervasive and include increased numbers of environmental refugees and political conflicts over resources. Determining how to anticipate, avoid, and manage abrupt climate change was recently identified as one of the five grand challenges to global sustainability. This IGERT award trains the next generation of scientists to meet these environmental and social challenges. To promote future recruitment of a diverse science workforce, all IGERT trainees will conduct outreach activities with K-12 students from underrepresented groups. The program also fosters a strong international perspective through research collaborations as well as internship experiences abroad. IGERT is an NSF-wide program intended to meet the challenges of educating U.S. Ph.D. scientists and engineers with the interdisciplinary background, deep knowledge in a chosen discipline, and the technical, professional, and personal skills needed for the career demands of the future. The program is intended to establish new models for graduate education and training in a fertile environment for collaborative research that transcends traditional disciplinary boundaries, and to engage students in understanding the processes by which research is translated to innovations for societal benefit.

Logistics Summary:
This award funds an Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship (IGERT). IGERT is an NSF-wide program intended to meet the challenges of educating U.S. Ph.D. scientists and engineers with the interdisciplinary background, deep knowledge in a chosen discipline, and the technical, professional, and personal skills needed for the career demands of the future. This particular effort is designed to meet the critical societal challenge of human adaptation to abrupt climate change. Students will study how abrupt climate change may alter the dynamics of coupled natural and human systems and will investigate how to inform policy and management to improve environmental security by enhancing resilience and adaptation. Aspects of this work include a collaborative interdisciplinary research project, and a policy and management internship with organizations that span international, federal and state agencies, as well as the private sector. This IGERT project will support 24 students, a subset of which (4-6) will travel annually to Greenland for related field work. In 2015 - 2017, a field team of 5-7 will travel to Greenland (by a combination of ANG and commercial air) to conduct field work in Kangerlussuaq.

CPS will provide Air National Guard flights for passengers/cargo, satellite phones, medical kit and service, freezer space, off-season storage and assistance with coordination of KISS lab space/reservations and truck rental. All other logistics, including KISS user days and truck rental, will be organized by the researcher and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 25 / 2015 07 / 16 / 20157
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 26 / 2016 07 / 19 / 20165
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 18 / 2017 06 / 29 / 20177
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at Summit (ICECAPS) (Award# 1303879)

PI: Shupe, Matthew D (matthew.shupe@colorado.edu)
Phone: 0(303) 497.6471 
Institute/Department: U of Colorado, Boulder, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate\Atmospheric Radiation | Meteorology and Climate\Cloud Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.archive.arm.gov
Project: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/arctic/observatories/...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=13...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
In 2010, the observatory at Summit, Greenland, in the center of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), was expanded to include a comprehensive suite of cloud-atmosphere observing instruments including microwave and infrared spectrometers, cloud radar, depolarization lidar, ceilometer, precipitation sensor, sodar, and a twice-daily radiosonde program. This observing effort was termed ICECAPS (Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at Summit). Continuation of the work was approved / funded late summer 2013 to allow for continuous operation, with moderate enhancements to include new precipitation measurements. Measurements from this expanded instrument suite will be used to derive critical baseline atmospheric data products including: Atmospheric State - tropospheric temperature, moisture, and wind profiles, Cloud Macrophysics - occurrence, vertical boundaries, temperature, Cloud Microphysics - phase, water content, and characteristic particle size, and Precipitation - type and rate. Together these products, when combined with similar ongoing measurements at Summit, can be used to study processes that impact the surface energy budget and precipitation at the site, as well as addressing questions related to atmospheric stability, cloud phase composition, and the persistence of stratiform clouds. It is further anticipated that these observations will continue to be used by a broad cross-section of the scientific community to promote understanding of GIS and Arctic climate, validate satellite observations, and evaluate model simulations. Graduate students play significant roles in most aspects of this project, gaining valuable experience with polar field work, operating instruments, and processing data. In addition, this research team has developed a unique education and outreach plan to work with students from local schools using simple, proxy instrumentation to help develop their understanding of atmospheric principles and observations, and to enhance the scientific curriculum in their schools via a wide range of outreach activities.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this collaboration between Walden (1414314, WSU), Turner (1304692, U of OK), Shupe (1303879, CU) and Bennartz (1304544, U of WI) will continue work begun under NSF grant 0856773 "ICECAPS". Researchers will continue an intensive cloud experiment at Summit with fieldwork from late spring 2014 through late spring 2018. Logistic details under 1414314.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2014Greenland - Summit0
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2015Greenland - Summit0
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Summit0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2018Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Midshipman from the U.S. Naval Academy Polar Science & Technology Program (USNA PS&TP) Field School (Award# FieldschoolUSNA)

PI: Smith, Joseph P (jpsmith@usna.edu)
Phone: 0(410) 293.6568 
Institute/Department: United States Naval Academy (USNA), Oceanography Department  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\DOD\Navy\ONR\NOPP\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach |

Project Web Site(s):

Science Summary:
Participants on this project conduct field school/research projects based in Barrow, Alaska and Thule Air Base, Greenland. The field school is a collaborative research effort with the International Arctic Buoy Program (IABP). IABP maintains ~100 buoys in the Arctic Ocean to collect data on surface water temperature, air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and ice motion. These data are analyzed and made available to the research community by the United States IABP. IABP data have played a fundamental role in demonstrating that atmospheric pressure has decreased, air temperature has increased, and the clockwise circulation of current and ice in the Arctic Ocean has weakened in recent decades. Student participants assist with the construction and deployment of buoys and other instruments. Field school was conducted in Thule, Greenland in 2017 to correspond with NASA’s OIB mission.

Logistics Summary:
This National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Office of Naval Research (ONR) -funded effort provides a research-based field course based in Barrow, Alaska or Thule Air Base, Greenland during the spring. This grant is a continuation of WoodsONR (which supported field work in 2013 and 2014). During 2015, 5 students and instructors from USNA will participate in a field school for 7 days based out of Barrow, Alaska in collaboration with the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) on the ONR-sponsored Determining the Impact of Sea Ice Thickness on the Arctic’s Naturally Changing Environment (DISTANCE) project. Students learned and practiced techniques for measuring snow depth and sea-ice thickness. In collaboration with PI Rigor’s Arctic Observing eXperiment (AOX) project, which is itself a component of NSF grant 0856292, students continued support in the design, building, and deployment of sea-ice buoys. In 2016, 4 students and instructors will return to Barrow, Alaska in March for another 7 day field course again collaborating with NRL on the ONR-sponsored Sea Ice Physics project and PI Rigor’s Arctic Observing eXperiment (AOX) project. An additional student and instructor will join the group for 2 days to perform science outreach in the community only. In 2017, 14 participants (4 USNA faculty and 9 students; 1 CRREL Research Scientist) will travel to Thule AB, Greenland in March to conduct work on the measurements or snow depth and drift distribution and sea-ice features as part of the NASA funded Operation IceBridge project. The USNA group will collaborate with PI Andreas Muenchow on NSF grant 1344264. Students will also deploy and test new technologies designed in collaboration with ONR and PI Rigor’s Arctic Observing eXperiment (AOX) project.

For the work in Barrow, CPS will provide vehicle and snowmachine rental (including fuel), lodging, radios, UIC permits, assistance with NSB permitting, and bear guards. For the work in Thule, CPS will provide vehicle and snowmachine use (including fuel), lodging, miscellaneous camping gear, communications gear, and daily check-in support while in the field. All CPS support will be on a reimbursable basis via interagency transfer between the U.S. Naval Academy and NSF.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)03 / 14 / 2015 03 / 20 / 20155
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)03 / 12 / 2016 03 / 18 / 20166
2017Greenland - Thule03 / 09 / 2017 03 / 17 / 201714
 


Project Title: Drainage efficiency of the Greenland supraglacial river network (Award# NNX14AH93G)

PI: Smith, Laurence C (lsmith@geog.ucla.edu)
Phone: 0(310) 825.3154 
Institute/Department: U of California, Los Angeles, Department of Geography 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Thomas Wagner (thomas.wagner@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):

Science Summary:
The production, transport, and export of meltwater from the surface of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) is critically important to our understanding of global sea level rise, yet remains one of the least-studied hydrologic systems on Earth. To date, efforts to measure GrIS contributions to global sea level rise have prioritized solid/dynamical ice losses, gravity anomalies from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission, and calculations of surface mass balance from automated weather stations and/or climate modeling. None of these explicitly considers the fast transport of meltwater through supraglacial river networks, despite their ubiquity across much of the ablation zone and being a primary mechanism by which surface meltwater is routed to the englacial and proglacial parts of the ice sheet. This currently poor state of knowledge about supraglacial rivers impairs understanding of GrIS contributions to global sea level rise for at least four reasons. First, there is a recognized positive feedback between the penetration of surface meltwater to the bed and ice sliding velocity, thus impacting ice dynamics. Second, there is a growing appreciation in the Greenland science community that meltwater runoff contributes as much if not more mass loss to the global ocean than does solid/dynamical ice loss. Third, the intensity and areal extent of meltwater production on the GrIS surface are projected to increase. Fourth, virtually nothing is known about the hydraulics of GrIS supraglacial rivers, so numerical modeling of meltwater fluxes flowing over and into the ice sheet cannot be done with confidence. To address this knowledge gap, the researchers seek to answer five science questions: 1) To what extent does ice surface topography dominate the movement of water across the ice sheet? 2) Are fluxes of supraglacial meltwater into the GrIS subsurface uniformly distributed or do some parts of the ice sheet receive greater concentrations of meltwater than others? 3) Do supraglacial river flows attain supercritical velocities? 4) Was a 100% efficient surface water drainage pattern observed following the extreme July 2012 melt event unusual or typical for the ice sheet? 5) How efficiently is GrIS surface meltwater transported off the ice sheet surface and out to the global ocean? To answer these questions, the project will build upon new remote sensing capabilities developed in previous NASA Cryospheric Sciences grant NNX11AQ38G (ending 2014). It will use archived and scheduled high-resolution visible/NIR imagery and stereo digital elevation models from WorldView-1/2, QuickBird, and Geoeye-1 satellites, and cold-season IceBridge Digital Mapping System (DMS) camera imagery, to study supraglacial river drainage pattern and flow efficiency for a ~15,000 km2 area of the ablation zone in western Greenland. Remotely sensed estimates of river flow direction, velocity and flux (discharge) will be calibrated/validated using a dataset of in situ hydraulic measurements from two field campaigns in the ablation zone. The operation and maintenance of four previously established terrestrial river gaging sites near Kangerlussuaq will be continued. Finally, all of these remotely sensed and field datasets will be incorporated into a GIS-based hydrologic modeling framework to enable a first "snow-to-sea" simulation of GrIS meltwater runoff that explicitly includes principles of open-channel flow through supraglacial river drainage networks.

Logistics Summary:
This project will continue hydrological and supraglacial river studies in the vicinity of Kangerlussuaq begun under NASA grant "NASASmith". Beginning in 2015 through 2017 field teams will travel to Kangerlussuaq, Greenland for field work. In 2015, researchers will make three trips to Kangerlussuaq, in February, April and July. Three researchers will travel via commercial air to Kangerlussuaq in February, each staying for about 10 days. Based from the KISS, the team will collect water samples from the Watson River, accessing sites via snowmachine and ATV. They also may visit a camera installation nearby if able. A team of two will return in April to install instruments on the Watson River bridge, basing out of KISS for ~2 nights. In July, a team of eight will return for approximately two weeks, traveling to Greenland via the Air National Guard. July work is establishing 2 different ice camps in the area of the Watson River (WQ) and Isortoq River (IQ) Watersheds on the ice cap. In 2016, researchers will return to Greenland twice: in March and again in June, when they will remain for work through August. In March, two researchers will travel to Kangerlussuaq via the ANG to service the proglacial river instrumentation on the Watson River bridge and complete lidar surveys of the Watson River channel. Several days later, they will depart. Then, in June, five researchers will return to Kanger, establish a small tent camp, and work around Pt 660, returning to Kangerlussuaq occasionally for resupply. Three of the five will depart after about two weeks. At the end of June, eight additional scientists will join the remaining team of two, and this group will continue work at Pt 660 while preparing for the put in of the Smith ice camp, located out on the ice sheet margin. A six-person team will deploy to the Smith ice camp in early July and work there for about 2 weeks. When work is complete, eight people will depart Greenland; the remaining three will continue working out by Pt 660 for about another month. In 2017, researchers will return to Greenland in July. Four researchers will travel via the ANG to establish a small tent camp and continue work at Pt 660. Five additional researchers will travel via combination of ANG and commercial travel deploying to the Smith ice camp and work there for about 1 week. Nine people will depart Greenland at the beginning of August via a combination of ANG and commercial travel. Researchers will return in 2018, details are TBD.

Via an interagency funds transfer NASA>NSF, CPS will provide Air National Guard coordination for passengers and cargo, KISS user days in Kangerlussuaq, rental trucks, helicopter support, and camp/safety gear. UNAVCO will provide GPS equipment. The PI will arrange and pay for all other logistics from the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq02 / 06 / 2015 07 / 27 / 201510
2015Greenland - Smith Ice Camp 207 / 17 / 2015 07 / 24 / 20159
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq03 / 08 / 2016 08 / 19 / 201611
2016Greenland - Point 66006 / 01 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20166
2016Greenland - Smith Ice Camp 207 / 04 / 2016 07 / 14 / 20167
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 21 / 2017 08 / 05 / 20179
2017Greenland - Point 66007 / 21 / 2017 07 / 28 / 20174
2017Greenland - Smith Ice Camp 207 / 22 / 2017 07 / 29 / 20179
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
 


Project Title: Surface Processes of the Greenland Ice Sheet Under a Warming Climate (Award# NASAAWS)

PI: Steffen, Konrad (konrad.steffen@wsl.ch )
Phone: 0(303) 492.4524 
Institute/Department: U of Colorado, Boulder, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NASA
Program Manager: Dr. Thomas Wagner (thomas.wagner@nasa.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Meteorology and Climate |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://cires.colorado.edu/science/groups/steffen/
Media: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/?eocn=topnav&eoci...

Science Summary:
A part of the NASA-sponsored PARCA (Program in Arctic Regional Climate Assessment) project, researchers on this NSF co-funded project have installed and are currently maintaining 18 Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). Each AWS is equipped with a number of instruments to sample the following: -air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, humidity, pressure -accumulation rate at high temporal resolution to identify and resolve individual storms -surface radiation balance in visible and infrared wavelengths -sensible and latent heat fluxes -snowpack conductive heat fluxes Hourly average data are transmitted via a satellite link (GOES or ARGOS) throughout the year. In addition, measurements are stored in solid state memory. The system is powered with two 100 Ah batteries, charged by a 10 or 20 W solar panel. The satellite data-link is powered by two separate 100 Ah batteries connected to a 20 W solar panel. This setup guarantees continuous data recordings and storage, even in the case of satellite transmission failure. The expected lifetime of the instrumentation is 5 years. PARCA GC-Net Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) are equipped with communication satellite transmitters that enable near-real time monitoring of weather conditions on the Greenland ice sheet. Transmission latency is as short as 4 minutes, typically 1-2 hours, and occasionally as long as 48 hours.

Logistics Summary:
This project is co-funded between NSF and NASA. In 1995, the PI initiated a network of Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) on the Greenland ice cap. Each year since then, a team of four to five travels to the project's sites via Twin Otter for maintenance, repairs, and upgrades. Additionally, the team tent-camps at Swiss Camp for several weeks to conduct more intensive measurements related to the state of the ice sheet. These include monitoring ablation in the Jakobshavn region (in collaboration with Dr. Jay Zwally [NASA-GSFC]); and measuring accumulation variability, mass transfer, and surface energy balance. In 2007, one person will visit Summit Station to install a thermistor string to capture hourly temperature profiles in the upper ~100 m of ice. The researcher will use an empty borehole. The data will help the team reconstruct surface temperature history on a multi-decadal to century scale. The researcher will spend about a week at Summit setting up the experiment, which may remain in place for several years. Also in 2007, the PI’s graduate student will base from Ilulissat and fly a NOAA-funded UAV experiment in early May and again in July to collect high-resolution laser data around Swiss Camp during the pre-melt and melt season. These data will help researchers calculate surface water storage on the ice sheet. New at Swiss Camp in 2008, a UAV equipped with laser instruments to collect high-resolution data about surface water storage.This NOAA-funded project uses a UAV based in Ilulissat to collect high-resolution laser data around Swiss Camp during the pre-melt and melt season. These data are used to calculate surface water storage on the ice sheet. The information contributes to the PI’s sub-glacier hydrological modeling study (“GPS Network Maintenance,” above). The PI’s graduate student, John Adler, will fly the UAV in early May and again in July to collect the data in the second and final field season for this project. In 2009, mid-April to mid-May, the researchers will maintain the automatic weather station network. In the south, they will service the Dye-II, Saddle, NASA SE and S-Dome stations, and during the Swiss Camp put in the CP1 and NASA-U stations. While at Swiss Camp, the team will service the profile JAR2, JAR1, and CU/ETH. They will continue the effort to monitor ablation along a transect from Swiss Camp to the ice margin. The Swiss Camp team will service eight receivers in the GPS network in collaboration with Dr. Jay Zwally (NASA-GSFC). They will continue to collect high-resolution surface topography data using Trimble Pathfinder differential GPS measurements along several transects in the lower ablation region. In addition, they will acquire a set of QuickBird satellite imagery during the onset of melt and the melt period to monitor the spatial variation and extent of snow fields, lakes, and surface hydrological channels in the ablation region. This project has collected a number of ground penetrating radar (GPR) profiles along the western slope of the ice sheet (Jakobshavn and Kangerlussuaq region) in previous field seasons (1999, 2000, 2003). Data analysis showed that the accumulation could vary up to 40% between the trough and the ridge of the undulation. (Surface topography with scale length of several kilometers plays an important role for the spatial variability of accumulation, mass transfer, and surface energy balance.) The team repeated some of these GPR measurements during the spring 2007 field season along the same profiles to verify the recent accumulation changes and high percolation events in that region. In addition to science research, the PI will host two media visits in spring 2009: (a) MISCHIEF FILMS, Austrian documentary film about Albert Schweitzer. The crew will participate for one day and one night during the southern AWS maintenance trip. (b) National Geographic, documentary called “The Big Picture.” The crew visits Swiss Camp May 3-5. They will organize their own helicopter flight from Ilulissat to Swiss Camp and back. In 2010, DRI's Joe McConnell and an ICDS driller will join the AWS maintenance visits to Humboldt and TUNU to drill shallow cores for analysis related to the NEEM deep drilling project (0909541). Participant travel for McConnell and the driller to Kangerlussuaq will be carried under his NSF grant record. In 2011, a team of about eight will arrive in Greenland around 1 May. They will first travel via Twin Otter to Swiss Camp to install new extension poles on the GPS network; and to maintain/upgrade (with new satellite transmitters) the AWS network stations JAR2, JAR1, Swiss Camp, and Crawford Point. Around Swiss Camp and in the lower ablation region the team will map sub-glacial melt channels using a new MALA ground penetrating radar with a 20 MHz antenna. They also will install new seismic stations close to Swiss Camp and in the lower ablation region close to a moulin. Researchers for NSF grant 0909454, Ginny Catania, PI, also will visit Swiss Camp at the same time to work on the project’s GPS experiment. Researchers also will visit AWS stations in the north of Greenland (NEEM, GITS, Petermann, Tunu-N, Humbold, NASA-U, and NASA-E) and in the south (Dye-II, Saddle, NASA-SE, and Saddle) for maintenance service. At Summit researchers will maintain the 50m Swiss Tower and the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN); these provide the basing meteorological and radiation data for other Summit researchers. In 2013, a team of four will fly commercially to Kanger for a Twin Otter put-in to Swiss Camp in early May for a three-week effort at the camp. Three more researchers will arrive mid-May on a helicopter flight arranged and paid for by the PI’s institution (CU). The three new arrivals plus one original team member will depart a few days later on another CU-chartered helicopter flight. The Twin Otter will return to Swiss camp in late May to pick up the remaining team members and begin transporting them to the southern set of AWS stations (Dye-II, NASA-SE, and Saddle), with air support based from Kangerlussuaq. A team of four will then depart Kangerlussuaq via Twin Otter to begin visiting the northern AWS sites (NEEM, GITS, Petermann, Tunu-N, Humbold, NASA-U, and NASA-E), working out of Daneborg, Qaanaaq, and NEEM. The team will wrap up Twin Otter work with a visit to Summit Station, overnighting to service the Swiss Tower and the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN), which provide the basing meteorological and radiation data for other Summit researchers. In mid-August, a team will return to Swiss Camp and the Moulin Site via helicopter out of Ilulissat to make late-season repairs to the camp, which sustained considerable damage during the 2012 melt season. After about one week at camp, the team will depart via helicopter and commercial air. In 2014, a team of six will fly commercially to Kangerlussuaq for a Twin Otter put-in to Swiss Camp in early May. The team will spend ~two weeks based at the camp. The Twin Otter will return to Swiss camp in mid-May to pick up the team and begin transporting them to the southern set of AWS stations (Dye-II, Saddle, NASA-SE, and Saddle), with air support based from Kangerlussuaq. A team of four will then depart Kangerlussuaq via Twin Otter to begin visiting the northern AWS sites (NEEM, GITS, Petermann, Tunu-N, Humboldt, NASA-U, and NASA-E), working out of Daneborg, Qaanaaq, and NEEM. The team will wrap up Twin Otter work with a visit to Summit Station, overnighting to service the Swiss Tower and the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) which provide the basing meteorological and radiation data for other Summit researchers. In 2015, a team of six will fly commercially to Kangerlussuaq for a Twin Otter put-in to Swiss Camp in early May. The team will spend ~two weeks based at the camp. The Twin Otter will return to Swiss camp in mid-May to pick up the team and begin transporting them to the southern set of AWS stations

CPS will provide ANG cargo coordination from the U.S., chartered air support within Greenland, lodging and user days, camping gear, fuel, and safety and communications equipment. Costs will be covered in the following ways: NASA will pay 100% of Swiss Camp support costs. NSF and NASA will each pay for 50% of the remaining activities. NSF will recoup costs from NASA via an interagency funds transfer NASA > NSF. The PI will arrange and pay for other work directly.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
1995Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS1
1995Greenland - GITS AWS1
1995Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
1995Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
1995Greenland - Swiss Camp1
1996Greenland - Constable Point1
1996Greenland - GITS AWS1
1996Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
1996Greenland - JAR1 AWS1
1996Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
1996Greenland - Raven1
1996Greenland - Summit1
1996Greenland - Swiss Camp1
1996Greenland - Tunu N AWS1
1997Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS1
1997Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS1
1997Greenland - GITS AWS1
1997Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
1997Greenland - JAR1 AWS1
1997Greenland - NASA-E AWS1
1997Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
1997Greenland - NGRIP1
1997Greenland - Raven1
1997Greenland - Saddle AWS1
1997Greenland - South Dome AWS1
1997Greenland - Summit1
1997Greenland - Swiss Camp1
1997Greenland - Tunu N AWS1
1998Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS1
1998Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS1
1998Greenland - GITS AWS1
1998Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
1998Greenland - JAR1 AWS1
1998Greenland - NASA-E AWS1
1998Greenland - NASA-SE AWS1
1998Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
1998Greenland - NGRIP1
1998Greenland - Raven1
1998Greenland - Saddle AWS1
1998Greenland - South Dome AWS1
1998Greenland - Summit1
1998Greenland - Swiss Camp1
1998Greenland - Tunu N AWS1
1999Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS1
1999Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS1
1999Greenland - GITS AWS1
1999Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
1999Greenland - JAR1 AWS1
1999Greenland - JAR2 AWS1
1999Greenland - KAR AWS1
1999Greenland - Kulusuk1
1999Greenland - NASA-E AWS1
1999Greenland - NASA-SE AWS1
1999Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
1999Greenland - NGRIP1
1999Greenland - Raven1
1999Greenland - Saddle AWS1
1999Greenland - South Dome AWS1
1999Greenland - Summit1
1999Greenland - Swiss Camp1
1999Greenland - Tunu N AWS1
2000Greenland - Aurora AWS4
2000Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS4
2000Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS4
2000Greenland - GITS AWS4
2000Greenland - Humboldt AWS4
2000Greenland - JAR1 AWS4
2000Greenland - JAR2 AWS4
2000Greenland - JAR3 AWS4
2000Greenland - KAR AWS4
2000Greenland - Kulusuk4
2000Greenland - NASA-E AWS4
2000Greenland - NASA-SE AWS4
2000Greenland - NASA-U AWS4
2000Greenland - Raven4
2000Greenland - Saddle AWS4
2000Greenland - South Dome AWS4
2000Greenland - Summit4
2000Greenland - Swiss Camp4
2000Greenland - Tunu N AWS4
2001Greenland - Aurora AWS1
2001Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS0
2001Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS1
2001Greenland - GITS AWS1
2001Greenland - Humboldt AWS1
2001Greenland - JAR1 AWS1
2001Greenland - JAR2 AWS1
2001Greenland - JAR3 AWS1
2001Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 29 / 2001 06 / 30 / 20018
2001Greenland - KAR AWS1
2001Greenland - Kulusuk06 / 05 / 2001 06 / 26 / 20014
2001Greenland - NASA-E AWS1
2001Greenland - NASA-SE AWS1
2001Greenland - NASA-U AWS1
2001Greenland - Raven1
2001Greenland - Saddle AWS1
2001Greenland - South Dome AWS1
2001Greenland - Summit05 / 22 / 2001 06 / 26 / 20014
2001Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 10 / 2001 06 / 04 / 20017
2001Greenland - Tunu N AWS1
2002Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - JAR1 AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - JAR2 AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - JAR3 AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 29 / 2002 06 / 18 / 20029
2002Greenland - Kulusuk05 / 12 / 2002 05 / 18 / 20024
2002Greenland - NASA-E AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Raven05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - South Dome AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2002Greenland - Summit05 / 22 / 2002 06 / 13 / 20022
2002Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 02 / 2002 05 / 17 / 20027
2002Greenland - Thule05 / 16 / 2002 06 / 13 / 20025
2002Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 19 / 2003 05 / 23 / 20031
2003Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - Crawford Point 2 AWS04 / 15 / 2003 04 / 17 / 20031
2003Greenland - GITS AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 27 / 2003 05 / 30 / 20033
2003Greenland - JAR1 AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - JAR2 AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - JAR3 AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 14 / 2003 06 / 07 / 20037
2003Greenland - Kulusuk06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - NASA-E AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 10 / 2003 05 / 10 / 20031
2003Greenland - NASA-U AWS06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 04 / 20033
2003Greenland - NGRIP05 / 13 / 2003 05 / 16 / 20031
2003Greenland - Raven05 / 08 / 2003 05 / 08 / 20031
2003Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 08 / 2003 05 / 12 / 20033
2003Greenland - South Dome AWS05 / 10 / 2003 05 / 12 / 20033
2003Greenland - Summit06 / 02 / 2003 06 / 02 / 20031
2003Greenland - Swiss Camp04 / 21 / 2003 05 / 06 / 20037
2003Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 30 / 2003 06 / 02 / 20033
2004Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS05 / 19 / 2004 05 / 19 / 20042
2004Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 17 / 2004 06 / 19 / 20045
2004Greenland - NASA-SE AWS06 / 14 / 2004 06 / 14 / 20044
2004Greenland - Raven06 / 15 / 2004 06 / 15 / 20044
2004Greenland - Saddle AWS06 / 14 / 2004 06 / 15 / 20044
2004Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 18 / 2004 06 / 10 / 20048
2005Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 20 / 2005 05 / 20 / 20053
2005Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 01 / 2005 05 / 27 / 20055
2005Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 25 / 2005 05 / 25 / 20053
2005Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 23 / 2005 05 / 24 / 20053
2005Greenland - NGRIP05 / 23 / 2005 05 / 23 / 20053
2005Greenland - Petermann Gletscher05 / 21 / 2005 05 / 21 / 20053
2005Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 25 / 2005 05 / 26 / 20053
2005Greenland - South Dome AWS05 / 26 / 2005 05 / 26 / 20053
2005Greenland - Summit05 / 24 / 2005 05 / 24 / 20053
2005Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 02 / 2005 05 / 18 / 20055
2006Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS05 / 03 / 2006 05 / 03 / 20064
2006Greenland - GITS AWS04 / 26 / 2006 04 / 27 / 20063
2006Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 01 / 2006 05 / 01 / 20064
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 25 / 2006 05 / 26 / 200612
2006Greenland - NASA-E AWS05 / 02 / 2006 05 / 02 / 20064
2006Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 06 / 2006 05 / 06 / 20063
2006Greenland - NASA-U AWS04 / 26 / 2006 04 / 26 / 20063
2006Greenland - NEEM04 / 26 / 2006 04 / 27 / 20063
2006Greenland - Petermann Gletscher04 / 28 / 2006 04 / 28 / 20064
2006Greenland - Raven05 / 06 / 2006 05 / 06 / 20063
2006Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 06 / 2006 05 / 06 / 20063
2006Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 08 / 2006 05 / 23 / 200610
2006Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 01 / 2006 05 / 02 / 20064
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 22 / 2007 08 / 25 / 200718
2007Greenland - Summit05 / 08 / 2007 05 / 18 / 20071
2008Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS04 / 28 / 2008 04 / 28 / 20085
2008Greenland - DYE-204 / 30 / 2008 04 / 30 / 20085
2008Greenland - GITS AWS04 / 25 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20085
2008Greenland - Humboldt AWS04 / 24 / 2008 04 / 24 / 20085
2008Greenland - Ilulissat04 / 22 / 2008 04 / 23 / 20085
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 21 / 2008 06 / 07 / 20086
2008Greenland - NASA- N70 AWS05 / 05 / 2008 05 / 05 / 20087
2008Greenland - NASA- Up50 AWS05 / 05 / 2008 05 / 05 / 20087
2008Greenland - NASA-E AWS04 / 27 / 2008 04 / 27 / 20085
2008Greenland - NASA-SE AWS04 / 30 / 2008 04 / 30 / 20085
2008Greenland - NASA-U AWS04 / 28 / 2008 04 / 28 / 20085
2008Greenland - NEEM04 / 25 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20085
2008Greenland - Petermann ELA04 / 24 / 2008 04 / 24 / 20085
2008Greenland - Qaanaaq04 / 23 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20085
2008Greenland - Saddle AWS04 / 30 / 2008 04 / 30 / 20085
2008Greenland - South Dome AWS04 / 30 / 2008 04 / 30 / 20085
2008Greenland - Summit04 / 27 / 2008 04 / 28 / 20085
2008Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 02 / 2008 06 / 04 / 20087
2008Greenland - Thule04 / 24 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20085
2008Greenland - Tunu N AWS04 / 25 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20085
2009Greenland - DYE-204 / 24 / 2009 04 / 24 / 20093
2009Greenland - JAR1 AWS3
2009Greenland - JAR2 AWS3
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 19 / 2009 08 / 24 / 20095
2009Greenland - NASA- Up50 AWS05 / 19 / 2009 05 / 19 / 20093
2009Greenland - NASA-SE AWS04 / 21 / 2009 04 / 21 / 20093
2009Greenland - NASA-U AWS04 / 27 / 2009 04 / 28 / 20093
2009Greenland - Saddle AWS04 / 21 / 2009 04 / 21 / 20093
2009Greenland - South Dome AWS04 / 23 / 2009 04 / 24 / 20093
2009Greenland - Swiss Camp04 / 28 / 2009 05 / 19 / 20094
2010Greenland - Humboldt AWS04 / 27 / 2010 05 / 21 / 20107
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 26 / 2010 05 / 21 / 20105
2010Greenland - Tunu N AWS04 / 27 / 2010 05 / 21 / 20107
2011Greenland - Crawford Point 1 AWS05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - DYE-205 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - JAR1 AWS05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - JAR2 AWS05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 30 / 2011 06 / 15 / 20118
2011Greenland - NASA-E AWS05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - NEEM05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - Petermann ELA05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2011Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - Summit0
2011Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 02 / 2011 05 / 23 / 20117
2011Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 27 / 2011 06 / 01 / 20114
2012Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 23 / 20124
2012Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 23 / 20124
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 30 / 2012 05 / 31 / 20128
2012Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 23 / 20124
2012Greenland - NEEM05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 28 / 20124
2012Greenland - Petermann ELA05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 23 / 20124
2012Greenland - Summit05 / 28 / 2012 05 / 29 / 20124
2012Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 01 / 2012 05 / 22 / 20128
2012Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 23 / 2012 05 / 23 / 20124
2013Greenland - DYE-205 / 22 / 2013 05 / 25 / 20134
2013Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 28 / 2013 05 / 28 / 20134
2013Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 27 / 2013 05 / 27 / 20134
2013Greenland - Ilulissat08 / 09 / 2013 08 / 17 / 20132
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 30 / 2013 08 / 18 / 20139
2013Greenland - NASA-Moulin08 / 15 / 2013 08 / 16 / 20132
2013Greenland - NASA-SE AWS05 / 22 / 2013 05 / 25 / 20134
2013Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 26 / 2013 05 / 26 / 20134
2013Greenland - NEEM05 / 26 / 2013 05 / 27 / 20134
2013Greenland - Petermann ELA05 / 27 / 2013 05 / 27 / 20134
2013Greenland - Saddle AWS05 / 22 / 2013 05 / 25 / 20134
2013Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 01 / 2013 08 / 15 / 20137
2013Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 28 / 2013 05 / 28 / 20134
2014Greenland - Daneborg05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - GITS AWS05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Humboldt AWS05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 01 / 2014 05 / 29 / 20146
2014Greenland - NASA-E AWS05 / 26 / 2014 05 / 26 / 20144
2014Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - NEEM05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Petermann ELA05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Qaanaaq05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Summit05 / 26 / 2014 05 / 27 / 20144
2014Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 02 / 2014 05 / 21 / 20146
2014Greenland - Tunu N AWS05 / 22 / 2014 05 / 22 / 20144
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 04 / 2015 06 / 06 / 20156
2015Greenland - NASA-E AWS05 / 22 / 2015 05 / 22 / 20155
2015Greenland - NEGIS05 / 28 / 2015 05 / 28 / 20155
2015Greenland - Summit05 / 18 / 2015 06 / 01 / 20155
2015Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 06 / 2015 05 / 18 / 20156
2016Greenland - EGRIP05 / 22 / 2016 05 / 25 / 20168
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 03 / 2016 06 / 10 / 20168
2016Greenland - Summit05 / 21 / 2006 06 / 09 / 20165
2016Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 05 / 2016 05 / 18 / 20167
2017Greenland - DYE-205 / 22 / 2017 05 / 22 / 20174
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 01 / 2017 05 / 29 / 20176
2017Greenland - NASA-U AWS05 / 24 / 2017 05 / 24 / 20174
2017Greenland - South Dome AWS05 / 22 / 2017 05 / 22 / 20174
2017Greenland - Summit05 / 23 / 2017 05 / 24 / 20174
2017Greenland - Swiss Camp05 / 03 / 2017 05 / 22 / 20176
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
2018Greenland - Summit1
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Ice sheet sensitivity in a changing Arctic system - using Geologic data and modeling to test the stable Greenland Ice Sheet hypothesis (Award# 1503281)

PI: Steig, Eric J (steig@uw.edu)
Phone: 0(206) 685.3715 
Institute/Department: U of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
There is enough water in the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) that, were it to melt, it would raise sea level in most coastal cities significantly with huge consequences for society. In the face of accelerated ice sheet contribution to sea level rise, it remains uncertain how the GrIS will adjust to a warming Arctic, declining sea ice and related changing precipitation patterns. This is a concern, given that future sea level rise is strongly dependent on the GrIS response to arctic change. The scientific community is currently undecided between a model of a dynamic GrIS that becomes greatly reduced during warm periods and a model where it is relatively stable, even through periods warmer than today. This proposal addresses the idea that increased arctic precipitation offsets GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperature. The researchers will test this by contributing significant new information on arctic system change and related GrIS dynamics during past and ongoing warm periods, and employing an ice sheet modeling effort synthesizing all new data aimed at both past and future GrIS simulations. The researchers explicitly combine multiple scientific disciplines to provide a better understanding of how key arctic system components such as precipitation, temperature, sea-ice cover and GrIS mass balance are interconnected. The results will be of fundamental relevance to the fates of the arctic system, the GrIS and global sea level rise. This project will train six graduate students and one post-doctoral researcher. The cross-cutting research program is paralleled by the scope of the outreach plan, to develop a variety of deliverables, including development of an iBook and public outreach events. In addition the team will participate in public outreach events in Buffalo and New York City, where the public and scientists interact in a casual setting. Finally, this work has synergies with ongoing missions at NASA and other programs within the NSF. Due to recent advances in numerical ice sheet models and new sub-ice topography of Greenland, combined with finely-tuned field approaches and geochronologic techniques, the time is ripe for a coordinated, cross-disciplinary effort focusing on cryosphere variability in a warming Arctic; the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and sea ice constitute the largest, and most critical components of the arctic cryosphere. The hypothesis that increased arctic precipitation can counterbalance GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperatures stems from recent findings suggesting that it may be more stable than expected during interglacials. The researchers will: generate new GrIS margin reconstructions during and since the mid-Holocene Thermal Maximum (9,000 to 5,000 years ago), with a powerful approach that combines lake sediment stratigraphy with new sub-ice topography and novel high-sensitivity cosmogenic isotope methods; develop new Holocene climate reconstructions of moisture, temperature and sea ice conditions from lake and ocean sediments and an advanced synthesis of existing arctic ice core and other paleoclimate data; and employ state-of-the-art numerical ice sheet modeling fueled by ice margin and climate reconstructions to test a range of climatic and dynamic controls on GrIS change. If the idea is supported, then it would suggest a relatively stable GrIS during warm periods. If, however, this project provides evidence that the GrIS retreated considerably during the warmer-than-present mid-Holocene and in turn, that the GrIS has reacted more sensitively to temperature than to precipitation change, the results would support a tightly coupled ice sheet size-temperature link and in turn, a much greater near-term GrIS contribution to sea level rise. Either result will be of fundamental relevance to the fates of the arctic system, the GrIS and global sea level rise.

Logistics Summary:
The collaboration of Briner (1504267, U of Buffalo), Steig (1503281, UW), Morlighem (1504230, UCI), Young (1503959, LDEO), and Johnson (1504457, U of Montana) will address the null hypothesis that increased Arctic precipitation offsets GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperature. Logistic details under 1504267.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Nuuk0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2018Greenland - Nuuk0
2018Greenland - Paamiut0
 


Project Title: GEOFON (GEOFOrschungsNetz - Geo Research Network) (Award# DESeismic)

PI: Strollo, Angelo ( strollo@gfz-potsdam.de)
Phone: 49(331) 288.1285 
Institute/Department: GeoForschungsZentrum Potsdam, GEOFON Program 
IPY Project? NO
Funding Agency: DE\Research/Higher Ed\GFZ Potsdam
Program Manager: Dr. Jennifer Mercer (jmercer@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Institute: http://geofon.gfz-potsdam.de/
Initiative: http://www.geosummit.org/

Science Summary:
Most knowledge about the deeper interior of the earth is derived from seismological records. Seismic waves generated by earthquakes travel through the globe and sample its major structures on the way. Important information about seismic velocities and densities, structural boundaries, mineral composition, temperature and pressure regimes etc are hidden in each recorded seismogram and can be retrieved by inverse methods. To obtain a complete picture, globally distributed high quality broadband seismological stations are required to record a full seismologically range in terms of frequency content (10**2 – 10**-6 Hz) and dynamic range (10**-9 – 10**-1 m/s). The technical equipment of the GEOFON network fullfills these requirements and is installed in 50 stations worldwide. (Near) real-time data transmission (via the Internet) from most stations makes the GEOFON data immediately available to the scientifc community and provides a perfect tool for rapid determination of earthquake source parameters for scientific purposes but also for earthquake and tsunami early warnings and for use by disaster management. Both near real-time and archive data are openly available to the community from the GEOFON Data Center and are shared with other national and international data centers such as the european ORFEUS Data Center in De Bilt (Netherlands) and the global FDSN/IRIS Data Center (Seattle, USA).

Logistics Summary:
This project makes broadband seismological recordings of global earthquakes at Summit, Greenland. Formerly a part of the temporary GLATIS network, project responsibility has been turned over to GFZ Potsdam. Summit instruments have been included in that institute's GEOFON network. The PI (Hanka, then Strollo starting in 2015) will visit Summit Station annually to service and maintain the project's seismological station. Over the years, in addition to the scheduled maintenance, project personnel have visited Summit for various other project needs: In 2002, they installed an upgraded datalogger for the seismological station and a "Seiscomp" box that connected the station to the Summit LAN for Internet real-time data transmission; in 2004, another major station upgrade overcame technical problems and minimized required local support; finally, in 2007, two technicians raised and relocated the seismometer bunker, routing power and communications connections out of the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory. In 2009, a technician will return to Summit in May to conduct minor maintenance on the seismometer. Station staff will assist the technician as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2010, a team of two researchers will return to Summit in July. The seismometer bunker will be raised and relocated to a new site so that power and communications can continue to be connected out of the Temporary Atmospheric Watch Observatory, which is also being relocated during this time. Station staff will assist the technicians as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2011, one researcher will return to Summit in mid-June to conduct minor maintenance on the seismometer. Summit staff will assist the researcher as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2012, two researchers will return to Summit Station in July to conduct minor maintenance on the seismometer. In 2013, two researchers will return to Summit Station in July with the following objectives: (1) relocate the seismometer to a new trench, and (2) replace the cable between the TAWO and the new seismometer trench. Summit Station staff will assist the researchers as needed with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2014, no researchers will deploy to Summit Station. Instead, station staff will assist with excavation of the bunker and maintenance activities as needed. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument and provide as-needed assistance. In 2015, two researchers will deploy to Summit Station in June to perform maintenance on the seismometer system, including relocating it to a new vault, raising all cables above the snow surface and checking out all hardware. Year-round, science technical staff will re-level the instrument, maintain data and power cables above the snow surface and provide as-needed assistance. No researchers will deploy in 2016. Instead, station technical staff replaced a broken seiscompbox. The replacement box is expected in fall 2016; when functioning, it will allow remote mass centering. In 2017, two researchers will visit Summit in May to perform maintenance on the seismometer system, including relocating it to a new vault, raising all cables above the snow surface, and checking out all hardware. The project team plans to install a post hole sensor for a 1-2 year comparison with the current seismic system to investigate potential replacement of the system in future years.

CPS will provide ANG travel and cargo support to/from Summit Station, Summit Station user days, a snow auger/corer with required tools, access to infrastructure, and year around science technician support for re-leveling the instrument, maintaining data and power cables above the snow surface, and general maintenance/troubleshooting as-needed). The PI will pay NSF directly for costs associated with this support. All other logistics will be provided by the PI.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2000Greenland - Summit05 / 15 / 2000 09 / 05 / 20002
2001Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 14 / 2001 1
2001Greenland - Summit07 / 17 / 2001 07 / 19 / 20011
2002Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 07 / 2002 06 / 14 / 20022
2002Greenland - Summit06 / 10 / 2002 06 / 13 / 20022
2003Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 12 / 2003 08 / 04 / 20031
2003Greenland - Summit05 / 13 / 2003 08 / 01 / 20031
2004Greenland - Summit0
2005Greenland - Summit0
2006Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 08 / 2006 05 / 11 / 20061
2006Greenland - Summit05 / 09 / 2006 05 / 11 / 20061
2007Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 01 / 2007 06 / 08 / 20072
2007Greenland - Summit06 / 04 / 2007 06 / 06 / 20072
2008Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 21 / 2008 04 / 27 / 20081
2008Greenland - Summit04 / 22 / 2008 04 / 25 / 20081
2009Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 11 / 2009 05 / 18 / 20091
2009Greenland - Summit05 / 12 / 2009 05 / 14 / 20091
2010Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 20 / 2010 07 / 30 / 20102
2010Greenland - Summit07 / 21 / 2010 07 / 29 / 20102
2011Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 07 / 2011 06 / 15 / 20111
2011Greenland - Summit06 / 09 / 2011 06 / 13 / 20111
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 14 / 2012 07 / 21 / 20122
2012Greenland - Summit07 / 16 / 2012 07 / 20 / 20122
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 15 / 2013 08 / 01 / 20132
2013Greenland - Summit07 / 16 / 2013 07 / 31 / 20132
2014Greenland - Summit0
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 29 / 2015 06 / 11 / 20152
2015Greenland - Summit06 / 03 / 2015 06 / 09 / 20152
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 15 / 2017 05 / 26 / 20172
2017Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2017 05 / 23 / 20172
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq1
2018Greenland - Summit1
 


Project Title: CAREER: Chasing icebergs: quantifying iceberg motion and melt in Greenland's glacial fjords (Award# 1552232)

PI: Sutherland, David A (dsuth@uoregon.edu)
Phone: 0(541) 346.8753 
Institute/Department: U of Oregon, Department of Earth Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Cynthia Suchman ()
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere | Oceanography |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: http://www.nsidc.org

Science Summary:
Mass is being lost from the Greenland Ice Sheet both in the form of liquid water and solid ice. The solid ice occurs in the form of icebergs. The influence of these icebergs on the stratification and circulation of water in fjords, as well as on the freshwater content of the adjacent ocean, is poorly understood. This project will improve understanding of the role of icebergs in fjords and the coastal ocean through intensive process studies on iceberg melt and movement. These studies will include both field observations and numerical modeling experiments. The project will contribute to the development of the nation's STEM workforce by providing support for the training of a graduate student and a post-doctoral associate. To enhance the communication of science to the general public, a course in Geo-communication will be modified to include new multi-media approaches. Additionally, the project will allow the PI to extend his prior collaborations with University of Oregon's STEM CORE program to work with a local middle school on STEM-focused curricula. To enhance outreach to the broader public, the principal investigator will collaborate with a science historian to transcribe archived data into modern format that will be freely distributed, co-deliver public talks, add content to an existing website, and participate in an annual event on Climate Change and Indigenous Peoples organized by his institution. The ongoing surge in ocean-glacier interactions studies around Greenland is motivated primarily to improve our understanding of the role ocean circulation plays in outlet glacier variability. Two potential mechanisms that lead to glacier acceleration and dynamic thinning are (1) increased submarine melting due to an enhanced ocean heat transport to the glacier termini, and (2) a weakening of the ice mélange that buttresses the glacier face. Fjords act as links between these two processes with the large-scale climate forcing on one hand (both oceanic and atmospheric) and the Greenland ice sheet variability on the other. However, one key process, iceberg melt, has been largely neglected in most fjord circulation studies due to a narrow focus on plume driven circulation, as well as the overall difficulty of obtaining in situ observations. This project aims to gather novel observations on iceberg melt and movement in Greenland's fjords by tracking the horizontal and vertical motion of large, deep-keeled icebergs at high temporal resolution. Tracking individual icebergs, combined with ship- and drone-based surveys, will allow quantification not only of iceberg melt rates, but also of their movement through the fjord and eventual dispersal across the shelf and into the interior ocean. Fieldwork will be conducted in relatively well-studied systems in Greenland, with the potential for rapid generalization to other systems. Complemented by numerical ocean modeling, these process studies will enable assessment of how well current parameterizations capture the melt processes occurring in Greenland's waters. Ultimately, these results will provide a solid foundation for improving understanding of the spatial and temporal picture of iceberg motion and melt and how this can be incorporated into operational iceberg trajectory models, as well as global scale climate models.

Logistics Summary:
This CAREER grant will gather observations on iceberg melt and movement in Greenland’s fjords by tracking the horizontal and vertical motion of large, deep-keeled icebergs at high temporal resolution. Researchers will use multiple platforms: ship-based hydrography and underwater imagery, aerial scanning, remotely-sensed iceberg movement (GPS sensors), and satellite derived iceberg distributions. In July of 2017, five researchers will test their CTD, ADCP, multibeam sonar, and aerial drone work on select icebergs out of Tasiilaq, Greenland in the Sermilik Fjord. Before the first vessel charter, researchers will use helicopters to deploy various GPS units, and then recover them via helicopter after the vessel charter is complete. One researcher will spend a few days on the Helheim Glacier (Atlas Camp). 2018 fieldwork will be similar to 2017, but researchers will leave the GPS sensors on the icebergs out for approximately one month. Three researchers will then make two trips to Tasiilaq. The first trip in July to conduct ship-based observations and deploy GPS units on icebergs; then in August to retrieve the GPS units and repeat the ship work. The final year, in 2019 will be based out of Ilulissat, Greenland, and include only helicopter work to install and retrieve GPS units from icebergs. The GPS units will be deployed for approximately one week, similar to the field work in the first year.

CPS will provide rental truck, helicopter charter and lodging in Tasiilaq (also in Ilulissat in 2018) and safety/communications equipment from CPS inventory. In 2017 CPS will also provide Air National Guard cargo support NY><Kangerlussuaq and limited commercial freight between Kanger><Tasiilaq. UNAVCO will provide GPS support. The PI will arrange all other support from grant funds including all Tasiilaq vessel charters and all travel CONUS><Tasiilaq, and will collaborate with non CPS supported project to move the majority of the freight CONUS><Tasiilaq.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Greenland - Helheim Glacier07 / 15 / 2017 07 / 19 / 20171
2017Greenland - Sermilik Fjord07 / 15 / 2017 07 / 23 / 20174
2017Greenland - Tasiilaq07 / 12 / 2017 07 / 26 / 20175
2018Greenland - Sermilik Fjord4
2018Greenland - Tasiilaq6
2019Greenland - Ilulissat4
2019Greenland - Jakobshavn Glacier4
2019Greenland - Kangerlussuaq4
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Refreezing in the firn of the Greenland ice sheet: Spatiotemporal variability and implications for ice sheet mass balance (Award# 1603331)

PI: Tedesco, Marco (cryocity@gmail.com)
Phone: 0(703) 292.7120  
Institute/Department: City University of New York (CUNY),  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Marc Stieglitz (mstiegli@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=16...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
A substantial fraction of meltwater of the Greenland ice sheet is retained in firn (liquid or refrozen) rather than running off into the ocean. Unusually thick, near-surface, ice lenses have recently been discovered in the firn and are thought to be the result of exceptionally large recent melt events. This suggests that the larger volumes of meltwater produced in recent years may have been prevented from percolating into deeper firn layers, as has typically been observed in the past, and have instead run off immediately. As a result, a qualitatively different and new ’state’ of the firn has to be taken into account when attempting to quantify the mass balance of the ice sheet, and estimates based on our current state of knowledge are probably subject to larger uncertainty than previously thought. Refreezing, as the mechanism which creates impenetrable ice lenses, emerges as a crucial process in the redistribution of surface runoff and therefore in the determination of surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet. To quantify this impact on the current and future SMB, this project will combine detailed field observations in the Kangerlussaq section of the Greenland ice sheet with numerical modeling of the relevant components of the climate system. Project goals are: 1) to investigate the changes and quantify the spatio-temporal variability of the firn by analyzing shallow firn cores and subsurface data at selected sites covering a wide range of elevations and climatic conditions, and compare these new observations to similar data from past decades and remotely sensed observations of firn structures; 2) to quantify the role of refreezing on the SMB with the help of a regional climate model and a high-resolution distributed energy balance model, both of which include a sub-surface snow/firn model; 3) to perform simulations of the spatio-temporal evolution of the SMB with an improved representation of refreezing process under different emission scenarios through the year 2100.

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between Rennermalm (1604058, Rutgers), Hock (1603815, UAF), and Tedesco (1603331, LDEO) will investigate an important part of Greenland’s cryo-hydrological system, namely the role of firn in producing, transmitting, and retaining meltwater. The project will combine detailed field observations of firn meltwater processes and a state-of-the art model to better constrain the role of firn meltwater in the Greenland ice sheet cryo-hydrologic systems. Logistic details under 1604058.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Greenland - DYE-20
2017Greenland - EKT0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Raven0
2017Greenland - Site J0
2018Greenland - DYE-20
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2018Greenland - KAN-U0
2018Greenland - Raven0
2019Greenland - DYE-20
2019Greenland - EKT0
2019Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2019Greenland - KAN-U0
2019Greenland - Raven0
2019Greenland - Site J0
 


Project Title: PolarTREC - Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (Award# 1630463AT)

PI: Teres, Adeena ()
Phone:  
Institute/Department: Stoneman Douglas High School,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARE\TREC
Program Manager: Ms. Elizabeth Rom (elrom@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach\Formal Science Education: K-12 |

Project Web Site(s):
Initiative: http://www.polartrec.com/

Science Summary:
The Artic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) will administer and implement, "Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating (PolarTREC)", an international program that brings together U.S. teachers to participate in cutting-edge field research with polar scientists in various, and often remote, locations in the Arctic and Antarctica. Through hands-on field experiences in the Arctic and Antarctica, participating teachers (pre-service and in-service) will improve teaching strategies, develop resources for their careers, and change how they teach STEM in the classroom. The program goal is to invigorate polar science education and understanding by bringing educators and polar researchers together in professional collaboration. By integrating research and education, PolarTREC will help sustain and grow the considerable scientific and public enthusiasm for polar research and education. ARCUS will support a total of twelve teachers for Arctic field seasons in 2017 and Antarctic field seasons in 2017/2018. ARCUS will recruit, select, and match teachers and researchers, maintain a website for dissemination of information about the expeditions, provide orientation training for the teachers that includes field safety and communication training, provide travel support for the teachers to meet with scientists prior to deployments and for them to join the scientific expeditions in the field, and evaluate results of the program. Dissemination efforts via the website and public presentations are expected to reach many additional teachers, students, scientists and the public.

Logistics Summary:
PolarTREC teacher, Adeena Teres, will join Dr. Wood's NASA IceBridge project flying a large research aircraft over the Greenland Ice Sheet. While in the air they will record data on the thickness, depth and movement of ice features, resulting in an unprecedented three-dimensional view of Arctic ice sheets, ice shelves and sea ice. Support for the teacher is provided through the research project funding. For more information, refer to grant NASAIcebridge in this database.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Thule0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at Summit (ICECAPS) (Award# 1304692)

PI: Turner, David D (dave.turner@noaa.gov )
Phone: 0(608) 262-3822 
Institute/Department: National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration,  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate\Atmospheric Radiation | Meteorology and Climate\Cloud Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.archive.arm.gov
Project: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/arctic/observatories/...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=13...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
In 2010, the observatory at Summit, Greenland, in the center of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), was expanded to include a comprehensive suite of cloud-atmosphere observing instruments including microwave and infrared spectrometers, cloud radar, depolarization lidar, ceilometer, precipitation sensor, sodar, and a twice-daily radiosonde program. This observing effort was termed ICECAPS (Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at Summit). Continuation of the work was approved / funded late summer 2013 to allow for continuous operation, with moderate enhancements to include new precipitation measurements. Measurements from this expanded instrument suite will be used to derive critical baseline atmospheric data products including: Atmospheric State - tropospheric temperature, moisture, and wind profiles, Cloud Macrophysics - occurrence, vertical boundaries, temperature, Cloud Microphysics - phase, water content, and characteristic particle size, and Precipitation - type and rate. Together these products, when combined with similar ongoing measurements at Summit, can be used to study processes that impact the surface energy budget and precipitation at the site, as well as addressing questions related to atmospheric stability, cloud phase composition, and the persistence of stratiform clouds. It is further anticipated that these observations will continue to be used by a broad cross-section of the scientific community to promote understanding of GIS and Arctic climate, validate satellite observations, and evaluate model simulations. Graduate students play significant roles in most aspects of this project, gaining valuable experience with polar field work, operating instruments, and processing data. In addition, this research team has developed a unique education and outreach plan to work with students from local schools using simple, proxy instrumentation to help develop their understanding of atmospheric principles and observations, and to enhance the scientific curriculum in their schools via a wide range of outreach activities.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this collaboration between Walden (1414314, WSU), Turner (1304692, U of OK), Shupe (1303879, CU) and Bennartz (1304544, U of WI) will continue work begun under NSF grant 0856773 "ICECAPS". Researchers will continue an intensive cloud experiment at Summit with fieldwork from late spring 2014 through late spring 2018. Logistic details under 1414314.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2014Greenland - Summit0
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2015Greenland - Summit0
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2016Greenland - Summit0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Summit0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2018Greenland - Summit0
 


Project Title: Arctic Observing Networks: Collaborative Research: ITEX AON - understanding the relationships between vegetation change, plant phenology, and ecosystem function in a warming Arctic (Award# 1504345)

PI: Tweedie, Craig E. (ctweedie@utep.edu)
Phone: 0(915) 747.8448 
Institute/Department: U of Texas, El Paso (UTEP), Biological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Ecology |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://faculty.fiu.edu/~oberbaue/AON-ITEX.html
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/catalog/#view/urn:uuid:0ebda...

Science Summary:
The goal of this program is to document and understand arctic terrestrial change by maintaining and extracting value from the temporally-critical datasets of the International Tundra Experiment Arctic Observatory Network (ITEX-AON), which has been active in Alaska and Greenland since 2007. ITEX was chartered in 1990 to quantify the effects of inter-annual environmental variability and increased temperature on tundra plant phenology, growth, species composition and ecosystem function using sustained experimental techniques and background monitoring. The ITEX network has provided exceptional value by detecting changes in tundra plant and ecosystem responses to experimental warming and to background change across sites that span the major ecosystems of the Arctic. Unlike most monitoring programs that focus primarily on documenting change and rely on correlation to determine causal factors, ITEX can attribute cause for observed change because of the imbedded experimental approach, which is especially critical as the Arctic System is changing rapidly and in complex ways. This project will provide urgently needed data critical to understanding the impact of multi-scale vegetation change on ecosystem function, namely land-atmosphere carbon and water fluxes and energy balance. Observed changes in the Arctic over the past half century include substantial vegetation change and greening, permafrost warming, and surface hydrological change. Building on the US ITEX program started in 1994, the ITEX-AON (since 2007) has continued and expanded on a wide latitudinal transect consisting of five sites in Alaska and Greenland, collecting core ITEX data with methods designed to address specific needs outlined in the 2003 Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) Implementation Report. Core datasets include manual observations of phenology, vegetation structure and composition, and ecosystem function (carbon flux & nutrient cycling) on long-term ITEX control and experimental warming plots, repeat measurement of vegetation plots on the 1 km2 ARCSS grids, and a multifactor warming/moisture experiment in Greenland. In 2009, the ITEX-AON sampling scheme was expanded to include a larger spatial component to amplify the utility of the measurements collected. This included the addition of phenocams, automated mobile sensor platforms and medium-scale aerial imagery. The automated platforms measure a suite of vegetation surface properties with minimal effort across focal transects spanning strong moisture and microtopographic gradients at a near-daily frequency. These measurements capture the fine-scale changes in vegetation over the growing season that are missed by lower frequency manual measurements and provide a bridge between manual measurements and aerial imagery. Medium-scale aerial imagery, using Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), is acquired throughout the growing season for scaling of manual and automated measurements; satellite imagery is referenced to medium-scale aerial imagery to aid scaling of responses to the regional level. In this phase, collection of core data sets will continue with some streamlining to allow for collection of new data sets aimed at reinforcing the proven value of the program and its utility to adapt to and support future research needs.

Logistics Summary:
The goal of this collaboration between Oberbauer (1504381, FIU, LEAD), Hollister (1504224, GVSU), Welker (1504141, UAA) and Tweedie (1504345, UTEP) is to document and understand arctic terrestrial change by maintaining and extracting value from the temporally-critical data sets of the International Tundra eXperiment Arctic Observatory Network (ITEX-AON), which has been active in Alaska and Greenland since 2007. This project is a continuation of the expired Oberbauer 1432982 ITEX project, and with this new phase of the project collection of core dat sets will continue with some streamlining to allow for collection of new data sets aimed and reinforcing the proven value of the program and its utility to adapt to and support future research needs. Logistic details under 1504381.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Atqasuk0
2016Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2016Greenland - Thule0
2017Alaska - Atqasuk0
2017Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2017Greenland - Thule0
2018Alaska - Atqasuk0
2018Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2018Greenland - Thule0
 


Project Title: A Dartmouth-JSEP partnership for international science education in Greenland (Award# 1506155)

PI: Virginia, Ross Arthur (Ross.A.Virginia@Dartmouth.edu)
Phone: 0(603) 646.0192 
Institute/Department: Dartmouth College, Institute of Arctic Studies 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARE
Program Manager: Ms. Elizabeth Rom (elrom@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Education and Outreach |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://www.arcus.org/jsep
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
Through this grant, Dartmouth will lead the U.S. contributions to the Joint Science Education Project (JSEP) for the next three years (starting in February 2015). The leadership role will include: sending a small team of graduate student and postdoctoral researchers with polar field experience, along with a Dartmouth faculty member, to Greenland to lead field science education in the JSEP programs; continued training of Dartmouth graduate students and postdoctoral researchers in cross-cultural science communication to advance outreach in Greenland and share this training more broadly with the Dartmouth community; hosting planning meetings and workshops to design the curriculum for Science and Education Week and to help coordinate efforts by all parties engaged in JSEP; working with our partners in Greenland to increase the visibility of JSEP in Greenland; and sharing and assessing the results of our work through presentations in education-focused symposia at national meetings and publications in scholarly journals. As an outcome of the NSF Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship grant to Dartmouth to develop the Polar Environmental Change program, these researchers have many years of experience with science, outreach, and the logistics of working in Kangerlussuaq and at Summit, Greenland, and the students, postdocs, and faculty have contributed significantly to the JSEP programs since 2011. In addition, they have a strong network of colleagues and scholars in Greenland that can continue to help us increase participation and engagement of students and teachers from Greenland. A Dartmouth-JSEP partnership is a natural and synergistic collaborative opportunity to provide significant international Arctic science education and outreach to students from Greenland, Denmark, and the U.S., with broader impacts for international communities of stakeholders, future leaders, and polar scientists.

Logistics Summary:
This grant supports the Joint Science Education Project (JSEP) program in Greenland. The Joint Committee, a high-level forum involving the Greenlandic, Danish and U.S. governments, initiated JSEP in 2007 to educate an international community of high school students and teachers from each of the three nations about the causes and consequences of rapid environmental change. The goals of JSEP include inspiring the next generation of polar scientists, building strong networks of students and teachers among the three countries, and providing an opportunity to practice language and communication skills by taking students from the three nations to Greenland to observe polar science in action. From 2015 to 2017, Dartmouth JSEP team participants will visit Greenland each summer to engage in the Kangerlussuaq Science Field School and lead Science and Education week at Summit Station. The PI and postdoctoral fellow will also travel to Nuuk to advance partnerships with Greenlandic institutions. The 2016 JSEP effort features two field visits: a spring preparatory trip, and the June summer intensive. In early June, graduate students will conduct research in the Kangerlussuaq area while camping in the sand dune area along the road. These grad students will lead some of the activities during the Field School portion of the project, which commences in late June when the international group assembles in Kangerlussuaq, the U.S. participants arriving via the ANG logistics chain. At the start of Science Education (SciEd) week, the high school group will camp for 2 nights near the Russell Glacier before travelling to Summit Station via LC-130. At Summit, two Dartmouth grad students plus teachers from all 3 nations will lead activities for the students, to include visualizing snow layer differences between summer and winter deposition bands in a backlit chamber. When the Summit visit is over, the JSEP participants will return to Kangerlussuaq and all will travel homeward. The U.S. participants will fly via the ANG to Scotia, New York, and commercial air to their points of origin. The 2017 JSEP effort features two field sessions: a spring preparatory trip, and the July summer intensive. In early May/June, two co-PIs and five graduate/undergraduate students will conduct research in the Kangerlussuaq area while camping in the sand dune area along the road. These grad students will lead some of the activities during the Field School portion of the project, which commences in early July when the international group assembles in Kangerlussuaq, the U.S. participants arriving via Commercial Air.

For the May/June trip in 2017, CPS will provide limited use of CPS inventory, comms and safety gear and coordination of ANG travel. All other support for the first session, including KISS user days, meals and truck rental will be paid through the grant will be organized and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 28 / 2015 07 / 20 / 201531
2015Greenland - Summit07 / 15 / 2015 07 / 18 / 201525
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 25 / 2016 07 / 23 / 201634
2016Greenland - Summit07 / 13 / 2016 07 / 17 / 201624
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 15 / 2017 07 / 28 / 201740
2017Greenland - Summit07 / 21 / 2017 07 / 25 / 201726
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at Summit (ICECAPS) (Award# 1414314)

PI: Walden, Von P (v.walden@wsu.edu)
Phone: 0(509) 335.5645  
Institute/Department: Washington State University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering  
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Meteorology and Climate\Atmospheric Radiation | Meteorology and Climate\Cloud Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.archive.arm.gov
Project: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/arctic/observatories/...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
In 2010, the observatory at Summit, Greenland, in the center of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), was expanded to include a comprehensive suite of cloud-atmosphere observing instruments including microwave and infrared spectrometers, cloud radar, depolarization lidar, ceilometer, precipitation sensor, sodar, and a twice-daily radiosonde program. This observing effort was termed ICECAPS (Integrated Characterization of Energy, Clouds, Atmospheric state, and Precipitation at Summit). Continuation of the work was approved / funded late summer 2013 to allow for continuous operation, with moderate enhancements to include new precipitation measurements. Measurements from this expanded instrument suite will be used to derive critical baseline atmospheric data products including: Atmospheric State - tropospheric temperature, moisture, and wind profiles, Cloud Macrophysics - occurrence, vertical boundaries, temperature, Cloud Microphysics - phase, water content, and characteristic particle size, and Precipitation - type and rate. Together these products, when combined with similar ongoing measurements at Summit, can be used to study processes that impact the surface energy budget and precipitation at the site, as well as addressing questions related to atmospheric stability, cloud phase composition, and the persistence of stratiform clouds. It is further anticipated that these observations will continue to be used by a broad cross-section of the scientific community to promote understanding of GIS and Arctic climate, validate satellite observations, and evaluate model simulations. Graduate students play significant roles in most aspects of this project, gaining valuable experience with polar field work, operating instruments, and processing data. In addition, this research team has developed a unique education and outreach plan to work with students from local schools using simple, proxy instrumentation to help develop their understanding of atmospheric principles and observations, and to enhance the scientific curriculum in their schools via a wide range of outreach activities.

Logistics Summary:
Researchers on this collaboration between Walden (1414314, WSU), Turner (1304692, U of OK), Shupe (1303879, CU) and Bennartz (1304544, UW-Madison) will continue work begun under NSF grant 0856773. Researchers will continue an intensive experiment to measure atmospheric properties at Summit with fieldwork running continuously from late summer 2013 through summer 2018. The suite of ICECAPS instruments was originally installed in 2010 and since then the project has been maintained by year-round science technician support and summer maintenance visits by the research team. During 2014- 2016, four to six members of the research team will deploy to Summit station for instrument support and upgrades. CPS will provide technician support at the station year-round. The CPS science technician will continue to monitor project instruments and oversee a twice daily radiosonde program. In subsequent years, a research team of four to five participants will travel to Summit Station each spring / summer to provide instrument support. In 2016 field team members will deploy in June to support instrument maintenance, upgrades and the Mobile Science Facility relocation. The scientists will reinstall the multi-angle snowflake camera, sent off-station for repairs, when it is shipped back to Summit mid-season. The group will stay for periods of several weeks to the entire month of June. Two additional researchers may visit Summit Station to troubleshoot and repair instrumentation if the Stirling cooler fails. CPS science technicians will continue to monitor project instruments and oversee the twice-daily radiosonde program year-round. In 2017, researchers will return to perform annual maintenance and instrument support activities as necessary. Planned activities include reinstallation of the MASC and Hotplate instruments and annual liquid nitrogen calibrations of the Microwave Radiometers. The Stirling cooler component will be closely monitored on the PAERI system as it is performing well but is beyond its expected lifecycle. A short notice deployment may be required if it were to fail. CPS will provide technician support at the station year-round, and the technicians will continue to monitor project instruments and oversee the twice-daily radiosonde program year-round.

CPS will provide Air National Guard (ANG) coordination for the field team and cargo; coordination of candidate screening, hiring, management, travel and accommodations for year-round science technician; science technical services; in-transit user days in Kangerlussuaq; access to the Summit Station infrastructure and services, relocation of the Mobile Science Facility; helium provision and shipment; liquid nitrogen provision and shipment; provision and shipment of radiosondes and balloons. The PIs will make all other arrangements and pay for them through their respective grants.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 12 / 2014 08 / 22 / 20144
2014Greenland - Summit05 / 14 / 2014 08 / 21 / 20144
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 24 / 2015 08 / 22 / 20154
2015Greenland - Summit04 / 28 / 2015 08 / 20 / 20154
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq06 / 01 / 2016 06 / 30 / 20163
2016Greenland - Summit06 / 04 / 2016 06 / 29 / 20163
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq05 / 15 / 2017 08 / 25 / 20174
2017Greenland - Summit05 / 17 / 2017 08 / 23 / 20174
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq04 / 22 / 2018 08 / 22 / 20185
2018Greenland - Summit05 / 02 / 2018 08 / 27 / 20185
 


Project Title: Arctic Observing Networks: Collaborative Research: ITEX AON - understanding the relationships between vegetation change, plant phenology, and ecosystem function in a warming Arctic (Award# 1504141)

PI: Welker, Jeffrey M (jmwelker@alaska.edu)
Phone: 0(907) 244.7785 
Institute/Department: U of Alaska, Anchorage, Department of Biological Sciences 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\AON
Program Manager: Dr. Diane McKnight (dmcknigh@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Biology\Ecology |

Project Web Site(s):
Project: http://faculty.fiu.edu/~oberbaue/AON-ITEX.html
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...
Data: https://arcticdata.io/

Science Summary:
The goal of this program is to document and understand arctic terrestrial change by maintaining and extracting value from the temporally-critical datasets of the International Tundra Experiment Arctic Observatory Network (ITEX-AON), which has been active in Alaska and Greenland since 2007. ITEX was chartered in 1990 to quantify the effects of inter-annual environmental variability and increased temperature on tundra plant phenology, growth, species composition and ecosystem function using sustained experimental techniques and background monitoring. The ITEX network has provided exceptional value by detecting changes in tundra plant and ecosystem responses to experimental warming and to background change across sites that span the major ecosystems of the Arctic. Unlike most monitoring programs that focus primarily on documenting change and rely on correlation to determine causal factors, ITEX can attribute cause for observed change because of the imbedded experimental approach, which is especially critical as the Arctic System is changing rapidly and in complex ways. This project will provide urgently needed data critical to understanding the impact of multi-scale vegetation change on ecosystem function, namely land-atmosphere carbon and water fluxes and energy balance. Observed changes in the Arctic over the past half century include substantial vegetation change and greening, permafrost warming, and surface hydrological change. Building on the US ITEX program started in 1994, the ITEX-AON (since 2007) has continued and expanded on a wide latitudinal transect consisting of five sites in Alaska and Greenland, collecting core ITEX data with methods designed to address specific needs outlined in the 2003 Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) Implementation Report. Core datasets include manual observations of phenology, vegetation structure and composition, and ecosystem function (carbon flux & nutrient cycling) on long-term ITEX control and experimental warming plots, repeat measurement of vegetation plots on the 1 km2 ARCSS grids, and a multifactor warming/moisture experiment in Greenland. In 2009, the ITEX-AON sampling scheme was expanded to include a larger spatial component to amplify the utility of the measurements collected. This included the addition of phenocams, automated mobile sensor platforms and medium-scale aerial imagery. The automated platforms measure a suite of vegetation surface properties with minimal effort across focal transects spanning strong moisture and microtopographic gradients at a near-daily frequency. These measurements capture the fine-scale changes in vegetation over the growing season that are missed by lower frequency manual measurements and provide a bridge between manual measurements and aerial imagery. Medium-scale aerial imagery, using Kite Aerial Photography (KAP) or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), is acquired throughout the growing season for scaling of manual and automated measurements; satellite imagery is referenced to medium-scale aerial imagery to aid scaling of responses to the regional level. In this phase, collection of core data sets will continue with some streamlining to allow for collection of new data sets aimed at reinforcing the proven value of the program and its utility to adapt to and support future research needs.

Logistics Summary:
The goal of this collaboration between Oberbauer (1504381, FIU, LEAD), Hollister (1504224, GVSU), Welker (1504141, UAA) and Tweedie (1504345, UTEP) is to document and understand arctic terrestrial change by maintaining and extracting value from the temporally-critical data sets of the International Tundra eXperiment Arctic Observatory Network (ITEX-AON), which has been active in Alaska and Greenland since 2007. This project is a continuation of the expired Oberbauer 1432982 ITEX project, and with this new phase of the project collection of core dat sets will continue with some streamlining to allow for collection of new data sets aimed and reinforcing the proven value of the program and its utility to adapt to and support future research needs. Logistic details under 1504381.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Alaska - Atqasuk0
2016Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2016Alaska - Toolik0
2016Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2016Greenland - Thule0
2017Alaska - Atqasuk0
2017Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2017Alaska - Toolik0
2017Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2017Greenland - Thule0
2018Alaska - Atqasuk0
2018Alaska - Imnavait Creek0
2018Alaska - Toolik0
2018Alaska - Utqiaġvik (Barrow)0
2018Greenland - Thule0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Remote Sensing of Electron Density Using Auroral Radio Emissions (Award# 1147759)

PI: Yoon, Peter H (YoonP@UMD.EDU)
Phone: 0(301) 405.4826 
Institute/Department: U of Maryland, Institute for Physical Science and Technology 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\AGS
Program Manager:  Michael Wiltberger (mwiltber@nsf.gov )
Discipline(s): | Space Physics |

Project Web Site(s):
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward.do?AwardN...

Science Summary:
This grant will investigate the role of radio waves in the electromagnetic coupling of the magnetosphere to the ionosphere. In particular it will examine auroral hiss and medium frequency bursts (MFB), which appear in the auroral zones as a prompt response to the onset of a magnetic substorm. In addition to the association with substorm onset, auroral radio emissions are associated with a number of other auroral phenomena, such as poleward-moving arcs and increases in radio wave absorption. The project will use a combination of experimental measurement and theoretical and numerical analysis. An important part of the project will be the measurement of full waveforms and fine structure in MFB events. The waveform measurements will be performed at multiple sites and for multiple events. In some cases it will be possible to use incoherent scatter radar data to determine the plasma density structures within the ionosphere that affect the propagation and dispersion of the waves. Statistical analysis of MFB events, in conjunction with conjugate satellite measurements, will be used to determine the nature of electron precipitation associated with the events. The theoretical and numerical analyses will determine whether or not Langmuir and Z-mode waves can explain the mode conversion processes needed to explain the generation of medium frequency bursts. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling and magnetic substorms have been identified as central problems to our understanding of near-earth space plasmas. This project will examine the role that auroral hiss and medium frequency wave bursts play in M-I coupling. Both graduate and undergraduate students will participate in this project in all aspects of the research, including the development of wave measurement instruments, the deployment of the instruments, the analysis of the data obtained from the instruments, and the related plasma theory. The majority of the research will take place at Dartmouth College and will offer opportunities for first and second year women researchers to participate through the Dartmouth Women-in-Science Program (WISP).

Logistics Summary:
This collaboration between LaBelle (1147699, Dartmouth) and Yoon (1147759, U of MD) will test the generation mechanism of the auroral MFB emission, establish whether it can contribute to remote sensing of the upper boundary of the ionospheric Alfv´en resonator, and determine its connection to other events in the time history analysis of substorms as well as other auroral phenomena. Logistic details under 1147699.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2012Alaska - Toolik0
2012Canada - Churchill0
2012Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2013Alaska - Toolik0
2013Canada - Churchill0
2013Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2014Alaska - Toolik0
2014Canada - Churchill0
2014Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2015Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Testing Arctic Ice Sheet Sensitivity to Abrupt Climate Change (Award# 1417675)

PI: Young, Nicolas E (nicolasy@ldeo.columbia.edu)
Phone: 0(845) 365.8653 
Institute/Department: Columbia University, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ANS
Program Manager: Dr. Anjuli Bamzai (abamzai@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Cryosphere\Climate Change | Cryosphere\Paleoclimate |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://www.earthchem.org/
Data: http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/data-access/paleoclimatol...
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=14...

Science Summary:
A team of investigators will investigate the response of the Laurentide and Greenland Ice Sheets to two short term cooling events (several decades to a few centuries in duration) that occurred 9.3 and 8.2 thousand years ago. Assessing the sensitivity of ice sheets to short term climate variability is at the forefront of the scientific community's and the public's interest because short term ice sheet change will drive 21st century sea level rise. Thus a central question of the proposed work is whether ice sheets react abruptly to climate forcings, or are multi-millennial-scale trends in climate required to elicit a large-scale ice sheet response? The investigators plan an intensive field-based research program capitalizing on their newly published work reconstructing ice sheet change using high-precision beryllium-10 dating to test the hypothesis that prominent moraine systems marking former ice extents in West Greenland and Baffin Island record the synchronous advance of the Greenland and Laurentide ice sheets driven by the abrupt cooling events 9.3 and 8.2 thousand years ago. Pilot data reveal that portions of the ice sheet margin that are in contact with the surrounding ocean are able to respond rapidly to a short-lived climate perturbation. To test whether these documented changes were restricted to solely the most sensitive marine-terminating ice sheet sectors, or whether ice sheets are capable of a larger scale response to centennial-scale climate change, well-constrained chronologies of ice sheet change are needed from other regions. The investigators' research objectives are to 1) establish how land-terminating regions of ice sheets, which are more representative of broader ice sheet margins, respond to abrupt climate change, 2) further evaluate the role that oceanic forcing plays in modulating ice sheet response to short-lived climate perturbations, and 3) reconstruct the early Holocene behavior of mountain glacier systems (a proxy for summertime temperature) to evaluate what climatic conditions influenced the ice sheets. The investigators will work to make results easily accessible to the public. The work is led by an early career investigator and will support two graduate and several undergraduate students.

Logistics Summary:
This collaborative geological study regarding ice-sheet change on Baffin Island, Canada and in Western Greenland is comprised of: Young (1417675 LEAD, Columbia), Miller (1418040, CU) and Briner (1417783, U of Buffalo). Researchers will conduct rock and lake-sediment sampling to perform high-precision 10Be and 14C dating to determine how these regions responded to abrupt cooling events. In August 2015, a field team of four will visit Baffin Island accessing various sites via helicopter to sample boulders and moraine deposits for 10 Be dating. In 2016, in addition to the sampling of moraine deposits and boulders for 10 Be, lake sediments with distinct sedimentological assemblages will also be sampled and dated via macrofossil 14 C dating. A helicopter will be used to access campsites and field sampling locations. For the 2016 and 2017 seasons, researchers on this collaboration will combine field efforts with work advancing the science goals of a collaboration led by Young (NSF grant 1417675), for which Briner is on. In July 2016, six people total (both projects) will assemble in Kangerlussuaq, four via the Air National Guard logistics chain, and two via commercial air from Ilulissat. The group will prepare and then put-in by helicopter to the first of six camp sites in the Søndre-Strømfjord region. After working for four to five days, the base camp will move to the next site, again using helicopter support, establishing the basic logistics effort for the five to six week field campaign. Helicopter-supported camp moves will facilitate personnel change-outs as well as ground stops for more sampling. Once during the field season, the team will return to Kangerlussuaq for a more thorough camp resupply effort. The final camp put-in will be accessed by driving to Point 660, from which the team will then proceed to their last sampling site on foot. When the work is finished, the team will return to Kangerlussuaq. Some will depart via the ANG, while others depart on commercial flights. In 2017, the Briner and Young teams will again work together outside of Nuuk. A team of four researchers will travel to Nuuk via Kangerlussuaq to a site at the terminus of the Kangiata Nunaata Sermia (SMS) glacier, approximately 100 km east of Nuuk. Helicopters will once again be utilized to reach field sites and conduct sampling.

In 2015 for the work in Canada, CPS will provide communications and safety gear. In 2016 and 2017, CPS will provide Air National Guard coordination for pax and cargo, user days at KISS, in-transit lodging in Nuuk, rental trucks as needed, intra-Greenland commercial air ticketing and freight, helicopter support, and camp & safety/communication gear. All other logistics will be organized by the researchers and paid through the grant.
SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2015Canada - Cumberland Peninsula, Baffin Island08 / 03 / 2015 08 / 25 / 20154
2016Greenland - JB207 / 22 / 2016 07 / 28 / 20163
2016Greenland - JB408 / 14 / 2016 08 / 18 / 20165
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 21 / 2016 08 / 19 / 20163
2016Greenland - NY107 / 30 / 2016 08 / 06 / 20165
2016Greenland - NY208 / 06 / 2016 08 / 13 / 20165
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-107 / 24 / 2017 07 / 30 / 20171
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-207 / 30 / 2017 08 / 05 / 20171
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-308 / 05 / 2017 08 / 08 / 20171
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-408 / 08 / 2017 08 / 13 / 20172
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-5 (Long Lake)08 / 13 / 2017 08 / 18 / 20172
2017Greenland - JBCamp 2-6 (Target Lake)08 / 18 / 2017 08 / 26 / 20172
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq07 / 21 / 2017 08 / 28 / 20172
2017Greenland - Nuuk07 / 22 / 2017 08 / 26 / 20172
 


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Ice sheet sensitivity in a changing Arctic system - using Geologic data and modeling to test the stable Greenland Ice Sheet hypothesis (Award# 1503959)

PI: Young, Nicolas E (nicolasy@ldeo.columbia.edu)
Phone: 0(845) 365.8653 
Institute/Department: Columbia University, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory 
IPY Project?
Funding Agency: US\Federal\NSF\GEO\OPP\ARC\ARCSS
Program Manager: Dr. Neil Swanberg (nswanber@nsf.gov)
Discipline(s): | Geological Sciences |

Project Web Site(s):
Data: http://nsidc.org/
NSF_Award_Info: http://www.nsf.gov/awardsearch/showAward?AWD_ID=15...

Science Summary:
There is enough water in the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) that, were it to melt, it would raise sea level in most coastal cities significantly with huge consequences for society. In the face of accelerated ice sheet contribution to sea level rise, it remains uncertain how the GrIS will adjust to a warming Arctic, declining sea ice and related changing precipitation patterns. This is a concern, given that future sea level rise is strongly dependent on the GrIS response to arctic change. The scientific community is currently undecided between a model of a dynamic GrIS that becomes greatly reduced during warm periods and a model where it is relatively stable, even through periods warmer than today. This proposal addresses the idea that increased arctic precipitation offsets GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperature. The researchers will test this by contributing significant new information on arctic system change and related GrIS dynamics during past and ongoing warm periods, and employing an ice sheet modeling effort synthesizing all new data aimed at both past and future GrIS simulations. The researchers explicitly combine multiple scientific disciplines to provide a better understanding of how key arctic system components such as precipitation, temperature, sea-ice cover and GrIS mass balance are interconnected. The results will be of fundamental relevance to the fates of the arctic system, the GrIS and global sea level rise. This project will train six graduate students and one post-doctoral researcher. The cross-cutting research program is paralleled by the scope of the outreach plan, to develop a variety of deliverables, including development of an iBook and public outreach events. In addition the team will participate in public outreach events in Buffalo and New York City, where the public and scientists interact in a casual setting. Finally, this work has synergies with ongoing missions at NASA and other programs within the NSF. Due to recent advances in numerical ice sheet models and new sub-ice topography of Greenland, combined with finely-tuned field approaches and geochronologic techniques, the time is ripe for a coordinated, cross-disciplinary effort focusing on cryosphere variability in a warming Arctic; the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) and sea ice constitute the largest, and most critical components of the arctic cryosphere. The hypothesis that increased arctic precipitation can counterbalance GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperatures stems from recent findings suggesting that it may be more stable than expected during interglacials. The researchers will: generate new GrIS margin reconstructions during and since the mid-Holocene Thermal Maximum (9,000 to 5,000 years ago), with a powerful approach that combines lake sediment stratigraphy with new sub-ice topography and novel high-sensitivity cosmogenic isotope methods; develop new Holocene climate reconstructions of moisture, temperature and sea ice conditions from lake and ocean sediments and an advanced synthesis of existing arctic ice core and other paleoclimate data; and employ state-of-the-art numerical ice sheet modeling fueled by ice margin and climate reconstructions to test a range of climatic and dynamic controls on GrIS change. If the idea is supported, then it would suggest a relatively stable GrIS during warm periods. If, however, this project provides evidence that the GrIS retreated considerably during the warmer-than-present mid-Holocene and in turn, that the GrIS has reacted more sensitively to temperature than to precipitation change, the results would support a tightly coupled ice sheet size-temperature link and in turn, a much greater near-term GrIS contribution to sea level rise. Either result will be of fundamental relevance to the fates of the arctic system, the GrIS and global sea level rise.

Logistics Summary:
The collaboration of Briner (1504267, U of Buffalo), Steig (1503281, UW), Morlighem (1504230, UCI), Young (1503959, LDEO), and Johnson (1504457, U of Montana) will address the null hypothesis that increased Arctic precipitation offsets GrIS mass loss during times of elevated temperature. Logistic details under 1504267.

SeasonField SiteDate InDate Out#People
2016Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2017Greenland - Nuuk0
2018Greenland - Kangerlussuaq0
2018Greenland - Nuuk0
2018Greenland - Paamiut0
 


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Parameters used to generate this report:Region = "Greenland", Season = "2017", IPY = "ALL" 
     Number of projects returned based on your query parameters = 74
 
ARLSS_ProjectsDetail